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32. Tu stabis tota de Puniceo stabis suras evincta cothurno. levi marmore evincta

Th. Sinum lactis, et hæc te liba, Priape, quotannis quoad suras 33. O Priape, sat est Expectare sat est : custos es pauperis horti.

35 te expectare quotannis Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus : at tu, à me

Si fætura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto.

Cor. Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblæ,
Candidior cycnis, hederâ formosior albâ :
Cùm primùm pasti repetent præsepia tauri,
Si
qua

tui Corydoris habet te cura, venito.

Tu. Immò ego Sardois videar tibi amarior herbis, 42. Algå projecta ad Horridior rusco, projectâ vilior algâ; irtus

Si mihi non hæc lux toto jam longior anno est. 44. Si sit vobis quis Ite domum pasti, si quis pudor, ite juvenci. pudor

Cor. Muscosi fontes, et somno mollior herba, 45
Et quæ vos rarâ viridis tegit arbutus umbrâ,
Solstitium pecori defendite : jam venit æstas

40

:

NOTES.

trees.

32. Puniceo : in the sense of purpureo. a forced laughter; some take it for the Crow See Ecl. 5. 17. Cothurno. The colhurnus foot. was a kind of high-heeled shoe or boot 42. Horridior rusco: rougher than the worn when hunting and on the stage, by butcher's broom. This is a prickly shrub or both sexes. See Geor. 2. 9.

plant.–Vilior : more vile, or worthless.33. Priape : Priapus was the tutelar god Alga. This was a kind of weed or grass, of gardens, lakes, &c. He was the son of which grew in great abundance about the Venus, by Mercury or Bacchus. The place island of Crete. When torn from the rocks of his birth was Lampsacus, near the Helles, where it grew, by the violence of the waves, pont, where he was chiefly worshipped. He tost about the sea, and ther cast upon the was usually represented with a human face shore, it became quite useless : it lost its and the ears of a goat. He held a stick in color, and presented to the eye an unseemly his hand to drive away birds, a club to drive appearance. away thieves, and a scythe to prune the 43. Lux : in the sense of dies.

Sinum: in the sense of vas ; a kind 44. Pasti : in the sense of saturati. of vessel swelling out in the middle like a 45. Muscosi fontes : ye cool (mossy) founpitcher.

tains. The epithet muscosi is expressive of 35. Pro tempore: according to the time; coolness, because moss will seldom grow in proportion to my present ability. Thyr- where there is any considerable degree of sis promises him now a marble statue, and heat. It grows the best on the banks of rivers if his flocks increase so that he can afford it, that face the north. Also on the north side he will make him a golden one.

of trees.—Herba mollior, &c. This charming 36. Suppleverit: shall enlarge-multiply. expression is taken from Theocritus. Ruæus

37. Nerine: an adj. from Nereus, a god says, dulcis ad somnum, which is not the of the sea. The poet does not here mean meaning of the poet. The expression, softer that this Galatea was actually the daughter than sleep, is extremely delicate. of Nereus; but he merely intends it as a 46. Viridis arbutus, &c. This is a singucompliment, intimating that she possessed lar construction. The nom. here seems to equal eharms with her namesake. Hyblæ. be used in the place of the voc. By using Hybla was a mountain in Sicily, abounding the nom. it placed the relative quæ in the in Thyme, and celebrated for its bees, and third person, and consequently the verb; excellent honey-sweeter than the thyme of whereas they should be in the second perHybla, fairer than the swans, more beautiful son sing. O viridis arbute, quæ tegis vos than the white ivy. These comparisons are rara umbrâ. The vos refers to the fountains extremely chaste and delicate.

and grass mentioned above. 39. Cùm primùm: in the sense of ut pri 47. Solstitium. This word properly sigmùm.Cura: regard.

nifies that point in the ecliptic, which coin41. Sardois herbis. The herb here spoken cides with the tropics, or is 23° 28' from the of is supposed to be the Holly-bush, of sharp equator, measured on an arc of the meriand prickly leaves, and of a very bitter dian: and the sun being in this point on & taste. It is called Sardinian, from the island particular day in June and December, the Sardinia, where it grew in great abundance. word is taken by Synec. for either summer It is said to have caused a convulsive laugh- or winter. Again by meton. for heat or ter with grinning. Hence Sardinicus risus, cold, according as the sun is either in the

50 hic suni

numerum

Torrida : jam læto turgent in palmite gemmæ.

