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Objicit. Ille fame rabida tria guttura pandens,
Corripit objectam, atque immania terga resolvit

422. Corripit eam obFusus humi, totoque ingens extenditur antro.

jectam, atque fusus hu

mi
Occupat Æneas aditum, custode sepulto,
Evaditque celer ripam irremeabilis undæ.

425
Continuò auditæ voces, vagitus et ingens,
Infantumque aniinæ flentes in limine primo :
Quos dulcis vitæ exsortes, et ab ubere raptos

428. Quos exsortes Abstulit atra dies, et funere mersit acerbo.

dulcis vitæ, et raptos ab

ubere atra dies abstulit Hos juxta, falso damnati crimine mortis.

430

430. Sunt illi darnnati Nec verò hæ sinè sorte datæ, sinè judict, sedes.

mortis sub Quæsitor Minos urnam movet : ille silentûm

432. Silentûm umoraConciliumque vocat, vitasque et crimina discit.

Proxima deinde tenent mæsti loca, qui sibi letum 434. Deinde mæsti, Insontes peperêre manu, lucemque

perosi dari linç 435 dun insontes poperere leProjecêre animas. Quàm vellent æthere in alto

rosique lucem projecére Nunc ét pauperiem et duros perferre labores !

animas, tenent proxima Fata obstant, tristique palus inamabilis unda

loca Alligat, et novies Styx interfusa coërcet.'

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NOTES.

Unde non

the poppy, and other soporiferous ingre- of punishment, proportioned to their actual dients.

sin's. 422. Resolvit : relaxes. Terga : in the 431. Sorte. Servius takes sorte to imply sense of artus, vel corpus.

sentence, appointment, or destination. 424. Sepulto: buried in sleep. Somno dice. The judges of hell, according to the being understood.

poets, were three: Minos, Rhadamanthus, 425. Evadit: he ascends—or mounts the and Æacus. Minos was a king of Crete, bank of the impassable streain.

celebrated for the equity of his administrareditur, says Ruæus.

tion, and the justice of his laws; hence 427. Infantumque anima. The wailings feigned to be the first judge of hell. Rhaof those infant ghosts or shades, considered damanthus was his brother and prime minisonly in a poetical light, are very properly ter; both were sons of Jove and Europa. disposed of in the entrance of Pluto's king- Æacus was the son of Jove and Ægina, the dom, as they cast a melancholy gloom over

father of Peleus, king of Thessaly, and grandthe scene, and excite such tender passions father of Achilles. in the inind of the reader, as prepare him

The several apartments of the infernal for relishing the beauties of so grave and regions were appointed or assigned to the solemn a representation. But then their la- several shades, according to the

decision of mentation and weeping we are not to con

the judges appointed to sit in judgment upsider as the effect of punishment, so much

on their lives and actions. as an expression of their grief and sorrow

432. Movet urnam: he shakes the urn at being taken away by an untimely death. which contains each one's sentence. In sweet life, and snatched from the breast, &c. This is an allusion to the custom among 428. Exsortes dulcis vita : deprived of other words, he determines ev ryone's

doom, and assigns their proper stations. Rueus says, privatos.

the Greeks, who used two urns, into the 429. Funere : in the sense of morte. Da

one or other of which the judges cast their vidson says, an, untimely grave.”

calculi sortes, or suffrages, according as they 430. Damnati mortis. That they should were inclined to condemn or absolve. Sibe punished who suffer death under a false lentům : of the shades. charge or accusation, may at first view ap 434. Mæsti : the sad-melancholy. pear unjust. Though they werc innocent 435. Insontes : innocent, in other respects. of the crime for which they were condemn 436. Quàm vellent: how willing they now ed, it does not follow that they were wholly are to bear, &c. Alto æthere : in the upper free from fault, and innocent in their lives. world-in the regions of light. And according to the doctrine of the Platonic 438. Fata. This is the common reading. philosophy, none could have access to the Heyne reads Fas, and informs us that HeinElysian fields till their stains and pollutions sius, Servius, and Donatus, do the same. were purged away. It became necessary, Inamabilis : hateful-odious. therefore, that they should undergo a degree 439. Styr : it was said to flow nine times

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Nec procul hinc, partem fusi monstrantur in omnem
Lugentes campi: sic illos nomine dicunt.

