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Corpora debentur, Lethæi ad fluminis undam
Securus latices et longa oblivia potant.

715 Has equidem memorare tibi, atque ostendere coràm, 716. Equidem jampriJampridem hanc prolem cupio enumerare meorum :

dem cupio memorare tiQuò magis Italiâ mecum lætere repertâ.

bi, atque ostendere has

animas coràm, et enumeO pater, anne aliquas ad cælum hinc ire putandum est,

rare hanc prolem meoSublimes animas ? iterumque ad tarda reverti Corpora ? quæ lucis miseris tam dira cupido ? Dicam equidem, nec te suspensum, nate, tenebo ; Suscipit Anchises, atque ordine singula pandit.

Principio cælum, ac terras, camposque liquentes, Lucentemque globum Lunæ, Titaniaque astra 725 Spiritus intus alit ; totamque infusa per artus Mens agitat molem, et magno se corpore miscet. Inde hominum pecudumque genus, vitæque volantům, 728. Unde oritur ge. Et quæ marmoreo fert monstra sub æquore pontus.

nus hominum Igneus est ollis vigor, et cælestis origo

730

729. Et monstra, quæ Seminibus ; quantùm non noxia corpora tardant, Terrenique hebetant artus, moribundaque membra. 732. Terrenique artus, Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque: neque au- moribundaque membra Respiciunt, clausæ tenebris et carcere cæco. [ras

non hebetant illum vigoQuin et supremo cùın lumine vita reliquit ;

735

733. Hinc animæ meNon tamen omne malum miseris, nec funditùs omnes Corporeæ excedunt pestes; penitùsque necesse est

738. Multa vitia diu Multa diu concreta inodis inolescere miris.

concreta penitùs inolesErgò exercentur pænis, veteruinque malorum

cere iis

pontus fert

rem

tuunt

NOTES.

father, was only his image, his Idolum or an adj. from Titan, a name given to the sun, Sinulacrum, which the poets feigned to re of Greek origin. Also, the son of Cælus side in the infernal regions, while the soul and Vesta, and the father of the Titans. was in heaven among the gods. Latices se These were all distinguished astronomers, curos : draughts expelling care-producing as we are told by Diodorus and Pausanias, a peaceful and quiet inind.

especially Hyperion. This might lead the 719. Cælum : this means here the upper poets to feign them transformed into the boworld—the regions of light: ad superas au dies of the sun and stars after their death. ras-ad vitam.

726. lgitat : in the sense of movct. Ar720. Sublimes: in the sense of illustres. tus: in the sense of omnes partes. Lucis: in the sense of vitæ.

728. Volantum : in the sense of arium. 724. Principio spiritus : in the first place 730. Ollis : for illis, by antithesis. a spirit within supports the heaven, &c. 731. Non tardant : do not clog it. Here Anchises explains to Æneas the system 733. Hinc metuunt. The passions are or economny of the world, on the principles generally ranked under these four heads : of the Pythagorean, and Platonic philosophy. fear and grief; joy and desire. The two The same is explained in other words, Geor. first have for their object present or future iv. 221, et seq. The doctrine here inculca- evil; the two last, present or future good. ted is, that God is intimately united with souras : in the sense of culum. every part of the universe, and that his spirit

735. Quin et cum: but when life hath left sustains the whole, the heavens, the earth, them, even in the last glimmering light, &c. and the starry lamps; that a inind, or intelligence, diffused through every part of mat

737. Pestes : stains-pollutions. ter, actuates and gives life and motion to 738. Diu concrela : a long time habitual. the whole. And from this active principle Ruæus says, conglutinata. Mala is undersprang tha various kinds of animals. Li- stood in the sense of pestes, as above. Inolesquentes campos: elegantly put for the sea, cere : in the sense of adhærescere. or watery element.

739. Ergò exercentur panis. These pu725. T'ilania astra. By these we are to nishments were of three kinds, according to understand the sun and stars, since they all the nature of the stains with which the soul equally shine by their own light. Titania: was infected. Those, whose stains or pol.

