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Per Graiûm populos, mediæque per Elidis urbem
Ibat ovans, Divûmque sibi poscebat honorem :
Demens ! qui nimbos, et non imitabile fulmen 590

Ære et cornipedum cursu simularet equorum.
592. Ille Jupiler non At pater omnipotens densa inter nubila telum
contorsit faces, nec lumi, Contorsit (non ille faces, nec fumea tædis
na fumea è tædis, ut Lumina) præcipiteinque immani turbine adegit.
Salmoncus fecit

Nec non et Tityon, Terræ omniparentis alumnum, 595
596. Licitum crat cer- Cernere erat : per tota novem cui jugera corpus
uere Tityon

Porrigitur; rostroque immanis vultur obunco
Immortale jecur tundens, fucunda que pænis
Viscera, rimaturque epulis, habitatque sub alto
Pectore : nec fibris requies datur ulla renatis. 600
Quid memorem Lapithas, Ixiona, Pirithoümqué?
Quos super atra silex jamjam lapsura, cadentique

Imminet assiinilis. Lucent genialibus altis 604. Epulz paratæ Aurea fulcra toris, epulæque ante ora paratæ sunt ante eorum ora, cum Reyifico luxu : Furiarurn maxima juxtà

605 Accubat, et manibus prohibet contingere mensas ;

Exsurgitque facem attollens, atque intonat ore. 608. Hìc sunt illi, qui- Hic, quibus invisi fratres, dum vitə manebat, bus fratres erant invisi Pulsatusve parens, et fraus innexa clienti ; Aut qui divitiis soli incubuêre repertis, ni quest

610 Nec partem posuere suis ; quæ maxima turba est : Quique ob adulterium cæsi ; quique arma secuti

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588. Urbem mediæ Elidis. For mediam His punishment would therefore be perpeurbem Elidis : through the middle of the tual. city of Elis. Heyne observes that some co 601. Lapithas : the Lapitha were a peopies read mediant, which is the easier. ple of Thessaly of dissolute manners. Izci590. Nimbos : storms—teinpests.

Ixion, the son of Phlegyas, was their 591. Simularet. This is the reading of king. He was admitted to an intimacy with Heyne. Most copies have simulârat, the plu. Jupiter, which he forfeited by designing an perf. of the ind.

intimacy with Juno. Jupiter knowing his 592 Telum : thunderbolt.

purpose, substituted a cloud for the god595. T'ityon. Tityus was the son of Ju- dess; and was content at first only to re

move him from heaven; but finding that piter and Élara, the daughter of Orchome- he boasted of having been honored with

When Jupiter found her with child, Juno's bed, he nurled him down to Tartahe shut her up in the earth for fear of Juno; where Tityus issuing forth in a gigantic rus, and ordered Mercury to bind him to

a wheel, hung round with serpents, which form, was thought to be the son of the he was doomed to turn without any interearth. Virgil, therefore, calls him alumnus, inission. Pirithoür. He was the son of &c.: the foster-child of all-bearing earth. He Ixion.

See 122, supra. was slain by Apollo for offering violence to Latona. He was punished by a huge vul- ricide is so horrid and unnatural, that he

609. Pulsus-ve parens: the crime of par ture, that continually preyed upon his liver and vitals; which, as they were devoured. passes it by, not supposing any of the hualways grew afresh. Hence immortale jecur: the case only of one who had beaten a pa.

man race could be guilty of it. He puts his immortal liv.r; because it never was

rent. Fraus innexa clienti : fraud practised consumed. Rimatur epulis : rummages them

upon a client. The claim of the client to for his meal. Renatis : springing up anew. the faith and protection of his patron was 596. Cui: in the sense of cujus.

considered sacred among the Romans; like 598. Tundens : beating—tearing. This is that of a child to the protection of the pathe cominon reading. But Huyne reads rent. Among the laws of the twelve tables ondens. Focunda pænis: fertile in punish- it is said: “ if any patron shall defraud his ment. This is said, because as soon as any client, let him be accursed." part was torn away, and consumed by the 611. Vec partem : nor have distributed a vulture, its place was immediately supplied. part to their own. Arma: in the sense of bella

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fear Impia ; nec veriti dominorum fallere dextras; Inclusi pænam expectant. Ne quære doceri 614 614. Hi omnes inclusi

hic expectant Quam pænam, aut quæ forma viros fortunave mersit.

