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Who was Nereus? Of whom was he the Who were the Hosperides? What were father?
their names ? What is the word Nereus sometimes taken Who was Phaëton? What rash act did for?
he attempt? By what figure is it so taken?
What became of him? Who was Deucalion ? What is said to What were the names of his sisters? have taken place in his reign?
What became of them? Who was his wife?
Who was Hesiod? Where was he born ? What were they directed to do in order to How many were there of the name of re-people the earth ?
Scylla ? What do you understand by the words Describe, or give an account of each? Saturnia regna ?
Who was Tereus ? Who was Prometheus ? What is said of What is said of him? him ?
Into what was he transformed ? What is the proper meaning of saltus? What was the name of his wife ? Into
Who was Atalanta ? What is said of what was she transformed ? &c. her ?
MELIBUS, CORYDON, THYRSIS.
This pastoral contains a trial of skill in song between the shepherds Corydon and Thyrsis.
It is much of the nature of the fourth, and is an imitation of the eighth of the Idylls of Theocritus. It is conjectured that by Corydon and Thyrsis we are to understand Gallus and Pollio; of whom our poet speaks on several occasions in the most honorable terms. The scene is laid on the pleasant banks of the river Mincius. Melibæus is thought to be Virgil himself, and Daphnis some mutual friend of theirs. They both listen attentively to their song; which being ended, they give the palm to Corydon.
MEL. FORTE sub argutà consederat ilice Daphnis,
Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum : 3. Thyrsis compulerat Thyrsis oves, Corydon distentas lacte capellas. oves, Corydon compule- Ambo florentes ætatibus, Arcades ambo: rat capellas Et cantare pares, et respondere parati.
5 6. Hic caper ipse vir
Hìc mihi, dum teneras defendo à frigore myrtos, gregis deerraverat mihi, Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat: atque ego Daphnim dum
Aspicio : ille ubi me contrà videt; Ocyùs, inquit,
1. Arguta : whispering. The word very for its pastures and flocks; and in a manaptly expresses the rustling noise made by ner sacred to shepherds. They were both the wind among the leaves: to which refe- in the prime of life: florentes ælatibus. rence is here had.
5. Pares cantare : equal at singing. Par 2. Corydon : this is derived from a Greek is properly equal in match to contend for word signifying a lark. Thyrsis : from a victory. Greek word signifying a spear bound with 7. Daphnim: from a Greek word signi vine, in honor of Bacchus. In unum : into fying a laurel. Vir: in the sense of dut.. one place, locum being understood.
8. Contrà. This is here used adverbially, 3. Capellas distentas lacte : his goats dis- in turn; or over against him. The word tended with milk-having their udders dis- may be taken in either sense. The former tended.
seems preferable in this place. 4. Ambo Arcades. Not indeed that they 9. Ades: in the sense of ceni. Melibeee : were both natives of Arcadia ; but they are from a Greek word signifying a shepherd; so called, because that country was famous or one who has the care of flocks.
Huc ades, ô Melibee ; caper tibi salvus et hædı; 9. Caper est salvus Et si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbrâ. 10 tibi, et hædi quoque sunt
salvi Huc ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci : Hìc viridis tenerâ prætexit arundine ripas
12. Hic viridis Min
cius prætexit Mincius, èque sacrâ resonant examina quercu. Quid facerem? neque ego Alcippen, nec Phyllida habeDepulsos à lacte domi, quæ clauderet agnos : [bam, Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum. 16. Corydon certabat Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo.
cum Thyrside Alternis igitur contendere versibus ambo Cæpêre : alternos Musæ meminisse volebant.
19. Volebant me meHos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis. 20 minisse alternos versus
20. Corydon referebat Cor. Nymphæ, noster amor, Libethrides, aut mihi car
hos Quale meo Codro, concedite : proxima Phæbi [men,
21. Aut concedite tale Versibus ille facit: aut si non possumus omnes,
carmen mihi, quale conHic arguta sacra pendebit fistula pinu.
cessistis Th. Pastores, hederâ crescentem ornate poëtam, 25
23. Nos omnes non Arcades, invidiâ rumpantur ut ilia Codro.
possumus facere id Aut si ultrà placitum laudârit, baccare frontem
27. Cingite meam fronCingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro. Cor. Setosi caput hoc apri tibi, Delia, parvus
29. O Delia, parvus Et ramosa Mycon vivacis cornua cervi.
30 Mycon offert tibi hoc Si proprium hoc fuerit, levi de marmore tota
10. Quid: temporis is understood, govern- any one lay down his art or profession, to ed by quid : any time—a little time. hang up and consecrate the instruments
11. Potum : to drink: a sup. in um, of the which he had used, to the god who preverb poto, put after the verb venient.
sided over that art. 12. Prætexit : in the sense of legit.