740

empi
Supplicia expendunt. Aliæ panduntur inancs
Suspensæ ad ventos: aliis sub gurgite vasto
Infectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni.
Quisque suos patimur Manes. Exinde per amplum
Mittimur Elysium, et pauci læta arva tenemus :
Donec longa dies, perfecto temporis orbe,

Concretam exemit labem, purumque reliquit 748. Deus evocat om Æthereum sensum, atque auraï simplicis ignem, nes has animas

Has omnes, ubi mille rotam volvêre per annos,

745

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lutions were the slightest, were suspended purgationes, pro sua cujusque parte. This and exposed to the winds; others were is the substance of his reasoning. washed away; others again, whose pollu 745. Donec longa dies, &c. It is the getions were of the deepest dye, were burnt in neral opinion of commentators that the ordo the fire. The elements, air, water, and fire, is here inverted, and that this line should are of a purifying nature, and have been immediately follow Quisque suos patimur figuratively used by all writers as emblems Manes; and that exinde, &c. should follow of moral purification.

after auraï simplicis ignem. Tbis is the only 740. Expendunt: suffer-undergo. Ina- way in which the cominon meaning of donec nes : in the sense of leves.

can be retained: we suffer every one his 743. Quisque patimur: we all suffer every own Manes, till length of time, the period one his own Manes. This passage hath of time being completed, hath taken away very much perplexed cominentators. It is the inherent stains, and left the ethereal not certain in what sense we are to take sense pure, &c. then, after that, we are sent: Manes. The ghosts, or Manes of the dead, exinde mittimur, &c. Ruæus takes donec in were supposed to haunt and disturb the liv- the sense of quando, and it is the only senso ing, from whom they had received any great it will bear in the present ordo of construcinjury. Hence the word Manes may signify tion. Exinde, &c.; then we are sentthe fiends, furies, or tormenting demons of when length of time, &c. the lower world. According to Plato, every 746. Labem. The poet hath found no less person at his birth hath assigned hiin a ge- than five different words to express the stains nium or dennon, that guards him through or pollutions of sin: malum, corporec pestes, life, and after death accompanies him to the vetera mala, infectum seclus, and labes. Conshades below, and becomes a minister of cretum: inherent-contracted-habitual. purification. By Manes we may understand 747. Ignem simplicis auraï. By this we these Platonic demons. Some understand are to understand the soul. The Platonists by Manes the stings and fierce upbraidings supposed the soul to be of a fiery quality of a guilty conscience. These every offend. This may have led the poet to call it emer carries about with him, and by these phatically the fire, or flame of simple brightmeans becomes his own tormentor. Pati ness. Simplicis: simple--uncorrupted-un mur Manes is the same with patimur suppli- compounded. Aurai: for aure. Nouns of cium per Manes. The above is the usual this declension sometimes formed the gen. acceptation of the words. In the present sing in . instance Heyne differs froin the current of 748. Has omnes. The meaning is, that interpreters. He confesses it a perplexed after these animæ, or souls, had passed a and intricate passage, and conjectures it was thousand years in Elysium, the god calls left in an unfinished state by the poet. That them to the river Lethe, where, by drinking part of the dead which the ancients called copiously of its water, they might forget the Manes they placed in the infernal regions, happiness of those peaceful abodes, and be while the umoril remained upon earth and prepared and willing to return again to life, the soul ascended to heaven. He takes and to visit this upper world. This notion Quisque suos patimur Manes, in the sense of of the transmigration of souls, as little as it nostrum omnium Manes patiuntur : vel, ista is founded in truth, was generally received supplicia patienda omnibus Manibus. His among the ancients. There were some exordo of construction is : nos Manes patimur ceptions to this transmigration. Those who quisque quoad suos. According to the no had been admitted into the society of the tion of Plato and others, all inust undergo gods, such as deified heroes, were exemptpurification before they could be admitted ed. Their anima or soul resided in heaven, to Elysium, to the lin arva. Now as the while their Idolum, vel simulachrum, always Munes alone descended to the shades below, remained in Elysium, to enjoy its pleasures they alone could suffer: Hi sunt, qui pur- and delights. So we are to understand gantur: qui patiuntur : qui subeunt illas of Anchises. His Idolum conversed with

sant

760 İtala gente

Lethæum ad fluvium Deus evocat agmine magno:
Scilicet immemores supera ut convexa revisant,