TH. Hic focus, et tædæ pingues : hìc plurimus ignis 49. Hic est focus, et Semper, et assiduâ postes fuligine nigri. Hìc tantùm Boreæ curamus frigora, quantùm Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas,

52. Quantùm aut lu

prs curat Cor. Stant et juniperi, et castaneæ hirsutæ :

ovium, aut torrentia fluStrata jacent passim sua quâque sub arbore poma : mina curant ripas Omnia nunc rident : at si formosus Alexis

55 53. Hìc stant et juniMontibus his abeat, videas et flumina sicca.

peri
Th. Aret ager ; vitio moriens sitit aëris herba :
Liber pampineas invidit collibus umbras.
Phyllidis adventu nostræ nemus omne virebit:

59. Sed omne nemus Jupiter et læto descendet plurimus imbri.

60 virebit.
COR. Populus Alcidæ gratissima, vitis Iaccho:
Formosæ myrtus Veneri, sua laurea Phæbo.
Phyllis amat corylos : illas dum Phyllis amabit,
Nec myrtus vincet corylos, nec laurea Phæbi.

TH. Fraxinus in sylvis pulcherrima, pinus in hortis,

NOTES.

..

sign of Cancer or Capricorn. It is the sol. 54. Poma jacent, &c. Much hath been stice of Cancer, or the summer solstice, said upon the reading of this line. Some which is here meant. Defendile: in the read it thus; Poma jacent strata passim, qucesense of avertite.

que sub sua arbure: apples lie scattered all 48. Palmite: the shoot or branch of the around, every one under its own tree. vine-Gemme: the buds, or first appear- Others read it thus : sua poma jacent strata ances of the young shoots of trees or shrubs. passim, sub quâque arbore : their own apples Læto: fruitful-fertile.

lie scattered all around under every or each 49. Pingues lædæ : fat pines; or, we may tree. This last, Dr. Trapp is fully persuaded take lædæ in a wider sense, implying any is the correct reading. Heyne reads, quâque. fuel, or combustible matter.

56. Videas et, &c. You would even see 50. Fuligine : in the sense of fumo. The the rivers dry. The word et here is emcottages of the poor seldom had a chimney. phatical. The fire was made directly under an aper 57. Vitio aëris : by the infection of the ture in the roof to discharge the smoke. air ; or, the excessive heat of the air. Sitit : We may well suppose the interior of the is parched. house to be blackened by that vapor.

58. Liber. A name of Bacchus. See 51. Hic tantùm curamus. The meaning Eel. v. 69. Invidit : hath refused the shais: we care nothing for the cold of Boreas. dows of the vine to our hills. The meaning Boreas is the Greek word for the north wind. is: the vine does not flourish upon our hills. The poets say he was the son of Astræus 60. Jupiter: the air--condensed vapor. and Aurora ; or, according to others, of the Læto imbri : in fertilizing showers. river Strymon, in Macedonia. He was king 61. Alcidæ : Hercules, called also Alcides, of Thrace, and carried away by force Orythid, from Alcæus, his grand-father. The populus the daughter of Erictheus, king of Athens, was sacred to him. It is said he wore a by whom he had two sons, Zetes and Calais. crown of white poplar leaves when he deHe was worshipped as a god.