441
442. Hìc seci ti cal Hìc, quos durus amor crudeli tabe peredit,
les celant, et myrtea syl- Secreti celant calles, et myrtea circùm
ra circum-tegit eos, quos Sylva tegit: curæ non ipsâ in morte relinquunt.
durus

His Phædram Procrinque locis, mæstamque Eriphylen 446. Æneas cernit Crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera cernit,

446 Phædram

Evadnenque, et Pasiphaën. His Laodamia
It comes; et, juvenis quondam, nunc fæmina, Cæneus,
Rursùs et in veterem fato revoluta figuram.

Inter quas Phænissa recens à vulnere Dido 450
451. Juxta quam, ut Errabat sylvâ in magnâ : quam Troïus heros
primùm Troïus heros Ut primùm juxta stetit, agnovitque per umbram
stetit,
453. Talem qualem,

Obscuram ; qualem primo qui surgere mense qui aut videt

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Aut videt, aut vidisse putat, per nubila lunam;

Demisit lachrymas, dulcique affatus amore est: 455
456. Ergò verus nun- Infelix Dido! verus mihi nuntius ergò
tius venerat mihi te esse Venerat, extinctam, ferroque extrema secutam ?
extinctan, secutamque
extrema ferro?

Funeris heu tibi causa fui! per sidera juro,
459. Et per fidem, si Per Superos, et, si qua fides tellure sub imå est,
Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.

460
Sed me jussa Deûm, quæ nunc has ire per umbras,

Per loca senta situ cogunt, noctemque profundam, arend ne

NOTES.

qua fides

eta mold

around the realms of Pluto. Fusi: spread 447. Evadnen. She was the daughter of extending in every direction.

Mars, and wife of Capaneus. Her husband 445. Phædram. She was the daughter of being slain in battle; while she was perMinos, and wife of Theseus. She fell in forming his funeral rites, she threw herself love with her step-son Hippolytus, who re on the pic, and was consumed with him. fused to comply with her request. Where- Laodamia. She was the daughter of Acasupon, she accused him to her husband of tus, and wife of Protesilaus, who was the offering violence to her. Upon this he slew fit of the Greeks slain in the Trojan war. him with his own hand. As soon as she · When she heard the news of her husband's heard of this, she was so stung with remorse death, nothing would satisfy her, but the that she finally hung herself Procrin. Pro- 'sight of his ghost, which the gods granted cris was the daughter of Erechtheus, king to her: she breathed out her soul in the of Athens, and wife of Cephalus. She lost fond embraces of the phantom. Pasiphaën. her life through joalousy of her husband. See 224. supra. Extrema: in the sense of She watched hiin one day in the woods, mortem. Secutam: esse is understood. To where he was wont to go a hunting, and have brought death upon yourself, &c. overheard him, in the heat of the day, in

448. Cæneus. voking the cool breeze, and repeating to Elatheus, one of the Lapithe. By subject

Cænis, the daughter of himself, aura veni. She imagined he was calling his mistress; and, coming from the ing herself to the embrace of Neptune, she place of her concealment to make the dis- obtained from him the change of her sex;

and that she should never be wounded by covery, she made the bushes move; which Cephalus observing, and taking her for some

After the change had been efbeast of prey, slew her with a javelin. Eri

fected, Cæneus distinguished himself in the phylen. She was the wife of Amphiaraus, much elated with pride, that he despised the

wars against the Centaurs, and became so the prophet of Argos. Foresceing that he should die if he went to the Theban war

gods themselves. Whereupon, they deteragainst Eteocles, he sought to conceal him- that is, become a woman again. Hence,

mined he should return to his former sex, self; but was discovered by his wife, who was bribed by Polynices, the brother of revoluta fato : changed by fate. Eteocles, with a golden necklace. He was

453. Primo mense : in the first of her forced to the war, and perished by an earth- monthly course-soon after her change, quake as he was fighting valiantly. His when her light is feeble. son Alemæon revenged his death by killing 462. Senta: in the sense of sparsa vel -iphyle, his mother.

plena. A metaphor taken from lands in a

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Imperiis egêre suis : nec credere quivi,
Hunc tantum tibi me discessu ferre dolorem.
Siste gradum, teque aspectu ne subtrahe nostro. 465.
Quem fugis ? extremum fato quod te alloquor hoc est..

