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Et Diræ ultrices, et Di morientis Elisa,

610 Accipite hæc, meritumque malis advertite numen, Et nostras audite preces. Si tangere portus

612. Si necesse Infandum caput, ac terris adnare necesse est ;

infandum caput tangere Et sic fata Jovis poscunt: hic terminus hæret :

portus, ac At bello audacis populi vexatus et armis,

615 615. At vexatus bello Finibus extorris, complexu avulsus Jüli,

et armis audacis populi,

extorris suis finibus, Auxilium imploret, videatque indigna suorum

avulsus complexû lüli
Funera : nec, cùm se sub leges pacis iniquæ
Tradiderit, regno aut optatâ luce fruatur;
Sed cadat ante diem, mediâque inhumatus arenâ. 620
Hæc precor: hanc vocem extremam cum sanguine

Tum vos, Ô Tyrii, stirpem et genus omne futurum
Exercete odiis : cinerique hæc mittite nostro
Munera : nullus amor populis, nec fædera sunto.

624. Esto nullus amor Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor;

625 his populis, nec sunto Qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, Nunc, olim, quocunque dabunt se tempore vires.

628. Imprecor litora

contraria litoribus, unLitora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas

das contrarias fluctibus, Imprecor, arma armis : pungent ipsique nepotes. arma contraria arinis :


ways met.

air with shrieks and howlings. Nocturnis this treaty, in a war with the Tuscans, he triviis. The epithet nocturnis is used, be was · himself slain (ut plerique tradunt) by cause the rites of Hecate were celebrated Mezentius their king, on the banks of the in the night, and in a place where three river Numicus, where his body was left unSee 511, supra.

buried, and finally carried off by its waters, 611. Advertite : turn a due regard to my and never more seen. The Romans and misfortunes. Ruæus and others understand Carthaginians were bitter enemies to each by malis, the wicked, to wit, the Trojans. other: no league, no religious obligations, But this seems not to agree with the tenor could bind them in peace; and after Hanof the subject. Ruæus says : applicate nu nibal arose, he proved himself Dido's avenmen meritum à sceleratis huc. Heyne, on the ger. He entered Italy with fire and sword : other hand, says: advertite vestrum numen the Roman armies fled before him; and (vim et polestatem) contra improbos et impios Rome itself was providentially saved from Trojanos. Davidson renders the words : his conquering arms. turn your divine regard to my wrongs. 617. Indigna: cruel-undeserved.

613. Caput : properly, the head ; by sy 620. Cadat ante diem: let him fall before nec. the whole body-here, Æneas.

his time-let him die an untimely death. 614. Hæret : in the sense of fixus sit. 621. Vocem : in the sense of verba.

615. Al bello vexatus. It was a prevailing 623. Mittite hæc: present these offerings opinion among the ancients, that the pray; to my ashes. This is said in allusion to the ers of the dying were generally heard, and sacrifices that were offered to the dead. their last words prophetic. Thus Virgil They were usually poured upon the tomb, makes Dido imprecate upon Æneas a series

and consisted of milk, wine, and blood. of misfortunes, which actually had their Exercete : in the sense of persequimini. accomplishment in his own person, or in his posterity. After his arrival in Italy, he

625. Exoriare aliquis ultor : arise some was engaged in a war with Turnus, a bold

avenger from my bones. This is niuch and warlike prince. He was torn from the

more forcible, and shows more fully the embrace of his son, and as it were an exile,

state of her mind, than if she had used the

Allusion is here made to forced to go to Etruria, to implore the assistance of Evander. See Æn. viii. 80. He

Hannibal. Dardanios colonos : simply, the saw his friends slain, and lie dead before his Trojans. Dardanios : an adj. from Dardaeyes. It is said he submitted to the terms

nus, one of the founders of Troy. of a disadvantageous peace with king La

627. Olim. This word signifies the futinus, among which it was stipulated that ture, as well as the past time: now, herethe Trojans should abandon their native after, whenever power shall present itself. language, drop their appellation, and adopt 628. Contraria : in the sense of hostiliche that of the Latins. In the third year after vel infesta.

third person.