25. Hederá. Poets were crowned some13. Mincius : a small river rising out of times with ivy, at other times, with laurel. the lake Benacus, and falling into the Po. These both were evergreens, and designed Hodie, Menso.
to denote a lasting fame. Ornate : in the 14. Alcippen-Phyllida : the names of sense of coronate. By poetam we are to untwo servants; both derived from the Greek.
derstand Thyrsis himself. 15. Depulsos à lacte: taken away from 26. Ilia Codro: the sides to Codrus; the the milk: weaned. Domi : at home. same as Ilia Codri. This construction is
17. Posthabui, &c. I postponed my se- frequent with Virgil: the dat. in the sense rious business to their song: to listen to their of the gen. song. Ludo : in the sense of cantui.
27. Ultra placitum : beyond my pleasure. 19. Musre volebant: the meaning is, the Mu- or desire. Immoderate praise was thought ses would have them sing alternate verses. by the ancients to have in it something of
20. Referebat : in the sense of cantabat. the nature of fascination; and to avert its
21. Libethriues : an adj. from Libethra, a malignant influence, they wore a garland of fountain in Beotia ; others say in Magnesia, baccar, or lady's-glove, as a counter charm. over which they presided. Hence they are The pron. me is understood. called Libelhrian nymphs. Noster amor : 29. Delia : A name of Diana, from Demy delight, or love.
los, the place of her birth. Selosi: bristly.. 22. Concedite: grant such a song to me 30. Mycon. The swain Mycon is supas ye granted to my Codrus : inspire such posed to be Corydon's friend, and to proa song, &c. Codrus was a poet cotempo- mise these things to Diana in his name. rary with Virgil, as we learn from Servius, 31. Si hoc fuerit proprium. If this (sucand of superior merit. Procima : next in cess which you granted me in hurting) shall excellence to the versos of Apollo. Carmi- be lasting, you shall stand entire in polished na is understood.
marble: I will make you a full-length statue 23. Facit: in the sense of componit. of polished, &c. It was usual to make only
24. Sacra pinu : the pine-tree was sacred the head and neck of a marble statue. Here to Cybele, the mother of the gods, on ac- Corydon promises Diana an entire status, count of the transmutation of her dariing provided she continued to prosper his purAlys into that tree. It was a custom, when suits.
32. Tu stabis tota de Puniceo stabis suras evincta cothurno. levi marmore evincta
Th. Sinum lactis, et hæc te liba, Priape, quotannis quoad suras 33. O Priape, sat est Expectare sat est : custos es pauperis horti.
35 te expectare quotannis Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus : at tu, à me
Si fætura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto.
Cor. Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblæ,
tui Corydoris habet te cura, venito.
Tu. Immò ego Sardois videar tibi amarior herbis, 42. Algå projecta ad Horridior rusco, projectâ vilior algâ; irtus
Si mihi non hæc lux toto jam longior anno est. 44. Si sit vobis quis Ite domum pasti, si quis pudor, ite juvenci. pudor
Cor. Muscosi fontes, et somno mollior herba, 45
32. Puniceo : in the sense of purpureo. a forced laughter; some take it for the Crow See Ecl. 5. 17. Cothurno. The colhurnus foot. was a kind of high-heeled shoe or boot 42. Horridior rusco: rougher than the worn when hunting and on the stage, by butcher's broom. This is a prickly shrub or both sexes. See Geor. 2. 9.
plant.–Vilior : more vile, or worthless.33. Priape : Priapus was the tutelar god Alga. This was a kind of weed or grass, of gardens, lakes, &c. He was the son of which grew in great abundance about the Venus, by Mercury or Bacchus. The place island of Crete. When torn from the rocks of his birth was Lampsacus, near the Helles, where it grew, by the violence of the waves, pont, where he was chiefly worshipped. He tost about the sea, and ther cast upon the was usually represented with a human face shore, it became quite useless : it lost its and the ears of a goat. He held a stick in color, and presented to the eye an unseemly his hand to drive away birds, a club to drive appearance. away thieves, and a scythe to prune the 43. Lux : in the sense of dies.
