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Inter odoratum lauri nemus : unde supernè
Plurimus Eridani per sylvam volvitur amnis.

Hic manus, ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi · 600 660. Hic est manus Quique sacerdotes casti, dum vita manebat.

eorum, qui passi sunt

vulnera pugnando Quique pii vates, et Phæbo digna locuti:

661. Quique fuerant Inventas aut qui vitam excoluêre per artes ·

casti Quique suî mernores alios fecêre merendo

dece

662. Fuerant pii vates, Oinnibus his niveâ cinguntur tempora vittå.

665 et locuti Quos circumfusos sic est affata Sibylla, Musæum ante omnes : medium nan plurima turba

Hunc habet, atque humeris exstantem suspicit altis : 4 Dicite, felices animæ, tuque, optime vates ;

Quæ regio Anchisen, quis habet locus ? illius ergo 670
Venimus. et magnos Erebi tranavimus amnes.
Atque huic responsum paucis ita reddidit heros:

672. Paucis verbis

673. Est certa domus Nulli certa domus : lucis habitamus opacis,

nulli nostrum. Riparumque toros, et prata recentia rivis

677. Tulit gressum Incolimus : sed vos, si fert ita corde voluntas,

675 ante eos Hoc superate jugum, et facili jam tramite sistam.

679. Pater Anchises Dixit : et ante tulit gressum, camposque nitentes

lustrabat animas peni

tùs inclusas in virenti Desuper ostentat: dehinc summa cacumina linquunt.

convalle, iturasque ad At pater Anchises penitùs convalle virenti

superum lumen, recolens Inclusas animas, superumque ad lumen ituras, 680 eas studio

NOTES. 658. Unde supernè. Interpreters are not

665. His omnibus: the dat. in the sense agreed as to the meaning of this passage. of the gen. horum omnium. Some make it to be this : unde magna pars 666. Circumfusos : in the sense of circum Eriduni è superis præcipilat ad inferos. This stantes. interpretation is founded on what we are told

667. Musæum. Musæus was the disciple by Pliny, that the Po, soon after its rise, of Orpheus. He was an Athenian by birth, passes under ground and flows out again in and flourished under Cecrops the second, a à part of Piedmont. Others : unde magnus considerable time before the destruction of Eridanus fuit ad superiores incolas lerræ. Troy. He was an heroic poet. There are This seems to be the opinion of Ruæus. This said to be some fragments of verses which appears to be founded upon the general re

go under his name, but probably they are ceived opinion that the great source of rivers the production of a later poet. Some have is in the body of the earth. Mr. Davidson censured Virgil for preferring Musæus to differs from both of these interpretations. Homer as a poet. But it is to be rememHe takes supernè in its cominon accepta- bered that Homer did not live till some time tion, denoting from an eminence or rising after this descent of Æneas, and therefore ground. Unde : whence (that is, from the to have mentioned him, would have been Elysian fields,) from an eminence, or rising wholly out of place. ground, the great river Eridanus rolls or Rows. This is the easiest and most natural his head and lofty shoulders. Suspicit : in

668. Exstantem: rising above the rest by meaning.

the sense of admiratur. Æneas is under662. Quique pii vales. Vates signifies

stood. either a poet or a prophet. Poets were ori

670. Ergo illius : on account of him we ginally the only persons who taught a knowledge of the divine nature, and declared the have come. Ergo is here used in the sense

of causâ. sublime doctrines of religion. Locuti digna Phæbo: and spoke things worthy of Phæbus; ripas. Recentia rivis: verdant or green on

674. Toros riparun: Ruæus says, herbosas such doctrines of religion and morality as

account of its streams or rivers. Virentia were worthy of the inspiration of that God. 663. Ercoluêre : improved human life.

propter vicinas aquas, says Heyne. Fert : in664. Quique fecêre alios : and those who had made others mindful of them by their

676. Jugum : in the sense of collem. merit. These included all patriots and pub

678. Antè tulit gressum; he (Musmus) lic spirited men—all who had distinguished went before them; a phrase. themselves in the arts and sciences, and all 680. Superum lumen : the upper world the benefactors of mankind.