615. Quam penam Saxum ingens volvunt alii, radiisque rotarum

pendent, aut que forma Districti pendent. Sedet, æternùmque sedebit Infelix Theseus: Phlegyasque miserrimus omnes Admonet, et magnâ testatur voce per umbras: Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere Divos. 620 Vendidit hic auro patriam, dominumque potentem Imposuit: fixit leges pretio atque refixit. Hic thalamum invasit natæ, vetitosque hymenæos. Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti.

624. Hi omnes ausi Non, mihi si linguæ centum sint, oraque centum, 625 sunt immane nefas, et Ferrea vox,'omnes scelerum comprendere formas,

potiti sunt auso

626. Non possim comOmnia pænarum percurrere nomina possim.

prendere omnes formas Hæc ubi dicta dedit Phæbi longæva sacerdos : Sed jam age, carpe viam, et susceptum perfice munus : Acceleremus, ait. Cyclopum educta caminis 630 Menia conspicio, atque adverso fornice portas, Hæc ubi nos præcepta jubent deponere dona.

632. Ubi Di jubent nos

NOTES.

613. Fallere deciras dominorum: to vio- This is the great moral of all those infernal late the faith of their masters-pledged to punishments, that the example of them might their masters. Dextra: in the sense of fides. deter from vice, and stimulate to virtue.

615. Forma-fortuna. By forma, Servius Moniti meo exemplo, says Heyne. understands the form or rule of justice: and

622. Fixit leges : he made and unmado by fortuna, Dr. Trapp understands the sen laws for a price. This is said in reference dence of the judge. What punishment they to the Roman custom of engraving their undergo, or in what form or state of misery

laws upon tables of brass, and fixing them they are overwhelmed or involved. This up in public places, to the view of the peois plainly the meaning of the passage.- ple; and when those laws were abrogated Heyne says, Quæ forma pæna, quod-ve mise

or repealed, they were said to be refigi, to riæ genus mersit, vel manet viros.

be unfixed, or taken down. Hymenæos : in 616. Ingens saxum.

This refers to the the sense of nuptias. caso of Sisyphus, the son of Æolus, a notorious robber. He was sentenced to hell, and undertaking. Dr. Trapp thinks auso inay

624. Potiti auso: accomplished their bold compelled to roll a great stone to the top be used for præmio usi, they now have their of a hill; which, before he reached the top: reward, by way of sarcasnı.

But the sense returned to the bottom again. Thus his labor became perpetual. Districti radiis : commonly given is easier, and contains this bound to the spokes of wheels, they hang. wickedness, they are not the less odious

moral, that however successful men are in This alludes to the case of Ixion. See 601, to God, and will hereafter receive their due supra.

reward. 617. Æternùm sedebit. This may be explained by referring it to the shade or ghost undertaken offering. This refers to the

629. Perfice susceptum munus: finish the of Theseus after death: for he was set at liberty by Hercules, after he had been bound golden bough, which Æneas promised to by Pluto, and returned to the intercourse of deposit in the palace of Proserpine. See 122, supra.

630. Cyclopum. The Cyclops were the 618. Phlegyas. He was the father of Ix- first inhabitants of Sicily. To them is ation, and king of the Lapitha. His daugh- tributed the invention of forging iron, and ter Coronis, being ravished by Apollo, in re

of fortifying cities. The expression here venge for the injury, he burnt his temple; denotes that these walls were made of iron, for which he was thrust down to Tartarus. and strongly fortified. Educta : drawn out, He is represented as calling aloud to the or wrought in the forges of the Cyclops. shades, and admonishing all to take warning See Geor. i. 471. by him, not to despise the gods, nor commit 631. Portus fornice adverso : the gates, acts of impiety.