Annam Dic




Hæc ait : et partes animum versabat in omnes,

Invisam quærens quàm primùm abrumpere lucem. 632. Affata est Barcen Tum breviter Barcen nutricem affata Sichæi,

Namque suam patriâ antiquâ cinis ater habebat : 634. O chara nutrix, Annam, chara, mihi, nutrix, huc siste sororem: siste

corpus properet fluviali

spargere lymphâ, huc mihi : dic ul prope. Et pecudes secum et monstrata piacula ducat.

Sic veniat: tuque ipsa piâ tege tempora vittà.

Sacra Jovi Stygio quæ ritè incepta paravi, 639. Animus est mihi Perficere est animus, finemque imponere curis; perficere sacra ritè in- Dardaniique roguin capitis permittere flammæ. cepta, quæ paravi Sty- Sic ait. Illa gradum studio celerabat anili. gio Jovi, imponereque

At trepida, et cæptis immanibus effera Dido,

Sanguineam volvens aciem, maculisque trementes
644. Interfusa quoad Interfusa genas, et pallida morte futurâ,
trementes genas macu- Interiora domûs irrumpit limina, et altos
lis, et pallida

Conscendit furibunda rogos, ensemque recludit
Dardanium, non hos quæsitum munus in usus.
Hìc postquam Iliacas vestes notumque cubile
Conspexit, paulum lachrymis et mente morata,
Incubuitque toro, dixitque novissima verba :
Dulces exuviæ, dum fata Deusque sinebant,
Accipite hanc animam, meque his exsolvite curis.
Vixi, et, quem dederat cursum fortuna, peregi :
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago.

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635. Spargere furiali lymphâ: to sprinkle ing, it was called pyra ; and after it was her body with river water. It was a custom consumed, bustum : all of which are derived of the Greeks and Romans to wash their from the Greek. bodies before they performed sacrifice. See 647. Munus non quæsilum : a present not Æn. ii. 719. But this was only observed in designed, or gotten for such a use—for being regard to the superior gods. They sprinkled the instrument of her death. From this, themselves only, when they were tu offer sa some infer that Æneas had made Dido this crifice to the infernal gods, as in the present present of a Trojan sword-Dardanium

ensem. But it is more probable that it was a 636. Pecudes : in the sense of victimas. present from Dido to Æneas; and that in Monsirata : in the sense of jussa, vel desig. his hurry to be gone, he had left it with nala.

other things, in her bedchamber. 638. Slygio Jovi : Pluto. He was the Quæsitum. Ruæus says, of Jupiter, and in the division of the Heyne, paratum, acceptum, datum. world, the infernal regions fell to him by lot. 652. Curis : troubles--sorrows. The epithet Stygius is added, from Slyx, a 654. Et nunc: and now my ghost (imago) well known fabulous river of hell.

shall descend illustrious to the shades be640. Pernillere: to commit the funeral low. Mei : in the sense of mca, agreeing pile of the Trojan (Æneas) to the flames. with imago. Capilis : by synec. for the body, or whole Turnebus thinks the epithet magna is man-here, the Trojan, to wit, Æneas. used, because ghosts make their appearance 641. Studio : zeal-officiousness.

at night, when to the affrighted imagination 642. Irxmunibus : awful-horrid. Eföra : of the spectators, the object appears larger in the sense of efferala.

than life. But this is a very singular opi. 644. Interfusce : spotted-streaked. nion. Dido is speaking in the language of

645. Irrumpit: she rusked into the inner majesty, and setting forth her illustrious apartment of the palace. It is plain that deeds. She had built a flourishing city, limen signifies any part of the house, as and laid the foundation of a powerful kingwell as the threshold. The funeral pile was doin-she had punished her brother for the erected in penetrali side, in the inner apart- death of her husband-she had reigned in ment. See 504, supra.