750 750. Scilicet ut immo. Rursùs et incipiant in corpora velle réverti.

mores præteritorum revi. Dixerat Anchises : natumque, unàque Sibyllam, Conventus trahit in medios, turbamque sonantem. Et tumulum capit, unde omnes longo ordine possit Adversos legere, et venientûm discere vultus. 755 Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quæ deinde sequatur

756. Nunc age, expeGloria, qui maneant Italâ de gente nepotes,

diam dictis, quæ gloria

deinde sequatur DardaIllustres animas, nostrumque in nomen ituras,

niam prolem, qui neExpediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo.

potes maneant te de Ille, vides, purâ juvenis qui nititur hastâ, Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca ; primus ad auras

760. Ille juvenis, qui

nititur Æthereas Italo commixtus sanguine surget, Sylvius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles :

ola 763. Dictus Sylvius. Quem tibi longævo serum Lavinia conjux

764. Quem serum con Educet sylvis regem, regumque parentem :

765 jux Lavinia in sylvis

educet tibi longævo fuUnde genus Longâ nostrum dominabitur Albâ.

turum regem Proximus ille, Procas, Trojanæ gloria gentis ;

767. Ille proximus est Et Capys, et Numitor; et, qui te nomine reddet,

768. Deinde sunt et Sylvius Æneas i pariter pietate vel armis

Capys, et Numitor; et Egregius, si unquam regnandam acceperit Albam. 770 Sylvius Æneas, qui Qui juvenes quantas ostentant, aspice, vires! At, qui umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu :

772. Hi imponent No

mentum Hi tibi Nomentum, et Gabios, urbemque Fidenam ;

NOTES.

Æneas, while his anima enjoyed the converse the son of Ascanius. In order to make the of the gods.

Rotam volvêre : in the sense of historian and the poet agree, some would traduxerunt tempus. It is a metaphor taken understand by longævo, in the following from the rolling or turning of a wheel. line, advanced to the gods, immortal, relying

749. Deus. Some take the god here upon Æschylus, who calls the gods longævi. mentioned to be Mercury. But Heyne thinks Postuma proles. The meaning of postuma deus is here used indefinitely for any dæ- here will, in a good degree, depend upon the mon or genium, in allusion to the notions sense given to longæro. If it be taken as of Plato, which the poet here hath in his abovementioned, to denote one advanced to view. Perhaps it is better to suppose that the life of the gods, then postuma proles will each shade is called by its own special mean posthumous child, one born after the mon to the waters of Lethe, to prepare for a death of the father. But if we take longevo return to life. This makes the sense easier, in its ordinary acceptation, to denote an old and is in perfect accordance with the prin- man, or one advanced in age, then postuma ciples of that philosophy, here inculcated must be taken in the sense of postrema : last and explained.

-your last child, whom late your wife La750. Supera convexa : in the sense of sro

vinia brought to you advanced in age. peras auras ; or simply, vitam.

765. Educet : in the sense of pariet. 753. Sonunlem: in the sense of strepentem. succeed Sylvius in the throne of Albà, for

767. Proximus. Not the one who should 755. Legere : in the sense of recensere, vel Procas was the thirteenth king; but the cognoscere.

one who stood next to him in the Elysian 763. Sylvius. Dionysius Halicarnassus fields. informs us that Lavinia, at the death of 772. At, qui geruni : but who bear their Æneas, was pregnant, and for fear of As.' temples shaded with the civic crown. This canius fled into the woods to a Tuscan was made of oak, because the fruit of that shepherd, where she was delivered of a son, tree supported man at the first. It was conwhom, from that circumstance, she called ferred upon the man who had saved the life Sylvius. But Ascanius, moved with com of a Roman citizen in battle. Quercu: the passion toward her, named hiin his succes oak; by ineton. the crown made of it. sor in the kingdom of Alba Longa. Froin 773. Hi Nomentum: these shall found him, the kings of Alba took the common Nomentum, &c. This was a town of the name of Sylvii. Livy, however, makes him Sabines, situated upon the river Allia, about