scended to the infernal regions. 53. Juniperi. The juniperus was a tree, 62. Myrtus. Tie myrtle tree was sacred having sharp and narrow leaves, and bearing to Venus, on account of the delicacy of its a small, round, and odoriferous fruit. Ser. 'odor, or because it flourishes best on the vius understands juniperi and castaneæ to be margin of the sea, out of the foam of which the trees which are loaded with their re- she is said to have sprung. spective fruit. Mr. Davidson takes them for 61. Taccho: a name of Bacchus. The the fruit itself, and considers stant in oppo- vine was sacred to him, because, it is said, sition to strata jacent: the former stand or he was the inventor of wine; or at least hang ripening on the boughs, the latter in taught men the cultivation of the vine. rich profusion cover the ground under their 62. Laurea. The laurel tree was sacred respective trees. Hirsutæ : rough-prickly, to Apollo, on account of his beloved Daphne, in opposition to those that were sinooth, who was changed into a laurel ; therefore mentioned Ecl. i. 82: or it may only mean it is called sua, his own. that they were yet in the shell See Ecl. x. 76. 65. Fraxinus : the ash-tree.

..

Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus altis :

66 Sæpiùs at si me, Lycida formose, revisas; Fraxinus in sylvis cedat tibi, pinus in hortis.

ME. Hæc memini, et victum frustrà contendere Thyrsın. Ex illo Corydon, Corydon est tempore nobis. 70

NOTES.

70. Ex illo tempore : from that time, Co- is in imitation of Theocritus, Idyl. viii. 92, rydon, Corydon is the one for me. Heyne but far inferior to the original. observes, this line is unworthy of Virgil. It

QUESTIONS.

What is the subject of this pastoral? Who was Boreas ? For wbat did the

Whom are we to understand by Corydon Greeks take the word ? and Thyrsis? Whom by Melibæus and For what is the word Jupiter sometimes Daphnis?

taken ? Where is the scene laid ?

What do you understand by the word Who comes off conqueror?

solstitium? Is this pastoral imitated from Theocritus? For what is it used figuratively? Who was Priapus? and what is said of him?

ECLOGA OCTAVA.

PHARMACEUTRLA.

DAMON, ALPHESIBUS.

*This pastoral consists of two parts: the first is taken chiefly from the third Idyl of

Theocritus: the latter from the second Idyl. The shepherd Damon bewails the loss of his mistress, Nisa, and is much grieved at the success of Mopsus, who had succeeded in obtaining her for a wife. Alphesibæus relates the charms, or incantations of some enchantress, who endeavored, by magic arts, to make Daphnis in love with her. Pharmaceutria, the title of this Eclogue, is the same with the Latin Venefica, and sig. nifies a sorceress. This Eclogue was written in the year of Rome 715, when L. Mar. cus Censorinus, and C. Calvisius Sabinus, were consuls. It is not certain to whom it was inscribed, whether to Augustus or Pollio; most commentators are in favor of the latter.

musam

1. Dicemus

PASTORUM Musam, Damonis et Alphesibæi, pastorum Damonis et Alphesibæi, quos

Immemor herbarum quos est mirata juvenca,

certantes Juvenca imme. Certantes, quorum stupefactæ carmine lynces, mor herbarum mirata Et mutata suos requiêrunt flumina cursus ·

NOTES.

1. Musam : in the sense of carmen. in an active sense in any part of his works,

4. Mutata flumina, &c. This line may and as he is fond of imitating the Greeks, be read in two ways. The first and easiest it is better to suppose that he follows them is given in the ordo; the other is, mutata flu- in the present instance, than that he deviates mina requiêrunt suos cursus. In this case, here from his uniform practice in the use of requiesco must be taken actively, and mu the verb. Beside, if we take requiesco acala, in the sense of turbata, as Ruæus in- tively, we must take mutata out of its usual

rets it. But Virgil never uses that verb acceptation.

Damonis Musam dicemus et Alphesibæi.