the regions of light. Here is an allusion to

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у genious

Lustrabat studio recolens: omnemque suorum
Fortè recensebat numerum, charosque nepotes,

Fataque, fortunasque virům, nioresque, manusque. 634. Vidit Ænean ten- Isque ubi tendentem adversùm per gramina vidit dentem cursum adver

Ænean ;
alacris palmas utrasque tetendit,

685 sum ei per gramina

686. Lachrymæ effuse Effusæque genis lachrymæ, et vox excidit ore: sunt genis

Venisti tandem, tuaque spectata parenti 688. Tuaque pietas Vicit iter durum pietas! datur ora tueri, spectata mihi parenti Nate, tua ; et notas audire et reddere voces ! vicit durum

Sic equidem ducebam animo rebarque futurum, 690

Tempora dinumerans : nec me mea cura fefellit.
692. Per quas terras, Quos ego te terras, et quanta per æquora vectum,
et per quanta æquora Accipio! quantis jactatum, nate, periclis !
accipio te esse vectum!

Quàm metui, ne quid Libyæ tibi regna nocerent!
Ille autem : 'Tua me, genitor, tua tristis imago 695
Sæpiùs occurrens, hæc limina tendere adegit

.
Stant sale Tyrrheno classes. Da jungere dextram,
Da genitor: teque amplexu ne subtrahe nostro.

Sic memorans, largo fletu simul ora rigabat. 700. Collo patris Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circùm ;

700
Ter frustrà comprensa manus effugit imago,
Par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno.

Intereà videt Æneas in valle reductâ
Seclusum nemus, et virgulta sonantia sylvis,
Lethæumque, domos placidas qui prænatat, amnem. 705
Hunc circum innumere gentes populique volabant.
Ac veluti in pratis, ubi apes æstate serena
Floribus insidunt variis, et candida circum
Lilia funduntur : strepit omnis murmure campus.
Horrescit visu subito, causasque requirt

710
Inscius Æneas : quæ sint ea flumina porrò,
Quive viri tanto complêrint agmine ripas.
Tum pater Anchises : Animæ, quibus altera fato

pul.

NOTES.

sum,

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the doctrine of transmigration, maintained Tuscan sea. Sale: in the sense of mari, by by Pythagoras and his followers.

meton. 683. Manus: achievements-noble deeds. 699. Largo fletu: in the sense of multis Tendentem: in the sense of venientem ad se. lachrymis.

687. Spectata. This is the reading of 700. Circundare: they are separated by Ileync, and is easier than expectata, which is imesis for the sake of the verse. Conatus the common reading. Ruxus seems to ap &c. prove of it, although he has expectata. 704. Seclusum: in the sense of separatum. Doctissimi legunt spectata, id est, cognita, Virgulta sonantia syivis. lleyne takes these perspecta, probata, says he.

words in the sense of virgulla sylvarum so: 688. Datur: in the sense of permittitur. nantia; and this again for sylræ sonantes: Mihi is understood.

Sonantia : sounding-rustling with the wind. 690. Sic equidem ducebam : indeed I was 705. Pranatat : in the sense of

præterconcluding in my mind, and thinking it fluil. would be so; computing and reckoning the 709. Funduntur: in the sense of volant. time for you to arrive. The ghost of An 713. Animæ quibus: the souls, for which chises had directed Æneas to repair to the other bodies are destined by fate, drink, regions below. See lib. v. 731.

&c. There were some who were exempt 693. Accipio : in the sense of audio. from transmigration. Such were those, who,

697. Tyrrheno sale. That part of the for their exalted virtue, had been admitted Mediterranean lying to the south of Italy, into the society of the gods. Among this

having Sicily on the east and Sardinia nuinber was Anchises. Whai Æneas here

orsica on the west, was called the converses with under the appearance of his

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Corpora debentur, Lethæi ad fluminis undam
Securus latices et longa oblivia potant.