Sinum: in the sense of vas ; a kind 44. Pasti : in the sense of saturati. of vessel swelling out in the middle like a 45. Muscosi fontes : ye cool (mossy) founpitcher.
tains. The epithet muscosi is expressive of 35. Pro tempore: according to the time; coolness, because moss will seldom grow in proportion to my present ability. Thyr- where there is any considerable degree of sis promises him now a marble statue, and heat. It grows the best on the banks of rivers if his flocks increase so that he can afford it, that face the north. Also on the north side he will make him a golden one.
of trees.—Herba mollior, &c. This charming 36. Suppleverit: shall enlarge-multiply. expression is taken from Theocritus. Ruæus
37. Nerine: an adj. from Nereus, a god says, dulcis ad somnum, which is not the of the sea. The poet does not here mean meaning of the poet. The expression, softer that this Galatea was actually the daughter than sleep, is extremely delicate. of Nereus; but he merely intends it as a 46. Viridis arbutus, &c. This is a singucompliment, intimating that she possessed lar construction. The nom. here seems to equal eharms with her namesake. Hyblæ. be used in the place of the voc. By using Hybla was a mountain in Sicily, abounding the nom. it placed the relative quæ in the in Thyme, and celebrated for its bees, and third person, and consequently the verb; excellent honey-sweeter than the thyme of whereas they should be in the second perHybla, fairer than the swans, more beautiful son sing. O viridis arbute, quæ tegis vos than the white ivy. These comparisons are rara umbrâ. The vos refers to the fountains extremely chaste and delicate.
and grass mentioned above. 39. Cùm primùm: in the sense of ut pri- 47. Solstitium. This word properly sigmùm.—Cura: regard.
nifies that point in the ecliptic, which coin41. Sardois herbis. The herb here spoken cides with the tropics, or is 23° 28' from the of is supposed to be the Holly-bush, of sharp equator, measured on an arc of the meriand prickly leaves, and of a very bitter dian: and the sun being in this point on & taste. It is called Sardinian, from the island particular day in June and December, the Sardinia, where it grew in great abundance. word is taken by Synec. for either summer It is said to have caused a convulsive laugh- or winter. Again by meton. for heat or ter with grinning. Hence Sardinicus risus, cold, according as the sun is either in the 50 hic suni
Torrida : jam læto turgent in palmite gemmæ.
TH. Hic focus, et tædæ pingues : hìc plurimus ignis 49. Hic est focus, et Semper, et assiduâ postes fuligine nigri. Hìc tantùm Boreæ curamus frigora, quantùm Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas,
52. Quantùm aut lu
prs curat Cor. Stant et juniperi, et castaneæ hirsutæ :
ovium, aut torrentia fluStrata jacent passim sua quâque sub arbore poma : mina curant ripas Omnia nunc rident : at si formosus Alexis
55 53. Hìc stant et juniMontibus his abeat, videas et flumina sicca.
59. Sed omne nemus Jupiter et læto descendet plurimus imbri.
TH. Fraxinus in sylvis pulcherrima, pinus in hortis,
sign of Cancer or Capricorn. It is the sol. 54. Poma jacent, &c. Much hath been stice of Cancer, or the summer solstice, said upon the reading of this line. Some which is here meant. Defendile: in the read it thus; Poma jacent strata passim, qucesense of avertite.
que sub sua arbure: apples lie scattered all 48. Palmite: the shoot or branch of the around, every one under its own tree. vine-Gemme: the buds, or first appear- Others read it thus : sua poma jacent strata ances of the young shoots of trees or shrubs. passim, sub quâque arbore : their own apples Læto: fruitful-fertile.
lie scattered all around under every or each 49. Pingues lædæ : fat pines; or, we may tree. This last, Dr. Trapp is fully persuaded take lædæ in a wider sense, implying any is the correct reading. Heyne reads, quâque. fuel, or combustible matter.
56. Videas et, &c. You would even see 50. Fuligine : in the sense of fumo. The the rivers dry. The word et here is emcottages of the poor seldom had a chimney. phatical. The fire was made directly under an aper- 57. Vitio aëris : by the infection of the ture in the roof to discharge the smoke. air ; or, the excessive heat of the air. Sitit : We may well suppose the interior of the is parched. house to be blackened by that vapor.