with their arch directly opposite to us, or in 620. Moniti discite justitiam: ye being front of us. admonished by my example, learn justice. 632. Hæc præcepta dona: these command

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Dixerat : et pariter gressi per opaca viarum,
Corripiunt spatium medium, foribusque propinquant
Occupat Æneas aditum, corpusque recenti

635 Spargit aquâ, ramumque adverso in limine figit.

His deinum exactis, perfectu munere Divæ,
Devenêre locos lætos, et amena vireta
Fortunatorum nemorum, sedesque beatas.
Largior hìc campos æther, et lumine vestit

640 041. Incolæ nôrunt

Purpureo : solemque suum, sua sidera nôrunt.
Pars in gramineis exercent membra palæstris,
Contendunt ludo, et fulvâ luctantur arenâ :
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas, et carmina dicunt.
Necnon Threïcius longâ cum veste sacerdos

645 Obloquitur numeris septem discrimina vocum:

Jaunque eadem digitis, jam pectine pulsat eburno. 648. Hic est antiquuin Hic genus antiquum Teucri, pulcherrima proles, genus

Magnanimi heroës, nati melioribus annis :
Ilusque, Assaracusque, et Trojæ Dardanus auctor. 650
Arma procul, currusque virûm miratur inanes.
Stant terrâ defixæ hastæ, passimque soluti
Per campos pascuntur equi. Quæ gratia currum

Armoruinque fuit vivis ; quæ cura nitentes
655. Eadem cura se- Pascere equos; eadem sequitur tellure repôstos.

655 quitur eos repôstos tel- Conspicit ecce alios dextrâ lævâque per herbam lure.

Vescentes, lætumque choro pæana canentes,

NOTES.

ed gifts. This refers to the golden bough, (the seven different notes) in inusic. Or. which was sacred to Proserpine, and which pheus is here represented clothed in a long Æneas was directed to deliver to her. Ru- robe, that being anciently the garb both of a æus says, munera decerpla ex arbore. priest and musician; in which character le

633. Opaca viarun : tlie dark places of is here represented. the way, or simply, the dark way. Spatia 646. Septem, &c. Allusion is here had to vel loca may be understood.

the harp or lyre, which at first had only 634. Spatium : ground—way.

seven chords or strings. Two were after636. Spargit corpus: he sprinkles his body wards added to make the number nine, in with fresh water; either because he was honor of the muses. Pectine. The pecten, polluted by the sight of Tartarus, or because or plcclrun, was a kind of instrument which he presented an offering to Proserpine. Spar- the musician struck the strings of the larp git aqua, &c. In the entrance of the heathen or lyre with, called a quill. ternples, aqua lustralis, or holy water, was 647. Eadem. Markland conjectures this placed, to sprinkle the devout on their en should be changed to fidem, the strings or trance. This custoin of sprinkling with holy chords of the lyre. The present reading rewater in the Roman church, La Cerda ad- fers to discrimina. The same (discrimina) mits was borrowed from this practice of thy he at one time strikes with his fingers, at heathen.

another, &c. 637. Dive: Proserpine. Perfeito: finish 650. liusque. For the genealogy of these, ed-presented to her.

see Geor. iii. 35. 638. Devenêre : they came to.

653. Gratia: in the sense of amor. 639. Forlunatorun:: in the sense of feli- vis : iis is understood : in the sense of dum cium. Amana viridilate herbarum arborum. illi vixcrunt. que, says Ruæus.

657. Pæann. Pæan was a sacred hymn, 640. Vestit: in the sense of circumdat. or song of praise. It was sometimes sung 641. Purpureo: clear-resplendent. in honor of Mars, especially before battle.

642. Palæstris: in the sense of locis. Pa- It was sung in honor of Apollo, after a viclæstra, both the place of exercise, and the tory; and it was sometimes sung in honor excrcise itself.

of all the gods. It is derived from a Greek 644. Dicunt: in the sense of canunt. word, signifying to wound or pierce. It was

645. Threïcius saccrdos : the Thracian first sung in honor of Apollo after he killed poet warbles thc seven distinctions of sound the Python. Inter : simply, for in.

werving

Inter odoratum lauri nemus : unde supernè
Plurimus Eridani per sylvam volvitur amnis.