715 Has equidem memorare tibi, atque ostendere coràm, 716. Equidem jampriJampridem hanc prolem cupio enumerare meorum :

dem cupio memorare tiQuò magis Italiâ mecum lætere repertâ.

bi, atque ostendere has

animas coràm, et enumeO pater, anne aliquas ad cælum hinc ire putandum est,

rare hanc prolem meoSublimes animas ? iterumque ad tarda reverti Corpora ? quæ lucis miseris tam dira cupido ? Dicam equidem, nec te suspensum, nate, tenebo ; Suscipit Anchises, atque ordine singula pandit.

Principio cælum, ac terras, camposque liquentes, Lucentemque globum Lunæ, Titaniaque astra 725 Spiritus intus alit ; totamque infusa per artus Mens agitat molem, et magno se corpore miscet. Inde hominum pecudumque genus, vitæque volantům, 728. Unde oritur ge. Et quæ marmoreo fert monstra sub æquore pontus.

nus hominum Igneus est ollis vigor, et cælestis origo

730

729. Et monstra, quæ Seminibus ; quantùm non noxia corpora tardant, Terrenique hebetant artus, moribundaque membra. 732. Terrenique artus, Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque: neque au- moribundaque membra Respiciunt, clausæ tenebris et carcere cæco. [ras

non hebetant illum vigoQuin et supremo cùın lumine vita reliquit ;

735

733. Hinc animæ meNon tamen omne malum miseris, nec funditùs omnes Corporeæ excedunt pestes; penitùsque necesse est

738. Multa vitia diu Multa diu concreta inodis inolescere miris.

concreta penitùs inolesErgò exercentur pænis, veteruinque malorum

cere iis

pontus fert

rem

tuunt

NOTES.

father, was only his image, his Idolum or an adj. from Titan, a name given to the sun, Sinulacrum, which the poets feigned to re- of Greek origin. Also, the son of Cælus side in the infernal regions, while the soul and Vesta, and the father of the Titans. was in heaven among the gods. Latices se- These were all distinguished astronomers, curos : draughts expelling care-producing as we are told by Diodorus and Pausanias, a peaceful and quiet inind.

especially Hyperion. This might lead the 719. Cælum : this means here the upper poets to feign them transformed into the boworld—the regions of light: ad superas au- dies of the sun and stars after their death. ras-ad vitam.

726. lgitat : in the sense of movct. Ar720. Sublimes: in the sense of illustres. tus: in the sense of omnes partes. Lucis: in the sense of vitæ.

728. Volantum : in the sense of arium. 724. Principio spiritus : in the first place 730. Ollis : for illis, by antithesis. a spirit within supports the heaven, &c. 731. Non tardant : do not clog it. Here Anchises explains to Æneas the system 733. Hinc metuunt. The passions are or economny of the world, on the principles generally ranked under these four heads : of the Pythagorean, and Platonic philosophy. fear and grief; joy and desire. The two The same is explained in other words, Geor. first have for their object present or future iv. 221, et seq. The doctrine here inculca- evil; the two last, present or future good. ted is, that God is intimately united with souras : in the sense of culum. every part of the universe, and that his spirit

735. Quin et cum: but when life hath left sustains the whole, the heavens, the earth, them, even in the last glimmering light, &c. and the starry lamps; that a inind, or intel

737. Pestes : stains-pollutions. ligence, diffused through every part of matter, actuates and gives life and motion to 738. Diu concrela : a long time habitual. the whole. And from this active principle Ruæus says, conglutinata. Mala is undersprang tha various kinds of animals. Li- stood in the sense of pestes, as above. Inolesquentes campos: elegantly put for the sea, cere : in the sense of adhærescere. or watery element.

739. Ergò exercentur panis. These pu725. T'ilania astra. By these we are to nishments were of three kinds, according to understand the sun and stars, since they all the nature of the stains with which the soul equally shine by their own light. Titania: was infected. Those, whose stains or pol.