Hi Collatinas imponent montibus arces,
Pometios, Castrumque Inuï, Bolamque, Coramque. 775
Hæc tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sinè nomine terræ.
Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet
Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater
Educet. Viden' ut geminæ stant vertice cristæ,
Et pater ipse suo Superùm jam signat honore? 780
En hujus, nate, auspiciis illa inclyta Roma.
Imperium terris, animos æquabit Olympo,
Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces,
Felix prole virûm: qualis Berecynthia mater
Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes,

785 Læta Deùm partu, centum complexa nepotes, 787. Omnes tecentes Ornnes cælicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes. supera et alta loca

Huc geminas huc flecte acies : hanc aspice gentem, 789. Hic est Cæsar, et Romanosque tuos. Hic Cæsar, et omnis lüli omnis Progenies, inagnum cæli ventura sub axem.

790 791. Quem sæpius Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti sæpiùs audis, audis promitti tibi, nempe Augustus Cæsar, Divi genus ; aurea condet

Sæcula qui rursùs Latio, regnata per arva
Saturno quondam : super et Garamantas et Indos

NOTES.

twelve miles from Rome, on the east. Gabii: 781. Auspiciis : conduct-government. a town about ten miles from Rome, also to 782. Animos: courage--valor. ward the east. Fidena : a town situated on the Tyber, about five miles north of Rome.

783. Unaque circumdabit : and it alone

shall surround for itself seven hills. Collatiæ : a town not far from Fidena, to the east. Pometia, or Pometii: a town of the 784. Berecynthia mater : as the BerecynVolsci, situate to the north of the Pomptina thian niother, crowned with turrets, is wafted paludes. Castrum Inuï: a maritime town in her car, &c. Cybele is lese meant, who of the Rutuli. It was dedicated to that god

was said to be the mother of most of the whom the Greeks called Pan, but the Latins gods. Hence læta Deûm partu : rejoicing called Inuus or Incubus. Bolve vel Bola: a in a race or progeny of gods. The epithet town of the Æqui near Præneste, to the east. Berecynihia is added to her frein BerecynCora : a town of the Volsci not far from thium, a castle of Phrygin, on the river SaPometia, to the north. These towns were garis, or from a mountain of that name, not all in Latium, properly so called, as the

where she was worshipped in a distinguishpoet would insinuate. They were built after ed manner. Cybele is often put, by meton. their respective people were incorporated for the earth; for which reason she is repreamong the Romans, and their lands made a sented as wearing a turreled crown. Prole part of the Roman state.

virûm : in a race of heroeş. 774. Imponent: in the sense of condent. 788. Gentem : race-progeny. Collatinas urces: the town or city Collatiæ. 777. Comitem avo. Comes here is an as

792. Genus Divi: the offspring of a god. sistant or helper. Numitor, the son of Pro

This the poet says to flatter the vanity of cas, was driven from his throne by his bro- Angustus, who, from the time that he deither Amulius. Romulus being informed of fied Julius Cæsar, his father by adoption, asthis, collected a company of men, joined the

sunied the title of the son of a god, filius party of Numitor, and restored Him to his Diri, as appears from ancient inscriptions. throne. Romulus was the reputed son of Or his divine descent might be traced from Mars and Ilia, the daughter of Numitor, Dardanus, the founder of the Trojan race, who was therefore his grandfather. Mavor: the reputed son of Jove. Soine copies have tius : an adj. from Mavors, a name of Mars, condet : who again shall establish the golden

*Divûm. Heyne reads Divi. Aureu sæcula agreeing with Romulus, who is said to have been the son of that god.

age in Latium, through the country, &c.

See Ecl. iv. 6. 779. Educet : in the sense of pariet. 780. Pater Superûm : Jupiter, who is 793. Augustus. This is the first time that *vled the father of the gods, and king of Virgil called his prince Augustus. This

Soma understand Mars, the father of title was decreed to him by the senate, in the mulus.

year of Rome 727.

n.