58. Liber. A name of Bacchus. See 51. Hic tantùm curamus. The meaning Eel. v. 69. Invidit : hath refused the shais: we care nothing for the cold of Boreas. dows of the vine to our hills. The meaning Boreas is the Greek word for the north wind. is: the vine does not flourish upon our hills. The poets say he was the son of Astræus 60. Jupiter: the air--condensed vapor. and Aurora ; or, according to others, of the Læto imbri : in fertilizing showers. river Strymon, in Macedonia. He was king 61. Alcidæ : Hercules, called also Alcides, of Thrace, and carried away by force Orythid, from Alcæus, his grand-father. The populus the daughter of Erictheus, king of Athens, was sacred to him. It is said he wore a by whom he had two sons, Zetes and Calais. crown of white poplar leaves when he deHe was worshipped as a god.
scended to the infernal regions. 53. Juniperi. The juniperus was a tree, 62. Myrtus. Tie myrtle tree was sacred having sharp and narrow leaves, and bearing to Venus, on account of the delicacy of its a small, round, and odoriferous fruit. Ser. 'odor, or because it flourishes best on the vius understands juniperi and castaneæ to be margin of the sea, out of the foam of which the trees which are loaded with their re- she is said to have sprung. spective fruit. Mr. Davidson takes them for 61. Taccho: a name of Bacchus. The the fruit itself, and considers stant in oppo- vine was sacred to him, because, it is said, sition to strata jacent: the former stand or he was the inventor of wine; or at least hang ripening on the boughs, the latter in taught men the cultivation of the vine. rich profusion cover the ground under their 62. Laurea. The laurel tree was sacred respective trees. Hirsutæ : rough-prickly, to Apollo, on account of his beloved Daphne, in opposition to those that were sinooth, who was changed into a laurel ; therefore mentioned Ecl. i. 82: or it may only mean it is called sua, his own. that they were yet in the shell See Ecl. x. 76. 65. Fraxinus : the ash-tree.
Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus altis :
66 Sæpiùs at si me, Lycida formose, revisas; Fraxinus in sylvis cedat tibi, pinus in hortis.
ME. Hæc memini, et victum frustrà contendere Thyrsın. Ex illo Corydon, Corydon est tempore nobis. 70
70. Ex illo tempore : from that time, Co- is in imitation of Theocritus, Idyl. viii. 92, rydon, Corydon is the one for me. Heyne but far inferior to the original. observes, this line is unworthy of Virgil. It
What is the subject of this pastoral? Who was Boreas ? For wbat did the
Whom are we to understand by Corydon Greeks take the word ? and Thyrsis? Whom by Melibæus and For what is the word Jupiter sometimes Daphnis?
taken ? Where is the scene laid ?
What do you understand by the word Who comes off conqueror?
solstitium? Is this pastoral imitated from Theocritus? For what is it used figuratively? Who was Priapus? and what is said of him?
*This pastoral consists of two parts: the first is taken chiefly from the third Idyl of
Theocritus: the latter from the second Idyl. The shepherd Damon bewails the loss of his mistress, Nisa, and is much grieved at the success of Mopsus, who had succeeded in obtaining her for a wife. Alphesibæus relates the charms, or incantations of some enchantress, who endeavored, by magic arts, to make Daphnis in love with her. Pharmaceutria, the title of this Eclogue, is the same with the Latin Venefica, and sig. nifies a sorceress. This Eclogue was written in the year of Rome 715, when L. Mar. cus Censorinus, and C. Calvisius Sabinus, were consuls. It is not certain to whom it was inscribed, whether to Augustus or Pollio; most commentators are in favor of the latter.
PASTORUM Musam, Damonis et Alphesibæi, pastorum Damonis et Alphesibæi, quos
Immemor herbarum quos est mirata juvenca,
certantes Juvenca imme. Certantes, quorum stupefactæ carmine lynces, mor herbarum mirata Et mutata suos requiêrunt flumina cursus ·
1. Musam : in the sense of carmen. in an active sense in any part of his works,
4. Mutata flumina, &c. This line may and as he is fond of imitating the Greeks, be read in two ways. The first and easiest it is better to suppose that he follows them is given in the ordo; the other is, mutata flu- in the present instance, than that he deviates mina requiêrunt suos cursus. In this case, here from his uniform practice in the use of requiesco must be taken actively, and mu the verb. Beside, if we take requiesco acala, in the sense of turbata, as Ruæus in- tively, we must take mutata out of its usual
rets it. But Virgil never uses that verb acceptation.