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Could the soothsayers interpret the omen, What did he call it? or prodigy, in a satisfactory manner?
In the mean time, did the ghost of his What was it afterward understood to father appear to him in a vision ? point out?
What direction did it give him? What was the fifth game?
Having repaired his feet, to what place Can you give me an account of this ca did he direct his course ? valcade?
In his voyage, did he lose his pilot over Who were the leaders ?
board ? How many turing, or companies, were How was that effected, and by whom? there ?
Who were the Sirenes?
What were they said to do?
How did Ulysses escape when he ap On what kind of business was she usu- proached their shores ? ally employed ?
What islands did they inhabit? How many ships were destroyed ?
What were they supposed to be? How was the fire finally extinguished ? What became of them at last?
What was the design of the Trojan wo After his arrival in Italy, did Æneas folie men in burning their ships ?
low the direction of his father? Were they weary of their long voyage ? Who conducted him to the regions be
What effect had the loss of these ships low? upon the mind of Æneas ?
Who was this Sibyl. What course was he advised to pursue Where did she reside? by Nautes ?
What was the place whence she delivered Did he found a city for those who were her predictions ? willing to remain in Sicily?
By what god was she inspired
This is one of those books which Virgil read in the presence of Augustus and Octavia.
The subject is the desceat of Æneas to the infernal regions. After his arrival in Italy, he repaired immediately to the cave of the Sibyl, where he learned the difficulties that awaited him before his peaceful settlement. He then consults her about his intended descent. She informed him of the danger of the enterprise, and that he must; in the first place, obtain a golden bough from a certain tree which was sacred to Hecate. She then informs him that one of his friends lay dead on the shore, and directs him to perform his funeral rites, and afterward come and offer sacrifice. He returned to his companions, and found Misenus dead. Having found the golden bough, he goes to the Sibyl, who conducts him down to hell. She describes to him the various scenes of those regions as they pass along, and shows him the several apartments; in one of which he sees Dido. He attempts to address her, but she turns from him in proud disdain. He then proceeds till he conies to the residence of his father ; who explains to him the nature of transmigration according to the notion of Pythagoras, and shows him the illustrious race of heroes that should descend from him. After which he returns to the upper regions, through the ivory gate, and revisits his companions. This book j- entirely episodical, and interrupts the thread of the story. It is probable
that Virgil took the hint of conducting his hero to the regions of the dead, from Hercules, Orpheus, Ulysses, and others, who had visited them before. This gave him an opportunity of elucidating the economy of those regions according to the doctrines of Pythagoras, Plato, and other philosophers; of inculcating, in the most forcible manner." principles of morality and religion ; of developing the leading incidents of Roman his
tory, and of flattering the vanity of his countrymen, and his prince. Bishop Warburton considers this book as an allegorical representation of the Eleusinian
Mysteries, at one time very much celebrated through Greece. But there is a difficulty in this interpretation. A considerable portion of the book cannot be considered in that light : for it contains a biographical sketch of the principal characters, from Æneas down to the time of Augustus, and embraces the most important events connected with the Roman governinent. Besides, it is not certain that Virgil was ever initiated into those mysteries; and, a'it were, it is doing injustice to his character to suppose he would
divulge them; when every one that was admitted, bound himself, in the most solemn manner, to keep them secret, and from the knowledge of the vulgar. Heyne observes there is some resemblance between the mysteries and the machinery of the poet; but to consider the book as an allegory, destroys the force and beauty of the whole. Perit tandem omnis epica vis et poëtica suavitas, si res à poëta narrata ad allegoriam revocetur, Those who would see the substance of the arguments on both sides, may consult M'Knight on the Epistles introduction to the epistle to the Ephesians.
SIC fatur lachrymans, classique immittit habenas :
Litus in Hesperium : quærit pars semina flammæ,
At pius Æneas arces, quibus altus Apollo 10. Im'naneque au- Præsidet, horrendæque procul secreta Sibyllæ, 10 trum, secreta Sibyllæ Antrum immane, petit : magnam cui mentem animumque horrendæ procul; cui Delius vates inspirat
Delius inspirat vates, aperitque futura.
Dædalus, ut fama est, fugiens Minoïa regna,
15 Insuetum per iter gelidas enavit ad Arctos,
1. Sic fatur. This refers to what he said keeps her consultors at an awful distance, ir the two last lines of the preceding book. and fences the approaches to her cave with
nemiùm confise, &c. Immittit: he gives Procul, O procul este, profani! full reins to his feet. It implies that the 11. Cui magnam: whose great mind and wind was fair, and that the ships were un soul Apollo inspires. Cui has the sense of der full sail.
cujus. Mens properly signifies the underThis is a common metaphor, taken from standing—animus, the soul. Delius vates : the horse and his rider.