5 est ; quorum carmine Tu mihi, seu magni superas jam saxa Timavi ;

lynces stupefactæ sunt;

et flumina mutata quoad Sive oram Illyrici legis æquoris : en erit unquam

suos cursus requierunt: Ille dies, mihi cùm liceat tua dicere facta !

dicemus, inquam, musam En erit, ut liceat totum mihi ferre

pei
orbem

6. Tu, Ö Pollio, fave Sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna cothurno !

10 mihi, seu A te principium : tibi desinet: accipe jussis

8. En ille dies erit,

cùm liceat mihi Carmina cæpta tuis, atque hanc sine tempora circùm

11. Principium meoInter victrices hederam tibi serpere lauros.

rum laborum erat à te : Frigida vix cælo noctis decesserat umbra,

meus labor desinet tibi Cùm ros in tenerâ pecori gratissimus herbâ est : 15 12. Sine hanc hedeIncumbens tereti Damon sic cæpit olivæ.

ram serpere

17. O Lucifer, nasDa. Nascere, præque diem veniens age, Lucifer, al

cere, præveniensque age Conjugis indigno Nisæ deceptus amore

(mum: almum diem : dum ego Dum queror, et divos (quanquam nil testibus illis deceptus indigno amore Profeci) extremâ moriens tamen alloquor horâ. 20

NOTES.

5. Dicemus : in the sense of narrabimus. covered his lands, and so had an occasion

6. Tu mihi, &c. It is generally thought given him for writing; and further, that that the poet addresses himself to Pollio, poets promise many things, which they do who, about this time, returned to Rome in not perform. triumph, having overcome the Partheni, a

12. Sine hanc, &c. "Permit this ivy to people of Illyricum. The verb fave, or adsis, creep around thy temples amidst thy vicmust be supplied, to make the sense com

torious laurels-permit me to crown thee plete. Ellipses of this kind are frequent, with ivy, while others crown thee with lauparticularly among the poets. Timavi. rel. This is a very delicate verse.

The See Æn, i. 244.

poet here entreats his patron to permit his 7. Sive legis, &c. Whether you coast ivy to entwine about his temples among his along the shore of the Illyrian sea. Illyric victorious laurels; in other words, to accept cum was a very extensive country lying on these his verses, in the midst of his victhe right of the Adriatic sea, or gulf of tories. The poetic crown was originally Venice, including the ancient Liburnia and made of ivy exclusively, afterwards, someDalmatia. Æquoris. Æquor properly sig- times it was made of laurel : but the trinifies any plain or level surface, whether umphal crown was always made of laurel. land or water. Erit: in the sense of aderit. Victrices lauros : alluding to the triumph

10. Cothurno. The cothurnus was pro- with which he was honored for his victory perly a high-heeled shoe, worn by the tra

over the Partheni. gedians to make them appear taller; by

16. Tereti olivæ : leaning against a tapermeton. put for tragedy, or the tragic style. Sophocleo : an adj.

from Sophocles, an Athe-ing olive, Damon thus began. nian, the prince of tragic poetry. He was

17. Præveniens. The parts of the vert cotemporary with Pericles. Tua carmina are separated for the sake of the verse, by sola, &c. Your verses alone worthy of the Tmesis. This figure is frequent among the buskin-worthy of being introduced upon poets. Lucifer: the morning star, or Venus the stage. The cothurnus is here called It is called Lucifer when going before the Sophoclean, because Sophocles introduced sun; Hesperus, when following after him. it upon the stage. Pollio was not only a

There is a fitness and propriety in Damon's statesman, but a poet, and a distinguished calling upon the star, or planet Venus to writer of tragedy. See Ecl. iv. 12. arise, as if to listen to his complaint, since

11. Principium, &c. This line is elliptical. it was a love affair. Age: in the sense of The ellipsis is supplied in the ordo: the be- advehe. ginning of my labors was from thee; my

18. Conjugis. Conjux here is a betrothed labors shall end with thee. From this or expected wife. Indigno amore: may circumstance, some have been led to think mean immoderate love; or a love ill-requithat the poet alludes to Augustus, and not

ted-a love of which Nisa was unworthy. to Pollio. He wrote his first Eclogue, it is 20. Profeci : I have gained, or profited true, to compliment the generosity of his nothing. Illis testibus. It would scern that prince, and the Æneid to flatter his vanity. Nisa had pledged her faith to Damon, and But we are to remember, it was through the called the gods to witness it; yet she viointerest and friendship of Pollio, that he re lated her promises.

esse

25

Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.

