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Regis Romani ; primus qui legibus urbem

810 Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terrå 812. Cui deinde Tul- Missus in imperiuin magnum. Cui deinde subibit, lus subibit, qui rumpet Otia qui rumpet patriæ, residesque movebit otia patriæ, movebitque Tullus in arina viros, et jam desueta triumphis

Agmina. Quem juxtà sequitur jactantior Ancus, 815

Nunc quoque jam nimiùm gaudens popularibus auris. 817. Vis-ne videre et Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam Tarquinios

Ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre receptos ?
Consulis iinperium hic primus, sævasque secures


810. Romani regis. The person here to himself, he sought means to procure his spoken of is Numa Pompilius, the second death, and that of his family. No mention king of Roine. He was a Sabine by birth. is here made of Servius Tullius, the sixth After the death of Romulus, a dispute arose king of Rome. between the Romans and Sabines upon the 816. Auris : aura, applause—favor. choice of his successor. They finally agreed 318. Ultoris Bruti. Tarquin, surnamed that the Romans should choose, but the the proud, the seventh and last king of choice inust fall upon a Sabine. It accord- Rome, had rendered himself odious to the ingly fell upon Numa.' He proved to be a people. His son Sextus, enamored with the peaceful monarch. He is, therefore, here beautiful Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus, represented as bearing an olive branch, the offered violence to her. Unable to survive badge of peace. He reigned forty-three the disgrace, she killed herself with her own years, and died at the age of eighty. This hand. This caused a general sensation. justifies the incana menta ; his white chin Brutus, a leading member of the Senate, -beard. The prep. in, in composition, roused that body to assert their rights sometimes changes the signification of the against the tyrant, and procured a decrea primitive, at others, increases it. This last to banish Tarquin and his family for ever. is the case here. Hitherto the Romans För this reason, he is called ultor, the avenhad been little better than a band of robbers, ger. The government was changed from associated together for the purpose of ex regal, lo consular; and Brutus and Collati. tending their rapine more widely. It was nus were chosen the first consuls. These Numa's first care to establish the influence officers were chosen annually. Fasces recepof religion over the minds of his subjects, los : these words may mean, the authority and to enact a code of laws for their civil and power recorered, and restored to the government. He is therefore represented people, from whom they had been taken by bearing sacred utensils. See nom. prop. usurpation and tyranny. Heyne says, reunder Numa. Hence it is sail, fundubit ur- giam dignitatem, et imperium translatum à bem legibus : he shall found the city by laws. regibus in consules. This is also the opinion

811. Curibus : Cures was a small city of of Dr. Trapp. But this is going too far. the Sabines. Paupere terra : from a poor It is better to understand it of the power or humble estate.

recovered and restored to the people, from 814. Tullus. Tullus Hostilius, the third whom it had been taken. In confirmation king of the Romans. He was a descend- of this, history informs us, that the consuls ant neither of Numa, nor Romulus. The go were obliged to bow their fusces to the asvernment of Rome was then an elective mo sembly of the people, as an acknowledgnarchy, though great deference was paid to ment that the sovereign power was theirs. the will of the last king, and sometimes it Fascis: properly, a bundle of rods bound very much influenced the choicc.

Tullus together with an axe in the middle, carried broke the peace with the Albans, and a bloody before the consuls and chief magisirates, to war ensued. Viros resides movebil et agmina: denote that they had the power to sconrge he siiall rouse his inactive men to arms, and and to put to death--the rods to scourge, his troops long unaccustomed to triumphs. and the axe (securis) to put to death. Hence Otra: in the sense of pacem.

by meton. it came to signify the power itself, 815. Ancus. This was Ancus Martius, -the ensigns of authority and royaltythe fourth king of Rome. He courted the also power and authority in general. Sefavor of the people: hence it is said of hin, curis is properly an axe. But being used as gaudens popularibus auris. Nor was he in an instrument of executing the sentence of ferior to his predecessor in the arts of peace the law against offenders, it came to signify

He was the grandson of Numa lhe sentence itself. And as the sertence of by his daughter. Being indignant that Tul- the law is to be considered just, it is taken lus should possess the throne in preference also for justice in a general sense. Sævas

and war.