Apollo. He is called Detian from Delos, 2. Euboïcis : an adj. of Eubea, an island the place of his birth. in the Ægean sea, lying to the cast of 13. Trivia. Trivia, a name of Diana. Achaia; hodie, Negropont. From hence Aurea tecta. This was the temple built to Megasthenes, of the city of Chalcis, trans- Apollo by Dædulus. planted a colony into Italy, and built Cuma, 14. Dædalus. An Athenian artist, who, a town in Campania. Hence, Euboïcis oris having put to death Perdix, his sister's son, Cumarum.
for rivalling him in his art, Aed to Crete : 4. Anchora fundabat : the anchor moored where he soon incurred the displeasure of the ships. Fundabat : in the sense of tene- Minos, then king of that island, for assisting bal.
his wife Pasiphaë, in carrying on her amours 5. Puppes : here used in its appropriate with Taurus : and, on that account, was sense the sterns of the ships.
confined with his son Icarus in a tower, 6. Semina : the seeds—the sparks of fire. He escaped, however, by the help of wings.
8. Rapit : plunders the wood; for the He flew into Sicily, according to Pausanias purpose of collecting fuel. Ruæus says, col- and Diodorus ; but, according to Virgil and ligit ligna arborum. Densa tecta, &c. is put others, to Cuma, where he built-this temple in apposition with sylvas.
to Apollo, for conducting him safe in his 9. Arces : in the sense of templum. We flight through the airy element. are informed that a temple was built to 16. Enavit. There is such a similitude Apollo in this place, in the form of a cave, between sailing or swimming, and Aying, that seemed to be hollowed out of a rock. that the terms which properly belong to the In the inmost part of this temple, was the one, are indiscriminately applied to the grotto, or cell, of the Sibyl.
other. A ship is said to fly through the li40. Horrendæ procul. The avenues and quid element, and Mercury is said to swim approaches to her cell were awful and gloomy, through the air. An. iv. 245. And Dædafor a considerable distance. It is the pecu- lus, on wings, swalın to the cold north, and
ir characteristic of this Sibyl, that she consecrated remigium alarum, those wings
Chalcidicâque levis tandem superadstitit arce.
regens filo vestigia. Tu quoque magnam Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes.
20. In foribus lcthum Androgei sculptum eral: tum Cecropidæ jussi quotannis pendere penas, () miseruin ! nempe, bis septena corpora
suorum natorum 25
24. Hic inest crudelis amor tauri, Pasiphaë que suppôsta furto, Minotaurusque mixtum genus, biformisque proles, monumenta nefande
31. Si dolor patris
on which he had cut his way through the side arose the island of Crete-Pasaphaë, air, as oars divide the water. But what gives the wife of Minos—the Minotaur—the Laa greater propriety to these phrases, is, that byrinth, and the ingenious workmen (DæDædalus was the inventor of navigation by dalus) explaining its mysteries to Theseus; the use of sails; and that his wings were all these were in carved work. Posuit : in nothing else than the sails of the ship, in the sense of ædificavit. Pendere pænas : to which he escaped from Crete. Enavil : in make retribution or satisfaction for the the sense of adrolavit.
criine. 17. Chalcidica: an adj. from Chalcis, a 21. Cecropidæ : the Athenians so called city of Eubea. See 2. supra. Chalcidica from Cecrops, their first king. He built the arce: the city of Cumæ. Here Dædalus city of Athens, and called it Cecropia. first landed in Italy; and built the temple 23. Gnossia tellus : Crete. Gnossia : an to Apollo, which Æneas is about to enter. adj. from Gnossus, a city of that island. It is said that he first went to Sardania, and 24. Amor tauri. Pasiphaë, the wife of from thence to Italy. Redditus : having Minos, and daughter of the Sun, was fabled arrived.