466. Hoc est extre. Talibus Æneas ardentem et torva tuentem gazing

mum tempus permissum Lenibat dictis animum, lachrymasque ciebat.

fato, quod alloquor te.

Talibus dictis Æneas
Illa solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat :

lenibat ejus animum ar-
Nec magis incepto vultum sermone movetur, 470 dentem, et tuenteni tor-
Quàm si dura silex, aut stet Marpesia cautes.
Tandem corripuit sese, atque inimica refugit
In nemus umbriferum ; conjux ubi pristinus illi
Respondet curis, æquatque Sichæus amorem.
Nec minùs Æneas casu percussus iniquo,

475
Prosequitur lachrymans longè, et miseratur euntem.

Inde datum molitur iter. Jamque arva tenebant
Ultima, quæ bello clari secreta frequentant.

478. Quæ secreta viri

clari bello frequentant.
Hìc illi occurrit Tydeus, hìc inclytus armis
Parthenopæus, et Adrasti pallentis imago.

480
Hic multùm fleti ad superos, belloque caduci full
Dardanidæ : quos ille omnes longo ordine cernens,
Ingemuit: Glaucumque, Medontaque, Thersilochumque,
Tres Antenoridas: Cererique sacrum Polybeten,
Idæumque, etiam currus, etiam arma tenentem. 485
Circuinstant animæ dextrâ lævâque frequentes.

487. Nec satis est 228 Nec vidisse seniel satis est : juvat usque morari,

vidisse eum seinel :

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NOTES.

state of neglect-covered with weeds and generals who commanded at the Theban filthiness.

war, about thirty years before the siege of 463. Quivi : in the sense of polui.

Troy. He was the father of the famous 466. Quod. If he could read quo, in the Diomede, and was slain by Menalippus the abl, the passage would be easier. Ruæus Theban, at the siege of Thebes. Parthenotakes it in that sense: quo tecum loquor, dys paus was the son of Meleager and Atalanta. he.

He went to the Thehan war when very 467. Talibus dictis Æneas : in such words young. It is said he afterward died at the

Adrastus was Æneas was soothing her soul, &c. Torva: siege of Troy. Adrasli. an adj. of the neu. plu, of lorvus, taken as

father-in-law both to Tydeus and Polynices. an adverb in imitation of the Greeks, the Having lost a numerous army before Thebes, same as lortè.

he was forced to raise the siege of that city, 469. Aversa : turned from him. Rumus His ghost, or shade, is called pale, because

and retreat precipitately to his own country. says, infensa ; but that idea is expressed by paleness is a companion of flight and fear. inimica, infra. 470. Movelur rullum : moved with regard world—the living. Mullùm: in the sense of

481. Superos : those above-the upper to her countenance: a Grecism. This inverview of Æneas and Dido, is in imitation

valdè. of the Odyssey, where the poet brings Ulys- Hippolochus, and grandscn of ‘he famous

483. Glaucum. Glaucus was the son of ses and Ajax together in the infernal regions. Bellerophon. He, with Sarpedon, commandThe

conduct of Dido is copied from that of ed the Lycian troops in the Trojan war. Ajax. Longinus observes that the silence of Ajax is inore sublime than any words Thersilochus. He was of Macedonia, in the could have been.

confines of Thrace. He was slain by Arhil.

les. Ties Antenoridas: the three sons of 471. Marpesia: an adj. from Marpesus, a Antenor. Homer calls them, Polybus, Agemountain on the island of Par one of the

nor, and Acanius. Idæum. He was the Cyclades, famous for its white marble.

charioteer of Priam. 472. Inimica : hating—detesting him. 484. Sacrum: in the sense of sacerdotem.

475. Iniquo casu : in the sense of acerba Homer makes no mention of Polybales morte. Nec minus : nevertheless.

among the Trojans. He mentions hiin 477. Molilur: in the sense of prosequitur. among the Greeks, under the name of Po. 479. Tydeus. Tydeus was one of those lypætes, the son of Pirilhoüs.