740

empi
Supplicia expendunt. Aliæ panduntur inancs
Suspensæ ad ventos: aliis sub gurgite vasto
Infectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni.
Quisque suos patimur Manes. Exinde per amplum
Mittimur Elysium, et pauci læta arva tenemus :
Donec longa dies, perfecto temporis orbe,

Concretam exemit labem, purumque reliquit 748. Deus evocat om- Æthereum sensum, atque auraï simplicis ignem, nes has animas

Has omnes, ubi mille rotam volvêre per annos,

745

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lutions were the slightest, were suspended purgationes, pro sua cujusque parte. This and exposed to the winds; others were is the substance of his reasoning. washed away; others again, whose pollu- 745. Donec longa dies, &c. It is the getions were of the deepest dye, were burnt in neral opinion of commentators that the ordo the fire. The elements, air, water, and fire, is here inverted, and that this line should are of a purifying nature, and have been immediately follow Quisque suos patimur figuratively used by all writers as emblems Manes; and that exinde, &c. should follow of moral purification.

after auraï simplicis ignem. Tbis is the only 740. Expendunt: suffer-undergo. Ina- way in which the cominon meaning of donec nes : in the sense of leves.

can be retained: we suffer every one his 743. Quisque patimur: we all suffer every own Manes, till length of time, the period one his own Manes. This passage hath of time being completed, hath taken away very much perplexed cominentators. It is the inherent stains, and left the ethereal not certain in what sense we are to take sense pure, &c. then, after that, we are sent: Manes. The ghosts, or Manes of the dead, exinde mittimur, &c. Ruæus takes donec in were supposed to haunt and disturb the liv- the sense of quando, and it is the only senso ing, from whom they had received any great it will bear in the present ordo of construcinjury. Hence the word Manes may signify tion. Exinde, &c.; then we are sentthe fiends, furies, or tormenting demons of when length of time, &c. the lower world. According to Plato, every 746. Labem. The poet hath found no less person at his birth hath assigned hiin a ge- than five different words to express the stains nium or dennon, that guards him through or pollutions of sin: malum, corporec pestes, life, and after death accompanies him to the vetera mala, infectum seclus, and labes. Conshades below, and becomes a minister of cretum: inherent-contracted-habitual. purification. By Manes we may understand 747. Ignem simplicis auraï. By this we these Platonic demons. Some understand are to understand the soul. The Platonists by Manes the stings and fierce upbraidings supposed the soul to be of a fiery quality of a guilty conscience. These every offend. This may have led the poet to call it emer carries about with him, and by these phatically the fire, or flame of simple brightmeans becomes his own tormentor. Pati- ness. Simplicis: simple--uncorrupted-un mur Manes is the same with patimur suppli- compounded. Aurai: for aure. Nouns of cium per Manes. The above is the usual this declension sometimes formed the gen. acceptation of the words. In the present sing in . instance Heyne differs froin the current of 748. Has omnes. The meaning is, that interpreters. He confesses it a perplexed after these animæ, or souls, had passed a and intricate passage, and conjectures it was thousand years in Elysium, the god calls left in an unfinished state by the poet. That them to the river Lethe, where, by drinking part of the dead which the ancients called copiously of its water, they might forget the Manes they placed in the infernal regions, happiness of those peaceful abodes, and be while the umoril remained upon earth and prepared and willing to return again to life, the soul ascended to heaven. He takes and to visit this upper world. This notion Quisque suos patimur Manes, in the sense of of the transmigration of souls, as little as it nostrum omnium Manes patiuntur : vel, ista is founded in truth, was generally received supplicia patienda omnibus Manibus. His among the ancients. There were some exordo of construction is : nos Manes patimur ceptions to this transmigration. Those who quisque quoad suos. According to the no- had been admitted into the society of the tion of Plato and others, all inust undergo gods, such as deified heroes, were exemptpurification before they could be admitted ed. Their anima or soul resided in heaven, to Elysium, to the lin arva. Now as the while their Idolum, vel simulachrum, always Munes alone descended to the shades below, remained in Elysium, to enjoy its pleasures they alone could suffer: Hi sunt, qui pur- and delights. So we are to understand gantur: qui patiuntur : qui subeunt illas of Anchises. His Idolum conversed with

sant

760 İtala gente

Lethæum ad fluvium Deus evocat agmine magno:
Scilicet immemores supera ut convexa revisant,