Hic manus, ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi · 600 660. Hic est manus Quique sacerdotes casti, dum vita manebat.

eorum, qui passi sunt Quique pii vates, et Phæbo digna locuti:

vulnera pugnando

661. Quique fuerant Inventas aut qui vitam excoluêre per artes ·

casti Quique suî mernores alios fecêre merendo

dece

662. Fuerant pii vates, Oinnibus his niveâ cinguntur tempora vittå.

665 et locuti Quos circumfusos sic est affata Sibylla, Musæum ante omnes : medium nan plurima turba

Hunc habet, atque humeris exstantem suspicit altis : 4 Dicite, felices animæ, tuque, optime vates ;

Quæ regio Anchisen, quis habet locus ? illius ergo 670
Venimus. et magnos Erebi tranavimus amnes.
Atque huic responsum paucis ita reddidit heros:

672. Paucis verbis

673. Est certa domus Nulli certa domus : lucis habitamus opacis,

nulli nostrum. Riparumque toros, et prata recentia rivis

677. Tulit gressum Incolimus : sed vos, si fert ita corde voluntas,

675 ante eos Hoc superate jugum, et facili jam tramite sistam.

679. Pater Anchises Dixit : et ante tulit gressum, camposque nitentes

lustrabat animas peni

tùs inclusas in virenti Desuper ostentat: dehinc summa cacumina linquunt.

convalle, iturasque ad At pater Anchises penitùs convalle virenti

superum lumen, recolens Inclusas animas, superumque ad lumen ituras, 680 eas studio

NOTES. 658. Unde supernè. Interpreters are not

665. His omnibus: the dat. in the sense agreed as to the meaning of this passage. of the gen. horum omnium. Some make it to be this : unde magna pars 666. Circumfusos : in the sense of circum Eriduni è superis præcipilat ad inferos. This stantes. interpretation is founded on what we are told

667. Musæum. Musæus was the disciple by Pliny, that the Po, soon after its rise, of Orpheus. He was an Athenian by birth, passes under ground and flows out again in and flourished under Cecrops the second, a à part of Piedmont. Others : unde magnus considerable time before the destruction of Eridanus fuit ad superiores incolas lerræ. Troy. He was an heroic poet. There are This seems to be the opinion of Ruæus. This said to be some fragments of verses which appears to be founded upon the general re

go under his name, but probably they are ceived opinion that the great source of rivers the production of a later poet. Some have is in the body of the earth. Mr. Davidson censured Virgil for preferring Musæus to differs from both of these interpretations. Homer as a poet. But it is to be rememHe takes supernè in its cominon accepta- bered that Homer did not live till some time tion, denoting from an eminence or rising after this descent of Æneas, and therefore ground. Unde : whence (that is, from the to have mentioned him, would have been Elysian fields,) from an eminence, or rising wholly out of place. ground, the great river Eridanus rolls or Rows. This is the easiest and most natural his head and lofty shoulders. Suspicit : in

668. Exstantem: rising above the rest by meaning.

the sense of admiratur. Æneas is under662. Quique pii vales. Vates signifies

stood. either a poet or a prophet. Poets were ori

670. Ergo illius : on account of him we ginally the only persons who taught a knowledge of the divine nature, and declared the have come. Ergo is here used in the sense

of causâ. sublime doctrines of religion. Locuti digna Phæbo: and spoke things worthy of Phæbus; ripas. Recentia rivis: verdant or green on

674. Toros riparun: Ruæus says, herbosas such doctrines of religion and morality as

account of its streams or rivers. Virentia were worthy of the inspiration of that God. 663. Ercoluêre : improved human life.

propter vicinas aquas, says Heyne. Fert : in664. Quique fecêre alios : and those who had made others mindful of them by their