Accipiet; natosque pater, nova bella moventes, 820 820. Jafelis pater 70-
Ad pænam pulchrâ pro libertate vocabit

cabit natos, muventes
Infelix. Utcunque ferent ea facta minores,
Vincet amor patriæ, laudumque immensa cupido.
Quin Decios, Drusosque procul, sævumque securi
Aspice 'Torquaturn, et referentem signa Camillum. 825
Illæ autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis,

826. Autem illæ ani. Concordes animæ nunc, et dum nocte premuntur, mæ, quas cernis fulgere Heu! quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitæ

in paribus armis concor

des nunc, et dun preAttiyerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt! ***

muntur nocte, heu !
Aggeribus socer Alpinis, atque arce Monaci 830
Descendens; gener adversis instructus Eois.
Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis assuescite bella : and accoolen
Neu patriæ validas in viscera vertite vires.
Tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo
Projice tela manu, sanguis meus !

835 835. Tu qui es mous Ille triumphatâ Capitolia ad alta Corintho


NOTES. secures: rigid, stern, or impartial justice- them unawares, and cut them in pieces. He the sword of justice. Perhaps the poet here was five times dictator, and four times he alludes to the sentence passed upon the sons triumphed. of Brutus, for being among the number of 828. Heu! quantum : alas! how great a conspirators to restore the Tarquins, which war, &c. Here is an allusion to the civil was rigidiy enforced by their father. They war between Cæsar and Poinpey. Pompey were beheaded with the axe.

married Julia, the daughter of Cæsar. The 820. Natos. The two sons of Brutus, Ti- troops that composed the arıny of Cæsar tus and Tiberius, conspired with other noble (sucer, the father-in-law) were chiefly Gauls youths of Romne, to recall Tarquin. But and Germans from the west. Hence he is being discovered, their father comunanded said to come from the Alpine hills, and the them to be put to death; and stood by, and tower of Monacus. This was a town and saw the sentence put in execution. The port on the coast of Liguria, where the Alps epithet infeliz, connected with pater, is very begin to rise. The place was well fortified. just, as well as expressive. Some copies The troops of Pompey (gener, the son-inconnect infelix with utcunque minores. How- law,) were from the eastern part of the emever posterity shall regard that action, love pire, adversis Eois : from the opposite east. of country will prevail and justify the father. Populis vel militibus is understood.

824. Decios aspice : but see the Decii, &c. 832. Ne assilescite lanta bella animis : by They were a noble fainily at Rome. Three commutatio, for ne assuescile animos tantis of them devoted their lives for their coun bellis. try. Drusos: Drusus was the surname of 833. Neu patria. This verse, in a very the Livian family, from Drusus, a general remarkable manner, conveys to the ear the of the Gauls, slain by one of that family. sound of tearing and rending, which it is of this family was Livia Drusilla, the wife designed to express. of Augustus.

835. Meus sanguis. Julius Cæsar is here 825. Torquatum. Titus Manlius, sur meant, who, according to Virgil, descended named Torquatus, from a golden chain or froın Venus, through Tülus, the son of Enecollar (torques) which he took from a gene The poet here very artfully expresses ral of the Gauls, whom he slew, anno urbis, his abhorrence of the civil war which placed 393. It became afterward the common name the Cæsars on the imperial throne; but he of the family. He was three times consul, does it so artfully as leaves to Augustus no and as often dictator. He ordered his son room for taking offence. to be slain for fighting the enemy against 836. Corintho triumphatâ : Corinth being his order, although he gained the victory. triumphed over. This was a famous city of In allusion to this, he is called sævum securi. Greece, situated on the isthunus which conCamillum : a Roman of noble birth. He nects une Peloponnesus with the main land. was banished from Rome for envy of his This city privately formed an alliance with talents and inilitary renown. While he was the principal Grecian states; which gave in exile, the Gauls made an incursion into offence to the Romans. Upon this, they Italy, and took Rome. This roused Ca sent ambassadors to dissolve this alliance millus. He forgot the injury done to him; or council of the states, as it was called; and, collecting a body of men, fell upon who were treated with violence and abuse



Victor aget currum, cæsis insignis Achivis.
Eruet ille Argos, Agamemnoniasque Mycenas,
Ipsumque Æaciden, genus armipotentis Achillei ;
Ultus avos Trojæ, templa et temerata Minervæ. 840

Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum ; aut te, Cosse, relinquat? 842. Quis relinquat Quis Gracchi genus ? aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, genus Gracchi tacitum.?