Mænalus argutumque nemus pinosque loquentes
23. Ide mons Mænalus Semper habet : semper pastorum ille audit amores,
24. Passus est calamos Panaque, qui primus calamos non passus inertes.

Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Mopso Nisa datur : quid non speremus amantes ?
Jungentur jam gryphes equis; ævoque sequenti
Cum canibus timidi venient ad pocula damæ.
Mopse, novas incide faces ; tibi ducitur uxor.
Sparge, marite, nuces; tibi deserit Hesperus Oetam.

Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
32. O Nisa conjuncta o digno conjuncta viro ! dum despicis omnes,
digno viro ; dum despi. Dumque tibi est odio mea fistula ; dumque capellæ,
cis omnes alios
34. Prolixaque mea

Hirsutumque supercilium, prolixaque barba : barba sunt tibi odio.

Nec curare Deûm credis mortalia quemquam.
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.

Sepibus in nostris parvam te roscida mala,
38. Vidi te adhuc par- (Dux ego vester eram) vidi cum matre legentem :
vam legentem rocida Àlter ab undecimo tum me jam ceperat annus :
mala

Jam fragiles poteram à terrâ contingere ramos.

31

35

40

NOTES.

21. Mænalios versus : Mænalean, or pas- eastward, would observe the stars retiring toral verses—such as used to be sung on or settling behind it. Hence, as it respected mount Menalus in Arcadia. It was sacred them, the expression is the same as saying, to Pan. By reason of its pleasant groves, the evening star is setting, and conscquently and whispering pines, it was much frequent. the evening somewhat advanced; which ed by shepherds, where they sang their would not be an unpleasant circumstance loves. The poet personifies the mountain, to the new-married couple. and makes it listen to the songs of shep 34. Hirsutum supercilium: my rough, or ds.

shaggy eyebrows. ere could be no ground 22. Loquentes : whispering—tuneful. of complaint against Nisa for not loving

24. Qui primus : who first, &c. See Ecl. these, and his long beard. These surely ü. 31. Inertes : in the sense of inutiles. possess no charms. But as Dr. Trapp ob

27. Gryphes: griffons. They were fa serves, the ground of his complaint lay in bulous animals, having the body of a lion, this : that her cruelty and scorn had so disand the wings and beak of an eagle. heartened him, as to render him negligent of

28. Damce timidi : the timid deer. Ad his outward appearance. pocula : in the sense of ad aquam, vel potum; 35. Mortalia : things done by mortals. by meton.

This line is both beautiful and pathetic. 29. Incide faces. It was a custom among 37. In nostris sepibus : in our enclosures the Romans to lead the bride to the house - gardens, fields. This and the four folof her husband with lighted torches before lowing lines are extremely delicate, and her. These torches were pieces of pine, or show the hand of a master. The circumsome unctuous wood, which were cut to a stances here enumerated, the age of the point, that they might be lighted the easier. young shepherd, nis being just able to reach It was usual to have five of these torches. the boughs, his officiousness in helping the Hence ducere uxorem, came to signify, to girl and her mother gather the fruit, and marry a wife; it is said of the husband: nu his falling in love with her at the same bere viro, to marry a husband; this is said time, are so well chosen, and happily exof the wife.

pressed, that we may consider this passage 30. Sparge nuces : scatter nuts. It was as one of those happy and delicate touches a custom among the Romans at nuptials, which characterize the writings of Virgil. for the husband to throw nuts, &c. upon the Roscida. By this we are to understand, floor, that the boys and the rest of the com- Heyne observes, that the apples were wet pany might divert themselves in gathering with the dew of the morning. This will them. Hesperus deserit Oetam tib : the determine the time of the day, when they evening star is leaving Oeta for you. Oeta took their walk into the orchard. was a mountain, or rather range of moun 39. Alter annus, &c. Lit. another year tains, of great height, in Thessaly. The in- after the eleventh had just then taken men habitants of Attica and Beotia being to the I had just entered my twelfth year.

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