676. Jugum : in the sense of collem. merit. These included all patriots and pub

678. Antè tulit gressum; he (Musmus) lic spirited men—all who had distinguished went before them; a phrase. themselves in the arts and sciences, and all 680. Superum lumen : the upper world the benefactors of mankind.

the regions of light. Here is an allusion to

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Lustrabat studio recolens: omnemque suorum
Fortè recensebat numerum, charosque nepotes,

Fataque, fortunasque virům, nioresque, manusque. 634. Vidit Ænean ten- Isque ubi tendentem adversùm per gramina vidit dentem cursum adver

Ænean ;
alacris palmas utrasque tetendit,

685 sum ei per gramina

686. Lachrymæ effuse Effusæque genis lachrymæ, et vox excidit ore: sunt genis

Venisti tandem, tuaque spectata parenti 688. Tuaque pietas Vicit iter durum pietas! datur ora tueri, spectata mihi parenti Nate, tua ; et notas audire et reddere voces ! vicit durum

Sic equidem ducebam animo rebarque futurum, 690

Tempora dinumerans : nec me mea cura fefellit.
692. Per quas terras, Quos ego te terras, et quanta per æquora vectum,
et per quanta æquora Accipio! quantis jactatum, nate, periclis !
accipio te esse vectum!

Quàm metui, ne quid Libyæ tibi regna nocerent!
Ille autem : 'Tua me, genitor, tua tristis imago 695
Sæpiùs occurrens, hæc limina tendere adegit

.
Stant sale Tyrrheno classes. Da jungere dextram,
Da genitor: teque amplexu ne subtrahe nostro.

Sic memorans, largo fletu simul ora rigabat. 700. Collo patris Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circùm ;

700
Ter frustrà comprensa manus effugit imago,
Par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno.

Intereà videt Æneas in valle reductâ
Seclusum nemus, et virgulta sonantia sylvis,
Lethæumque, domos placidas qui prænatat, amnem. 705
Hunc circum innumere gentes populique volabant.
Ac veluti in pratis, ubi apes æstate serena
Floribus insidunt variis, et candida circum
Lilia funduntur : strepit omnis murmure campus.
Horrescit visu subito, causasque requirt

710
Inscius Æneas : quæ sint ea flumina porrò,
Quive viri tanto complêrint agmine ripas.
Tum pater Anchises : Animæ, quibus altera fato

pul.

NOTES.

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the doctrine of transmigration, maintained Tuscan sea. Sale: in the sense of mari, by by Pythagoras and his followers.

meton. 683. Manus: achievements-noble deeds. 699. Largo fletu: in the sense of multis Tendentem: in the sense of venientem ad se. lachrymis.

687. Spectata. This is the reading of 700. Circundare: they are separated by Ileync, and is easier than expectata, which is imesis for the sake of the verse. Conatus the common reading. Ruxus seems to ap &c. prove of it, although he has expectata. 704. Seclusum: in the sense of separatum. Doctissimi legunt spectata, id est, cognita, Virgulta sonantia syivis. lleyne takes these perspecta, probata, says he.

words in the sense of virgulla sylvarum so: 688. Datur: in the sense of permittitur. nantia; and this again for sylræ sonantes: Mihi is understood.

Sonantia : sounding-rustling with the wind. 690. Sic equidem ducebam : indeed I was 705. Pranatat : in the sense of

præterconcluding in my mind, and thinking it fluil. would be so; computing and reckoning the 709. Funduntur: in the sense of volant. time for you to arrive. The ghost of An 713. Animæ quibus: the souls, for which chises had directed Æneas to repair to the other bodies are destined by fate, drink, regions below. See lib. v. 731.

&c. There were some who were exempt 693. Accipio : in the sense of audio. from transmigration. Such were those, who,

697. Tyrrheno sale. That part of the for their exalted virtue, had been admitted Mediterranean lying to the south of Italy, into the society of the gods. Among this

having Sicily on the east and Sardinia nuinber was Anchises. Whai Æneas here

orsica on the west, was called the converses with under the appearance of his

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