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Et conferre gradum, et veniendi discere causas.
At Danaûm proceres, Agamemnoniæque phalanges,
Ut vidêre virum, fulgentiaque arma per umbras,

490 491. Cæperunt trepi- Ingenti trepidare metu : pars vertere terga, dare ingenti metu: pars Ceu quondam petiêre rates : pars tollere vocem cæpit vertere.

Exiguam : inceptus clamor frustratur hiantes.

Atque hìc Priamiden laniatum corpore toto 495. Lacerum crude- Desphobum vidit, lacerum crudeliter ora ; bereft

495 liter quoad ora, ora, am- Ora, manusque ambas, populataque tempora raptis basque manus, tempora. Auribus, et truncas inhonesto vulnere nares, que populata

Vix adeò agnovit pavitantem, et dira tegentem
Supplicia: et notis compellat vocibus ultrò :

Deiphobe armipotens, genus alto à sanguine Teucri, 501. Quis optavit su- Quis tam crudeles optavit sumere pænas ?

501 mere de te tam crudeles Cui tantum de te licuit ? Mihi fama suprema pænas? Cui licuit su

Nocte tulit, fessum vastâ te cæde Pelasgûm mere tantuin supplicii de te?

Procubuisse super confusæ stragis acervum.

Tunc egomet tumulum Rhæteo in litore inanem 505 508. Et decedens po- Cons

itui, et magnâ Manes ter voce vocavi. nere te sepultum patriâ Nomen et arma locum servant. Te, amice, nequivi 509. Priamides ait : Conspicere, et patriâ decedens

ponere

terrâ. Nihil, ô amice, relictum Ad quæ Priamides : Nihil ô tibi, amice, relictum est . Omnia Deïphobo solvisti, et funeris umbris:

510 511. Hæc vulnera tan- Sed me fata mea et scelus exitiale Lacænæ quam monumenta ejus His mersere malis : illa hæc monumenta reliquit. amoris

513. Namque nósti, Namque, ut supremam falsa inter gwadia noctem ut egerimus

Egerimus, nôsti ; et nimiùm meminisse necesse est;

terrâ

est

NOTES.

488. Conferre gradum : to meet him—to vel spoliata. Raptis : in the sense of sectis. come in close conference with him: a phrase. When the concluding word of a preceding Usyue : in the sense of diu.

lin is repeated in the beginning of the fol. 489. Phalanges: in the sense of turma. lowing line, the figure is called anadiplosis.

492. Ceu quondam, &c. The account of It is usually emphatical, as in the present the fight to which the poet here alludes, is instance. Truncas : cut-gashed. given, Iliad 15. The Trojans under Hector 499. Supplicia : in the sense of vulnera drove the Greeks, forced their entrench. vel plagus. Nolis : familiar. Or it may ments, pursued them to their ships, and set have reference to their speaking the same them on fire.

language. This is the sense in which Ru. 493. Clamor inceptus : the cry begun, æus takes it : cognita voce, says he. frustrates them, gaping and opening their 500. Genus : offspring. It is placed in throats. They were so terrified at the sight apposition with Deïphobe. of Æneas, as to be unable to finish the 504. Confusæ stragis: of mingled carscream which they had begun. It perished in their throats. Ruæus takes frustratur in 507. Nomen et arma : by commutatio, for the sense of fallit.

locus servat nomen el arma : the place pre495. Deiphobum. Deïphobus was the son serves your name and arins. of Priam, and married Helen after the death 509. Ad quæ. Ruæus, and some others, of Paris. What is here said of his being read atque hic. Heyne and Valpy read, ad cruelly mangled, is agreeable to the acrount quæ. Heinsius and Burmannus read, ud given by Diclys Cretensis. He was slain by quæ hæc. Menelaus. This representation of Deïpho- 510. Funeris : the corpsc, or dead body bus' mangled shade or ghost, is according itself. to the philosophy of Plato, who taught that 511. Lacænæ : of Helen-of the Lacedæthe dead retain the same marks and blernish- monian. es in their bodies, which they had when 512. Illa reliquit. she hath left those scars alive.

and wounds, which you sce, as monuments 496. Populata : in the sense of privata of her love.

cases.