to have fallen in love with a beautiful bull, 20. Androgeï: gen. of Androgeus. He and to have gratified hier passion by a cunwas the son of Minos; and frequenting the trivance of Dædalus, who shut her up in a public games at Athens, contracted a friend- wooden cow. From this unnatural conship with the sons of Pallas, brother to nexion sprang the Minotaur, a monster half Ægeus, king of Athens. Not having as yet man and half bull, that fed on human flesh; acknowledged Theseus to be his son; and and devoured the Athenian youth, whom suspecting Androgeus to have entered into a Minos shut up in the Labyrinth. The truth conspiracy with his nephew to dethrone him, of the story is this: Pasiphaë fell in love Ægeus employed assassins to take away his with a nobleman of the court, whose name life. To revenge this atrocious deed, Minos was Taurus; and made Dædalus her confimade war upon him, and forced him to sue dant, who kept it concealed, and even lent for peace. This was granted on the condi- his house to the lovers. Supposita furto. tion that he should every year, or, as others This refers to Pasiphaë's being shut up in say, every third, or ninth year, pay a tax of the wooden cow that she might receive the seven of their young men, and as many vir- embrace of the bull-substituted through gins, who were chosen by lot as victims, for artifice or contrivance in the room of a cow. the preservation of their country. Some 26. Inest: in the sense of sculptus est. say that Androgeus having been repeatedly Veneris nefandæ: of execrable lust. victorious at the public games of Greece, 27. Labor domûs, &c. Ry these we are excited the envy and jealousy of some per to understand the Labyrinth. See Æn. v. sons, who procured his death. However 588. the case may be, his death brought upon the 28. Miseratus magnum: Dædalus, pitying Athenians a war with Minos, his father, then the great love of the queen, discovers (to king of Crete.
Theseus) the deception and intricacies of The death of Androgưus was represented the structure, &c. Theseus, the son of on the gates or doors of the temple, the Ægeus, king of Athens, proposed to go to Athenian youth sent as an expiation for the Crete, along with the victims, to fight the barbarous deed, and the urn from which Minotaur in the Labyrinth. Ariadne, the the fatal lots were drawn. On the opposite daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë, who
Bis conatus erat casus effingere in auro.
Bis patriæ cecidêre manus. Quin protinùs omnia 34. Ni Achates pre- Perlegerent oculis ; ni jam præmissus Achates missus ad Sibyllam ab Afforet; atque unà Phæbi 'l'riviæque sacerdos, 35 Ænea, jam afforet, at Deiphobe Glauci, fatur quæ talia regi: que unà Deiphobe filia Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit Glauci, sacerdos
Nunc grege de intacto septem mactare juvencos
Præstiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentes. 40. Sacerdos affata Talibus affata Æneam, nec sacra morantur 40 Æneam talibus verbis Jussa viri, Teucros vocat alta in templa sacerdos. vocat Teucros
Excisum Euboïcæ latus ingens rupis in antrum; 41. Ingens latus Euboicæ rupis excisum est Quò lati ducunt aditus centum, ostia centum ; in
Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibyllæ,
Ventum erat ad limen, cùm virgo, Poscere fata 45 46. Cui fanti talia an- Tempus, ait : Deus, ecce, Deus ! Cui talia fanti te fores, subito non est Ante fores, subitò non vultus, non color unus, unus vultus, non unus color; come non man
Non comptæ mansêre comæ : sed pectus anhelum, sêre comptæ; sed pectus Et rabie fera corda tument; majorque videri, anhelum est, et ejus fera Nec mortale sonans : afflata est numine quando 50 corda rabie : Jam propiore Dei.
Cessas in vota precesque, cæpitque videri major Tros, ait, Ænea ? cessas ? neque enim antè dehiscent vitá, nec vox ejus est so
Attonitæ magna ora domûs. Et talia fata, nans mortale.
52. Antè quàm emi- Conticuit. Gelidus Teucris per dura cucurrit stris vota precesque.
Ossa tremor; fuditque preces rex pectore ab imo:
Virgil here calls regina, fell in love with The- rious sculpture of the temple, had not Achaseus, and taught him how to vanquish the tes, &c. Protinus : in the sense of in ordine. Minotaur, and also gave him a clew, which Perlegerent : in the sense of perlegissent. she had received from Dædalus, whereby he 35. Afforet: in the sense of redivisset. could extricate himself from the Labyrinth. 38. Intacto : untouched by the yoke. It was agreed as a condition of the combat, 39. Bidentes : in the sense of oves. that if Theseus killed the Minotaur, the 40. Nec viri morantur: nor do the men Athenian youths should be released, and his (the Trojans) delay to perform her sacred country freed from that humiliating condi- commands concerning offering sacrifice. Sation. Theseus was victorious. By the clew cerdos. The daughter of Glaucus. She was we are to understand the plan and contri- the priestess, attendant upon the Sibyl, who vance of the Labyrinth. Enim: in the was at this time in her cell or cave. Antrum. sense of equidem.