glory-in a word, she had been happy in 646. Roges. The funeral pile was called every instance, till the Trojan fleet visited ngus, before it was set on fire: while burn her coast. In this situation of mind, nothing

Urbem præclaram statui : mea mænia vidi : 655
Ulta virum, pænas inimico à fratre recepi :
Felix, heu nimiùm felix! si litora tantùm
Nunquam Dardaniæ tetigissent nostra carinæ.
Dixit: et, os impressa toro, moriemur inultæ !
Sed moriamur, ait: sic, sic juvat ire sub umbras. 660

661. Crudelis Darda

nus hauriat hunc ignem Hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto

suis oculis ab alto, et Dardanus, et nostræ secum ferat omina mortis.


Comites aspiDixerat : atque illam media inter talia ferro

ciunt illam collapsa Collapsam aspiciunt coinites, ensemque cruore

ferro inter media talia Spumantem, sparsasque manus.

It clamor ad alta 665 verba, ensemque spu

mantem, manusque ejus Atria: concussam bacchatur fama per urbem :

sparsas cruore Lamentis, gemituque, et fæmineo ululatu

671. Perque culmina Tecta fremunt: resonat magnis plangoribus æther. Deorum Non aliter quàm si immissis ruat hostibus omnis

672. Soror exanimis Carthago, aut antiqua 'Tyros ; flammæque furentes 670 audiit hæc, exterritaque

trepido cursu, fædans Culmina perque hominum volvantur perque Deorum.

ora unguibus, et pectora Audiit exanimis, trepidoque exterrita cursu,

pugnis, ruit per medios, Unguibus ora soror fædans et pectora pugnis,

et clamat morientem soPer medios ruit, ac morientem nomine clamat:

rorem nomine

676. Iste rogus pardHoc illud, germana, fuit? me fraude petebas? 675

bat hoc mihi; isti ignes, Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignes aræque parabant ?

aræque parabant hoc Quid primùm deserta querar ? comitemne sororern

mihi ? Sprevisti moriens ? eadem me ad fata vocâsses,

680. Idem ambas ferro dolor, atque eadem hora tulisset.

etiam his manibus, vo


cavique patrios His etiam struxi manibus, patriosque vocavi 680

você, ut crudelis abesVoce Deos ; sic te ut positâ crudelis abessem ?

sem te sic positâ ? O Extinxstî me teque, soror, populumque, patresque soror, extinxstî me teque

Struxi rogum


can be more natural than for her to conceive 670. Furentes : the furious flames were hør ghost to be of great and illustrious rank, rolling through the houses of men, and the and distinguished even in the other world (temples) of the gods. Culmen is properly above others, as she had been herself dis- the ridge of the house; by synec. put for tinguished in this.

the whole house. 656. Recepi pænas. She had recovered 675. Hoc illud fuit: O sister, was this from her brother her own wealth, and the your design-was this the object you had in treasure for which he murdered her hus- view, in erecting this funeral pile? band. It is with great propriety, therefore, 677. Deserta : being thus abandoned, of she uses the word recepi, when speaking of what shall I first complain? the revenge she had taken of Pygmalion. 678. Fata : in the sense of mortem.

659. Moriemur inultæ: shall I die unre 679. Dolor: pain-ache-anguish. Heyne venged? but let me die. Thus, thus, it de- says, vulnus. lights me to descend to the shades below. 681. Sic positâ : thus lying dead. Inultæ : unrcvenged of Æneas and the Tro 682. Extinzstî : thou hast destroyed me jans. The fatal moment having arrived, and ihyself, &c. Some copies havo exstinxi, the poet represents her to us in the very act in the first person. By this Anna turns the of stabbing herself, by the turn of his verse. reproach from Dido to herself. But most The repetition of the sic sets her before us, commentators prefer the second person. Siplunging the instrument in her breast, and donios patres. By these we are to underthrusting it home with a kind of desperate stand probably the Carthaginian senators, complacency. Impressa os toro : having or the legislative branch of the government. kissed the bed, she said, &c.