Scipiadas, cladem Libyæ ? parvoque potentem
Fabriciun? vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem ?



NOTES. Rome instantly declared war, which ended calus, wise or prudent. The other Cato in the destruction of Corinth, and the sub was his great grandson, and called Minor. jugation of its allies. This was completed He arrived at the prætorship. He subjuby the consul Mummius, in the year of Rome gated Sardinia; and, in the year of Rome 609. Ille victor. This refers to Mummius. 560, obtained a triumph in Spain, where he He was honored by a triumph. Capitolia : acted as proconsul. He took part against neu. plu. a famous temple of Jupiter at Cæsar, and, when he saw the republic was Rome, commenced by Tarquinius Priscus lost, slew himself. Cosse : Cornelius Cossus. upon the hill called Tarpeius, but afterward He slew the king of the Veientes, and conCapitolinus, from the circumstance of a hu- secrated his spoils to Jupiter Feretrius. man head (caput) being found when they These were the second spolia opima, since were laying the foundation of that edifice. the building of Rome. He was afterward Hitherto the victors used to be drawn in a nominated dictator, and triumphed over the car to place their laurels in the lap of Jove. Volsci.

838. Ille eruet Argos: he shall overthrow 842. Genus Gracchi. Tiberius SemproArgos, &c. Virgil is here supposed by Hy- nius Gracchus was the most distinguished ginus to confound two events which took of his family. He was appointed prætor, place at different periods—the war of Acha- and triumphed over the Celtiberi in Spain, ia, which ended in the destruction of Co- destroying three hundred of their towns, in rinth, and the war with Pyrrhus, king of the year of Rome 576. He was twice conEpirus. The former was conducted by the sul, and once censor. He married Cornelia, consul Mummius, to whom the ille, in the the daughter of Scipio Africanus. By her, preceding line, refers; but it is not certain among other children, he had the two fato whom the ille here refers; whether to mous brothers Tiberius and Caius. They Quinctius Flaminius, Paulus Æmilius, were both appointed tribunes of the people at cilius Metellus, or M. Curius, each of whom different times, and were the sincere advoacted a distinguished part in the war with cates of their rights. This excited the jealousy Greece and Epirus. By .Argos Mycena, of the senate, who raised a tumult, in which the best interpreters understand the power they both perished. The former in the year of Greece in general. And by Æaciden, of Rome 621, and the latter in the year 633. not Pyrrhus, but the power—the govern. 843. Scipiadas. There were two Scipios, ment of Epirus. This was not destroyed Cornelius Scipio major, and Cornelius Sciduring the reign of that monarch. It was, pio minor. They were both surnamed Afhowever, completed in the reign of Perses ricanus. The latter was grandson of_the or Perseus, king of Macedonia, the last of former, and was adopted by Paulus Æmithe descendants of Achilles, whom Paulus lius, and to distinguish him from the former, Æmilius led in triumph. He may be called he was called also Æmilianus. They were Æacides, as being descended from Achilles, both distinguished men. At the age of the grandson of Æacus, by Olympias, the twenty-four, Scipio Major was appointed to daughter of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. He command in Spain against the Carthagiunited the interests of northern Greece. nians, whom he expelled from that country.

840. Ullus avos_Trojie:_having avenged He was afterward, anno urbis 549, made his ancestors of Troy. Témerata templa: consul. He passed over into Africa, where the viulated temple of Minerva. This al- he defeated them again, and terininated the J'ades to the violence offered to it by Diomede second Punic war, much to the advantage and Ulysses, in taking away the Palladium. of the Romans. He obtained a triumph,

841. Cato. There were two distinguish- anno urbis 553. Hence he was called Afried persons of this name. The one here canus. Scipio Minor was appointed consul spoken of is the Cato Major, sometimes call. in 607. He took the department of Africa ed Cato Censorius, from his great gravity in the third Punic war, and entirely erased and strictness in the censorship. He lived Carthage. He triumphed in 608. Hence to a very great age. He sprang from an also called Africanus. Dur fulmina belli : obscure family; and, on account of his wis two thunderbolts of war. They were so tom and prudence, was called Cato, from called by Lucretius and Cicero. ,