750 750. Scilicet ut immo. Rursùs et incipiant in corpora velle réverti.

mores præteritorum revi. Dixerat Anchises : natumque, unàque Sibyllam, Conventus trahit in medios, turbamque sonantem. Et tumulum capit, unde omnes longo ordine possit Adversos legere, et venientûm discere vultus. 755 Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quæ deinde sequatur

756. Nunc age, expeGloria, qui maneant Italâ de gente nepotes,

diam dictis, quæ gloria

deinde sequatur DardaIllustres animas, nostrumque in nomen ituras,

niam prolem, qui neExpediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo.

potes maneant te de Ille, vides, purâ juvenis qui nititur hastâ, Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca ; primus ad auras

760. Ille juvenis, qui

nititur Æthereas Italo commixtus sanguine surget, Sylvius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles :

ola 763. Dictus Sylvius. Quem tibi longævo serum Lavinia conjux

764. Quem serum con Educet sylvis regem, regumque parentem :

765 jux Lavinia in sylvis

educet tibi longævo fuUnde genus Longâ nostrum dominabitur Albâ.

turum regem Proximus ille, Procas, Trojanæ gloria gentis ;

767. Ille proximus est Et Capys, et Numitor; et, qui te nomine reddet,

768. Deinde sunt et Sylvius Æneas i pariter pietate vel armis

Capys, et Numitor; et Egregius, si unquam regnandam acceperit Albam. 770 Sylvius Æneas, qui Qui juvenes quantas ostentant, aspice, vires! At, qui umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu :

772. Hi imponent No

mentum Hi tibi Nomentum, et Gabios, urbemque Fidenam ;

NOTES.

Æneas, while his anima enjoyed the converse the son of Ascanius. In order to make the of the gods.

Rotam volvêre : in the sense of historian and the poet agree, some would traduxerunt tempus. It is a metaphor taken understand by longævo, in the following from the rolling or turning of a wheel. line, advanced to the gods, immortal, relying

749. Deus. Some take the god here upon Æschylus, who calls the gods longævi. mentioned to be Mercury. But Heyne thinks Postuma proles. The meaning of postuma deus is here used indefinitely for any dæ- here will, in a good degree, depend upon the mon or genium, in allusion to the notions sense given to longæro. If it be taken as of Plato, which the poet here hath in his abovementioned, to denote one advanced to view. Perhaps it is better to suppose that the life of the gods, then postuma proles will each shade is called by its own special mean posthumous child, one born after the mon to the waters of Lethe, to prepare for a death of the father. But if we take longevo return to life. This makes the sense easier, in its ordinary acceptation, to denote an old and is in perfect accordance with the prin- man, or one advanced in age, then postuma ciples of that philosophy, here inculcated must be taken in the sense of postrema : last and explained.

-your last child, whom late your wife La750. Supera convexa : in the sense of sro

vinia brought to you advanced in age. peras auras ; or simply, vitam.

765. Educet : in the sense of pariet. 753. Sonunlem: in the sense of strepentem. succeed Sylvius in the throne of Albà, for

767. Proximus. Not the one who should 755. Legere : in the sense of recensere, vel Procas was the thirteenth king; but the cognoscere.

one who stood next to him in the Elysian 763. Sylvius. Dionysius Halicarnassus fields. informs us that Lavinia, at the death of 772. At, qui geruni : but who bear their Æneas, was pregnant, and for fear of As.' temples shaded with the civic crown. This canius fled into the woods to a Tuscan was made of oak, because the fruit of that shepherd, where she was delivered of a son, tree supported man at the first. It was conwhom, from that circumstance, she called ferred upon the man who had saved the life Sylvius. But Ascanius, moved with com of a Roman citizen in battle. Quercu: the passion toward her, named hiin his succes oak; by ineton. the crown made of it. sor in the kingdom of Alba Longa. Froin 773. Hi Nomentum: these shall found him, the kings of Alba took the common Nomentum, &c. This was a town of the name of Sylvii. Livy, however, makes him Sabines, situated upon the river Allia, about

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