It is plain that they are distinguished from 666. Bacchatur: in the sense of discurrit. the body of the people. Extinxsti : by Concussam: in the sense of commolam, vel syn. for extinzisti. Date : in the sense of allonitam.

ferte. Lymphis : in the sense of aqua. 668. Fremunt: in the sense of resonant. This was a rite performed towards the bo

669. Ruat: falls. Ruæus says, subver- dies of the dead by their nearest relations. satur.

Hence the mother of Euryalus regrets that



683. Date aquam ut Sidonios, urbemque tuam. Date, vulnera lymphis abluam vulnera

Abluam; et, extremus si quis super halitus errat,
Ore legam.) Sic fata, gradus evaserat altos,
Semianimemque sinu germanam amplexa fovebat
Cum gemitu, atque atros siccabat veste cruores.
Illa, graves oculos conata attollere, rursus
Deficit : infixum stridet sub pectore vulnus.
Ter sese attollens cubitoque innixa levavit,

Ter revoluta toro est : oculisque errantibus, alto
692. Ingemuitque, ea Quæsivit cælo lucem, ingemuitque repertâ.

Tum Juno omnipotens longum miserata dolorem,
Difficilesque obitus, Irim demisit Olympo,

Quæ luctantem animam nexosque resolveret artus.
696. Nam Proserpina Nam, quia nec fato, meritâ nec morte peribat,
nondum abstulerat illi
davuin crinem vertice,

Sed misera ante diem, subitoque accensa furore; damnaveratque caput

Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem Stygio Orco, quia Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat Orco.

Ergò Iris croceis per cælum roscida pennis, 702. Ego jussa fero Mille trahens varios adverso Sole colores, hunc crinem sacrum Devolat, et supra caput adstitit: hunc ego Diti Diti; solvoque te ab isto

Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solvo. corpore.

705. Omnis calor di. Sic ait: et dextrâ crinem secat. Omnis et unà lapsus est.

Dilapsus calor, atque in ventos vita recessit.





she had not shut his eyes, nor washed his nishment of atrocious conduct. The casuwounds. Æn. ix. 485.

al, or accidental, was, when a person took 684. Siquis extremus : if any last breath away his own life in some way or other: remain, that I inay catch it with my mouth. such an one was said to die before his time. Virgil is here thought to allude to a cere This was the case with Dido. miony among the Greeks and Romans : 697. Furore: passion. Diem : in the when a person was just expiring, the near sense of tempus. est relation put his mouth to his that he 698. Nondum illi : Proserpine had not niight catch the last breath. Ruæus inter- yet plucked for her the yellow lock, &c. prets super by adhuc. Super-errat is evi- The ancients had a notion that none could dently used in the sense of superesset. The die till Proserpine, either in person, or by substitution of esset for errat makes the read- Atropos, had cut a lock of hair from the ing easy. Some copies have esset.

crown of their head. This was considered 688. Conaia : agreeing with Dido. a kind of first-fruits to Pluto. This custom

689. Vulnus stridet: the wound hisses, took its rise from sacrifices: when they used occasioned by the gushing out of the blood. to pluck some of the hairs from the front of Infixum: made.

the victim, and cast them into the fire. 693. Dolorem : pain. Obitus : departure 699. Orco: dat. of Orcus, a name of Pluto. -death.