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Quð fessum rapitis, Fabii ? Tu Maximus ille es, 845 845. Fabii, quò rapi-
Unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem.

tis me fessunn?
Excudent alii spirantia molliùs æra,
Credo equidem : vivos ducent de marmore vultus ;
Orabunt causas meliùs ; cælique meatus
Describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: 850
Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento :
Hæ tibi erunt artes ; pacisque imponere morem,

854. Pater Anchises Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos.

dixit : £tque Sic pater Anchises : atque hæc mirantibus addit :

857. Hic eques sistei Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis

855 Romanam rem, magro Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes.

tumultu turbante eam

860. Hic Æneas ait : Hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu,

O pater quis est ille, qui Sistet eques : sternet Pænos, Gallumque rebellem;

sic comitatur

virum Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.

euntem ? namque videAtque hic Æneas; unà namque ire videbat

860 bat


ex ære.

844. Fabricium. Fabricius was raised that for a long time the Romans paid little from a low estate to the command of the attention to the arts of civilized life; not unRoman army. The Samnites and Pyrrhus til they had made themselves masters of both attempted to corrupt him with money; Greece. Vivos : to the life. Æra : statuas but he gave them to understand that Rome was not ambitious of gold, but gloried in 849. Meatus cæli : nempe, cursus sidcrum. commanding those who possessed it. He Radio : the radius was à stick or wand, was twice consul, and twice he triumphed. used by the geomitricians to mark or deSerrane : Quinctius Cincinnatus. He was

scribe their figures in the sand. Dicent : twice dictatur. At the age of eighty he was

shall explain—treat of. taken from his farm of four acres only,

852. Morem : in the sense of legem, vel which he ploughed and sowed with his own hand. Whence he is called Serranus, from

conditiones. the verb sero. Florus calls him dictator ab 855. Marcellus ingreditur : Marcellus aratro.

moves along, distinguished by triumphal 845. Fabii. These were a noble family spoils, &c., The spolia opima were those at Rome, of whom Quintius Fabius was spoils which a Roinan general took from the the most distinguished. In the second Pu- general of the enemy, whom he had slain nic war Annibal reduced the Roman state

with his own hand on the field of battle. to the brink of ruin by two signal victories Such spoils Marcellus won from Viridomaobtained over them, one at Trebia, the other rus, the general of the Gauls. Tumultu. By at Trasimenus. In this state of things, Fa- tumultus here we are to understand a Gallic bius was appointed dictator, and took the war, which broke out and threatened the command of the army against the con

peace of Italy. A civil war, or intestine queror. By delaying to give him battle, commotion, was properly called tumultus. by degrees he broke his power and com- Majores nostri tumultum Italicum, quod erat. pelled him to leave Italy. Cunctando resti- domesticus ; tumultum Gallicum, quòd eral tuis rem : by delaying you restore the state. Italiæ finitimus; præterea nullum tumultum Ile was honored with the surname of Maxi- nominabant, says Cicero. Marcellus was He was five times consul, twice dic. appointed to the command of the


and tator, once censor, and twice he triumphed. wishing to attack the Gauls by surprise, or

846. Rem : the state--the republic. Most before they were prepared to receive him, copies have restituis, in the present; some

he left his infantry behind, and proceeded restitues, in the future.

with his cavalry, or horse, alone, because 847. Alii excudent : others shall form they could march with speed. Hence he is with more delicacy the animated brass, &c. called here eques. Sistet : in the sense of

The Corinthians were famed for statuary; firmabit. the Athenians for eloquence, and the Chal 859. Suspendetque tertia arma. The first deans and Egyptians for astronomy. These spolia opima were offered to. Jupiter Fereare the arts or sciences here alluded to. The trius by Romulus, taken from Acron, king Romans are advised to neglect them, or of the Caninenses. The second were offerconsider them of inferior importance to the ed by Cornelius Cossus, mentioned 841, suan of war, to ruling the nations, and dictq- pra. The third were taken by Marcellus ting the conditions of peace. It is well known from Viridomarus, It is not certain who



Egregium formâ juvenem, et fulgentibus armis ;
Sed frons læta parùm, et dejecto lurnina vultu :