This is the same with alta templa in the pre29. Resolvit: in the sense of explicuit. ceding line. By this we are not to understand 30. Cæca: in the sense of incerta. the temple of Apollo already mentioned,
31. Icare. Icarus, as the fable goes, was but the residence of the Sibyl-her cave, the son and associate of Dædalus. He at- here called templum. teinpted to make his escape from Crete by 45. Ventum erat : they had come to the the help of wings, but being unable to ma entrance of the cave, when, &c. Fata: in nage them with dexterity, he wandered from the sense of oracula. Est is understood with his way, and fell into the Ægean sea, and tempus. was drowned. He gave name to Icarus, an 46. Ecce, Deus: behold, the god, the god island between Samos and Mycene.
is here- Apollo. 33. Patriæ manus cecidere. Dedalus at 47. Subitò non vultus : suddenly her countetempted to represent the calamity (casus) of nance changes, and her color comes and goes. Icarns, but his grief and sorrow revented 50. Quando jam afflata est : when now she him. He attempted it twice, and twice his is inspired with a nearer influence of the god hands failed; otherwise Icarus would have Apollo. Cessas : dost thou delay to go into made a distinguished figure in the carved
prayers ? Veque: in the sense of work.
34. Perlegerent omnia : the Trojans would 57. Qui dirêxti Dardana tela : who didst Lave examined ali the carved work and cu. direct the Trojan darts, and the hands of
Dardana qui Paridis dirêxti tela manusque
59. Te duce, intravi Massylûm gentes, prætentaque Syrtibus arva : 60 tot maria obeuntia mugJam tandem Italiæ fugientis prendimus oras.
Massylûm penitùs reHac Trojana tenus fuerit fortuna secuta.
66. Da Teucros, erRegna meis fatis, Latio considere Teucros,
rantesque Deos, agitaErrantesque Deos, agitataque numina Trojæ.
taque numina Troja Tum Phæbo et Triviæ solido de marmore templa
considere in Latio, non
75. Ne turbata volent Ne turbata volent rapidis ludibria ventis :
75 Ipsa canas, oro. Finem dedit ore loquendi.
tanquam ludibria rapidis
ventis: oro ut tu ipsa At, Phæbi nondum patiens immanis in antro
canas ea ec ore.
Paris, against the body of Achilles. It is institute a house or temple. Our language said that Achilles was killed by Paris in the will not admit of this liberty and freedom of temple of Apollo, at Troy.
expression. See Æn. vii. 431, and Æn. viii. 57. Dirêxti : for direzisti, by syncope. 410. Some copies have constituam. 59. Penitùs repôstas: far remote.
71. Te quoque magna: a spacious sanc60. Massylûm. The Massyli, a people of tuary too awaits thee in our realms. This Africa, put for the Africans in general, or alludes to the shrine or sanctuary in the for the Carthaginians particular. See temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, where the Æn. iv. 483. Prælenta : lying before. Arva: Sibylline books were kept in a stone chest the la.ads—country.
under ground. Fifteen persons, called Quin61. Italiæ fugientis: the nearer they ap- decemviri, were appointed to take care of proached to Italy, new obstructions arose, them, and to consult them in the affairs of which seemed to prevent access to it, as if it state. They were chosen from the Patrifled from them.
cians, and had great influence in public af62. Hactenus : hitherto—thus far. It is fairs. It was a very easy matter to make separated by tmesis, for the sake of the verse. these Sibylline books speak what language Trojano fortuna :'id est, adversa fortuna. they pleased.
64. Dique Deæque omnes, quibus : ye 72. Sortes: in the sense of oracula. Dicta: gods and goddesses all, to whom Ilium and in the sense of declarala. the great glory of Troy was offensive, it is 74. Ne manda: do not commit, &c. It just that you too, &c. The deities here was the custom of this Sibyl to write her meant were Juno, Minerva, and Neptune. prophetic responses upon the leaves of the Obstitit: invisa sunt, says Heyne.
palm tree. Before the invention of parch68. Agitata numina : persecuted deities ment and paper, there was no better mateof Troy
rial for writing than the leaves and bark of 70. Instituam Phæbo: I will build to trees. Alma : O holy prophetess. Phæbus and Diana temples of solid marble, 77. Nondum patiens, &c. The meaning and institute festival days, &c. Here is an is this: the Sibyl was not docile and suballusion to the Ludi Apollinares, which were missive (patiens) to Phæbus, and would not instituted in the first Punic war, and to the utter oracles according to his will, but rebuilding of a teinple to Apollo by Augustus, sisted him until he had subdued her ferocious after his victory over Anthony and Cleopa- temper and formed her to his purposes by tra, at Actium. Heyne reads templum, after force and restraint. Excussisse : the perf. Heinsius. The common reading is templa. in the sense of the pres. The terms here Virgil here uses the verb instituam with two used are taken from the horse and the rider. anuns, when in strict propriety it can apply The Sibyl is compared to the former; and to one of them only. We can say, instituie Apollo, breaking her and rendering her festivals, but it is quite another thing to say, missive and obedient to him, to the