700. Iris ergò: dewy Iris flies through 695. Resolveret animam: might separate heaven. Iris was the messenger of the godher soul and body. Nexos artus: compact- desses, especially of Juno. She is said to ed or united limbs.

be the daughter of Thaumas and Electra. 696. Quia nec fato. The ancients divided Servius observes that Iris is, for the most death into three kinds : natural, merited or part, employed in matters of mischief, and deserved, and accidental. The natural death contention. See Æn. v. 606. and ix. 803. was when a person accomplished the ordi- Iris: the rainbow. This interesting appear. nary term of human life, or that space al ance is occasioned by the rays of the sun, otted to him in the councils of the gods. reflected by the vapors or drops of rain. It "The merited or deserved death was, when can only take place, or be seen, when the a person was deprived of life by the imme sun and cloud are opposite to each other, in diate interposition of the gods for the pu- regard to the spectator.


men ?

What is the subject of this book ?

Did many of her countrymen accompany What is its nature, and character ?

her ? How does it commence ?

What appears to have been her original What plan did Juno propose to effect her purpose in leaving Tyre? purpose of averting the Trojans from Italy? Had a colony of Tyrians previously set.

Did she effect a union between Dido and tled in Africa ? Æneas?

Who were the leaders of that colony? Was that union dissolved ?

Where did they settle? By whom was it dissolved?

What did they call their settlement? By whom was Æneas commanded to leave How was Dido received by her countryCarthage ?

How did Dido receive the information What did they desire her to do? that he was ordered to leave her ?

What did she call her city ? What effect had it upon her?

What is the meaning of that word in the What course did she pursue in order to Phænician language ? divert him from his purpose ?

But do not some give a different account? As soon as the match was concluded be What do those historians say ? tween Dido and Æneas, was the news of What did she call the town or citadel ? that event spread abroad?

What is the meaning of Byrsa in the By whom was it spread ?

Greek language ? Whom does Virgil imitate in the descrip To what mistake did that lead ? tion of Fame ?

How have some attempted to explain that Who was Iarbas?

story? What had he previously proposed to What does Rollin say of it in his history Dido?

of Carthage ? How was that proposition received ? Did Dido purchase any tract of country What effect had the news of Dido's mar

for her city ? riage upon that prince?

What was the nature of the contract? How was he occupied at that time? Did the Carthaginians perform it? Who was said to be his father ?

What was the consequence of their refuWho was Jupiter Ammon?

sal? Had he any celebrated temple ?

Is it supposed by some that Virgil is guilWhere was it situated ?

ty of an anachronism in making Dido and Whom does Sir Isaac Newton make this Æneas cotemporary ? Ammon to have been ?

What does Bochart say of it? Does Justin the historian give a different Upon what does he found his conclusions? account of this matter?

Does Sir Isaac Newton make a different What does he say of it?

calculation ? What was the issue of it as related by How much later has he brought down the him?

destruction of Troy? In what character was Dido considered Is it a fair conclusion that it was a general afterward by her countrymen ?

received opinion, they were cotemporary? Who was Dido?

Was this sufficient ground for the poet to What is the meaning of that word ? assume it as a fact?

By what other name was she sometimes Does the introduction of Dido into the called ?

Æneid add much to its embellishment ? What was the name of her father, ac How long did Carthage continue? cording to Josephus ?

What was the character of its inhabitants? What does Virgil call him?

Were the Carthaginians a powerful naWhat does Marollius call him ?

tion? Is Belus, probably, an abbreviation of Itho Who was the most distinguished combalus?

mander and general anong them ? To whom was she married at Tyre ? By whom was Carthage finally destroyed? Who was Sichæus ?

In what year of Rome was that effected? What office did he hold ?

Finding she could not prevail upon Æneas What was the character of Pygmalion, to remain at Carthage, what desperate reher brother?

solution did Dido make ? What atrocious deed did he perform? Under what pretence did she order the What was his conduct afterward ?

altar to be erected ? How was Dido informed of the cruel What effect had the departure of the deed ?

Trojans from her coast upon her ? What advice did the ghost of her hus Did she make any imprecation against band give her?

Æneas and the Trojans ? What did she do in consequence of that?

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