Quis, pater, ille virum qui sic comitatur euntem ? 865. Quis strepit is Filius? anne aliquis magnâ de stirpe nepotum ? comitum est circa eum! Quis strepitus circà comitum ! quantum instar in ipso est} quantum instar Mar- Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat unbrâ. 866 selli est in ipso ! 869. Neque sinent eum

T'um pater Anchises lachrymis ingressus obortis. minu ultrà. Ronana O nate, ingentem luctum ne quære tuorum : AD

gereking propage visa esset vobis, Ostendent terris hunc tantùm fata, neque ultrà O Superi, esse nimiùm Es se sinent. Nimiùm vobis Romana propago 870 potens, si 872. Quantos gemitus

Visa potens, Superi, propria hæc si dona fuissent. virûm ille cainpus ad Quantos ille virûm magnam Mavortis ad urbem magnam urbem Campus aget gemitus! vel quæ, Tyberine, videbis

Funera, cùm tumulum præterlabêre recentem!
Nec puer Iliacâ quisquam de gente Latinos

In tantùm spe tollet avos : nec Romula quondam
Ullo se tantùm tellus jactabit alumno.

Heu pietas! heu prisca fides ! invictaque bello 879. Non quisquam

Dextera ! non illi quisquam se impunè tulisset obvius tulisset se illi Obvius armato : seu.cùm pedes iret in hostem, 880 armato impunè, seu Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 22:17

NOTES. we are to understand by Patri Quirino, to Marcellus, the son of Caius Marcellus and whoin these spoils were to be suspended and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. He deoffered. Nascimbænus explains Quirino by signed him for his daughter Julia. When Marte, vel bello. He suspends to father a boy, he udopted him as a son, and intenuJove the spoils taken (capta) in battle. Ser- ed him for his successor in the empire. He vius, by Quirino understands Romulus. He died about the age of twenty years, at Baïas. suspends to father Romulus, &c. and pro- His body was carried to Rome, and conduces a law of Numa which ordered the sumed to ashes in the campus Marlius. The first spolia opima to be offered to Jupiter, Romans were much affected at his loss, and the second to Mars, and the third to Romu- made great lamentation over him. He was lus. But this law regarded those who might interred near the banks of the Tiber with repeat the spolia opima. Ruæus understands great pomp. Propago: race-stock-offby Patri Quirino, Jupiter Feretrius, in the spring. same manner as Janus is called Quirinus 871. Propria : lasting-permanent; that by Suetonius; because he presided over is, if Marcellus had been permitted to live. war,

and because his temple was built by 872. Quantos gemitus ille : how great Romulus Quirinus. He thinks Jupiter. Fe- groans of men shall that Campus Martius retrius may be called Quirinus. Suspendet, send forth! Marortis, gen. of Mavors, a &c.: he shall suspend to father Jove the name of Mars. Rone was sacred to Mars, third triumphal spoils taken froin the ene as being the father both of Romulus and my. Marcellus was of a plebeian family, Remus. Ayet : in the sense of emittel. Ad: and was advanced to the consulship five in the sense of prope. times. In his third, he was sent to Sicily, 876. Tantùm spe. Some read, in tantam where he distinguished himself in the de- spem : others, in tanta spe. Heyne reads feat of Hannibal. He laid siege to Syracuse, in tantùm spe; so also Ruæus. But spe may and took it after he had been before it three be for spei, the gen. (as die is put for diei. years. It was nobly defended by the cele Geor. i. 208.) governed by tuntum. Th.s brated mathematician Archimedes, who re last I prefer. peatedly destroyed the fleet of the assailants 878. Heu pietas! heu prisca fides! The by his machines and burning glasses. It poet here deplores the loss which virtuse, inw?.s at last taken by stratagem, and Archi- tegrity, and valor, sustained in him. Both medes slain,

Velleius and Seneca give young Marcellus & 862. Parùm læta : in the sense of tristis. most excellent character. 86:3. Viruni: M. Marcellus, the consul. 880. Seu cùm pedes. The meaning is :

867. Ingressus: in the sense of cæpit. whether, as a footman, he should rush against Obortis : gushing from his eyes.

the foe, or whether he should spur on his 869. Fata ostendent: the fates will only foaming steed to the attack. show him to the earth, &c. This is Marcus 881. Armos: in the sense of latera.

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