796

800

Proferet imperium : jacet extra sidera tellus,
Extra anni solisque vias, ubi cælifer Atlas
Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum.
Hujus in adventu jam nunc et Caspia regna
Responsis horrent Divûm ; et Mæotica tellus,
Et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili.
Nec verò Alcides tantum telluris obivit;
Fixerit æripedem cervam licèt, aut Erymanthi
Pacârit nemora,

et Lernam tremefecerit arcu.
Nec, qui pampineis victor juga flectit habenis
Liber, agens celso Nysæ de vertice tigres.
Et dubitamus adhuc virtutem extendere factis ?
Aut metus Ausoniâ prohibet consistere terrâ ?

Quis procul ille autem, ramis insignis olivæ,
Sacra ferens ? nosco crines incanaque menta

804. Nec Liber abivit 805 tantum telluris, qui vic

tor flectit juga pampi. neis habenis, agens

808. Autem quis est ille procul, insignis ramis

NOTES.

795. Proferet imperium super : he shall moventur. The Nile is the largest river of extend his empire over, &c. The Gara- Africa, and falls into the Mediterranean sea mantes were a people inhabiting the interior by seven mouths. It annually overflows its of Africa. Indos. Suetonius inforins us that banks, and occasions the fertility of Egypt. the kings of India, properly so called, being The Egyptians worshipped it as a divinity. moved at the fame of Augustus, sought his 801. Alcides : a name of Hercules, from friendship. But it is well known that he Alcæus, his grandfather. He is sometimes did not extend his empire over them. Most called Amphitryoniades, from Amphilryon, probably the people here mentioned under the husband of Alcmene, of whom Jupiter bethe name of Indos were the Æthiopians, or gat him. He travelled over many parts of some nation of Africa. Besides, any coun the world, performing feats of valor. He try lying in a hot climate, or within the was in the Argonautic expedition. In Egypt tropics, was anciently called India, and its he slew Busiris; in Spain, Geryon ; Si. inhabitants Indi, as might be shown by cily, Eryx; in Thrace, Diomede; in Africa abundant testiinony.

he destroyed the gardens of the Hesperides. 795. Tellus jacet : their land lies, &c. Si- The poet here mentions three instances of dera, here, does not mean the stars and con his valor: 1. His piercing the brazen-footed stellations in general; but the particular hind. Fixerit æripedein, &c. This hind insigns of the zodiac, as appears from the fol- habited the mountain Mænalus, in Arcadia. lowing words : extra vias annui solis. This Servius, in order to reconcile Virgil with description agrees very well to Africa, which mythology, takes fixerit, in the sense of extends beyond the tropic of Cancer to the statuerit, stopped, out-run, took, &c. because, north, and, also, beyond the tropic of Capri- being sacred to Diana, it would have been corn to the south.

impious to put her to death. Heyne takes 797. A.cem : by synec. for cælum. fixerit in the sense of ceperit. 2. His sub

798. Caspia regna. By this we are to un- duing the groves of Erymanthus : pacârit derstand the kingdoms bordering upon the nemora ; that is, subdued the wild boar that Caspian sea. To the north were the Sar- infested them. He took him alive, and carmatians and Scythians; to the south, the ried him to Eurystheus, king of Mycene. Parthians ; to the west, the Arininians. 3. His making Lerna tremble with his bow: This sea has no visible outlet or communi. Lernam tremefecerit ; that is, the fens of cation with any other waters. It is said to Lerna, between Argos and Mycena, where be about 630 miles long, and 260 broad. he slew the Hydra with fifty heads. The Wolga, the largest river in Europe, 804. Juga : the yoke, by meton. for the empties into it. Mæotica tellus. By this we carriage. The car of Bacchus was drawn are to understand the northern nations of by tigers. Europe, bordering on the Palus Mæotis, or 805. Nysæ. There were several mounsea of Azoff, on the north of the Euxine, tains by this name, all sacred to Bacchus. or black sea. Horrent : tremble at the re- Agens tigres : driving the tigers from, &c. sponses of the gods.

Tigers are said to be transported with fury 800. Trepida ostia : the astonished mouths at the sound of tabrets and drums; which. of the seven-fold Nile are troubled. Tur- perhaps, is the reason of their being given bant has, in this place, the signification of to Bacchus, the god of fury and enthusiastia turbantur, vel trepidant. Ruæus says, com rage.

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