C'ùm fatalis equus saltu super ardua venit

515
Pergama, et armatum peditem gravis attulit alvo.
Illa chorum simulans, evantes orgia circùm welt
Ducebat Phrygias : flammam media ipsa tenebat

518. Ducebat PhryIngentem, et summâ Danaos ex arce vocabat.

gias fæminas, erantcs Turn me confectum curis, somnoque gravatum

520

circùm orgia
Infelix habuit thalamus, pressitque jacentem
Dulcis et alta quies, placidæque simillima morti.
Egregia intereà conjux arma omnia tectis
Emovet, et fidum capiti subduxerat ensem.
Intra tecta vocat Menelaum, et limina pardit. 525
Scilicet id magnum sperans fore munus amanti,

526. Sperans id fore Et famam exstingui veterum sic posse malorum. magnum munus arnanti,

et famam
Quid moror ? irrumpunt thalano.; comes additur unà
Hortator scelerum Ãolides. Dî, talia Graiis
; si

530
hivy Sed te qui vivum casus, age, fare vicissim,
Attulerint: pelagine venis erroribus actus ?

532. Venis-ne huc ac

tus erroribus
An monitu Divûm ? an quæ te fortuna fatigat,
Ut tristes sinè sole domos, loca turbida, adires ?

Hâc vice sermonum roseis Aurora quadrigis 535

NOTES.

515. Cùm fatalis, &c. See Æn. fi. 234. under his head. What befell Helen after et sequens.

the capture of Troy is not certain. Some 517. Evantes : shouting in praise of Bac- say she returned to Sparta, and passed her chus. The word is of Greek derivation; days with Menelaus; and was buried with and is applied to the bacchanals, or devotees him in the same tomb. Others say, after his of the god Bacchus. Evantes orgia: ex more death, being banished from Sparta, she fled orgiorum, says Heyne.

to Rhodes, where she died. Homer informs 519. Vorabat. Helen made signals from us, Odys. iv. 277, that Helen went three the walls to the Greeks, that all things were times round the wooden horse, calling each ready for the assault. Her leading the of the Greeks by name. To this the poet Phrygian women around the city, as if in alludes, 517. supra. honor of Bacchus, the giver of joy, on ac- 526. Amanti : to her husband-viz. Mecount of the departure of their enemies, nelaus. Munis : favor-gift. was mere pretence-mere deception to cover

527. Et famam: and that the infamy of her plans.

her former crimes might in this way be blot521. Infelix: unhappy; because he was ted out. Famam: in the sense of infamiam. slain in it, and thereby prevented from join

529. Æolides. This is a reproachful name ing his counrades in arms, and avenging given to Ulysses. It insinuates that he was their falling country. Pressit. His sleep not the son of Laërtes, but of Sisyphus, the was so sound, that it seemed to press him down like a great weight, lying upon him.

son of Æolus, with whom his mother Anti

clea is said to have been familiar.
523. Egregia conjut : precious wife. This
is spoken ironically. The meaning is, odi-

530. Instaurate: in the sense of reddite. ous-abominable.

532. Erruribus : dangers. Davidson ren524. Subduxerat : and had withdrawn ders it casualties. my faithful sword from my head. It was a 533. Quæ fortuna : what (adverse) fortune custom among the warriors to lay their forces or impels you, that, &c. swords under their heads when they slept. 534. Turbida : in the sense of obscura, vel

525. Vocat Menelaum : she called Mene- tenebrosa. laus into the house, &c. After the death of 535. Hâc vice sermonum: during the course Paris, Helen married Deïphobus, his brother. (or change) of conversation, the sun in his It is said she endeavored to be reconciled to rosy chariot had now passed, &c. By Auher first husband, by aiding the Grecian rora, here, we are undoubtedly to under

Here she calls to him, and opens the stand the sun. Quadrigis : properly, a chadour. That Deïphobus' might fall an easy riot drawn by four horses. Ruxus thinks proy, she had previously removed all the the middle of the day is here meant by arnis from the house, and his sword from medium acem; and not the middle of the

arms.

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