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683. Date aquam ut Sidonios, urbemque tuam. Date, vulnera lymphis abluam vulnera
Abluam; et, extremus si quis super halitus errat,
Ter revoluta toro est : oculisque errantibus, alto
Tum Juno omnipotens longum miserata dolorem,
Quæ luctantem animam nexosque resolveret artus.
Sed misera ante diem, subitoque accensa furore; damnaveratque caput
Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem Stygio Orco, quia Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat Orco.
Ergò Iris croceis per cælum roscida pennis, 702. Ego jussa fero Mille trahens varios adverso Sole colores, hunc crinem sacrum Devolat, et supra caput adstitit: hunc ego Diti Diti; solvoque te ab isto
Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solvo. corpore.
705. Omnis calor di. Sic ait: et dextrâ crinem secat. Omnis et unà lapsus est.
Dilapsus calor, atque in ventos vita recessit.
she had not shut his eyes, nor washed his nishment of atrocious conduct. The casuwounds. Æn. ix. 485.
al, or accidental, was, when a person took 684. Siquis extremus : if any last breath away his own life in some way or other: remain, that I inay catch it with my mouth. such an one was said to die before his time. Virgil is here thought to allude to a cere- This was the case with Dido. miony among the Greeks and Romans : 697. Furore: passion. Diem : in the when a person was just expiring, the near- sense of tempus. est relation put his mouth to his that he 698. Nondum illi : Proserpine had not niight catch the last breath. Ruæus inter- yet plucked for her the yellow lock, &c. prets super by adhuc. Super-errat is evi- The ancients had a notion that none could dently used in the sense of superesset. The die till Proserpine, either in person, or by substitution of esset for errat makes the read- Atropos, had cut a lock of hair from the ing easy. Some copies have esset.
crown of their head. This was considered 688. Conaia : agreeing with Dido. a kind of first-fruits to Pluto. This custom
689. Vulnus stridet: the wound hisses, took its rise from sacrifices: when they used occasioned by the gushing out of the blood. to pluck some of the hairs from the front of Infixum: made.
the victim, and cast them into the fire. 693. Dolorem : pain. Obitus : departure 699. Orco: dat. of Orcus, a name of Pluto. -death.
700. Iris ergò: dewy Iris flies through 695. Resolveret animam: might separate heaven. Iris was the messenger of the godher soul and body. Nexos artus: compact- desses, especially of Juno. She is said to ed or united limbs.
be the daughter of Thaumas and Electra. 696. Quia nec fato. The ancients divided Servius observes that Iris is, for the most death into three kinds : natural, merited or part, employed in matters of mischief, and deserved, and accidental. The natural death contention. See Æn. v. 606. and ix. 803. was when a person accomplished the ordi- Iris: the rainbow. This interesting appear. nary term of human life, or that space al- ance is occasioned by the rays of the sun, otted to him in the councils of the gods. reflected by the vapors or drops of rain. It "The merited or deserved death was, when can only take place, or be seen, when the a person was deprived of life by the imme- sun and cloud are opposite to each other, in diate interposition of the gods for the pu- regard to the spectator.
What is the subject of this book ?
Did many of her countrymen accompany What is its nature, and character ?
her ? How does it commence?
What appears to have been her original What plan did Juno propose to effect her purpose in leaving Tyre? purpose of averting the Trojans from Italy? Had a colony of Tyrians previously set.
Did she effect a union between Dido and tled in Africa ? Æneas ?
Who were the leaders of that colony ? Was that union dissolved ?
Where did they settle? By whom was it dissolved?
What did they call their settlement ? By whom was Æneas commanded to leave How was Dido received by her countryCarthage ?
men ? How did Dido receive the information What did they desire her to do? that he was ordered to leave her?
What did she call her city ? What effect had it upon her ?
What is the meaning of that word in the What course did she pursue in order to Phænician language? divert him from his purpose ?
But do not some give a different account? As soon as the match was concluded be- What do those historians say? tween Dido and Æneas, was the news of What did she call the town or citadel ? that event spread abroad ?
What is the meaning of Byrsa in the By whom was it spread ?
Greek language? Whom does Virgil imitate in the descrip- To what mistake did that lead ? tion of Fame ?
How have some attempted to explain that Who was Iarbas?
story? What had he previously proposed to What does Rollin say of it in his history Dido?
of Carthage ? How was that proposition received ? Did Dido purchase any tract of country
What effect had the news of Dido's mar- for her city ? riage upon that prince?
What was the nature of the contract? How was he occupied at that time? Did the Carthaginians perform it? Who was said to be his father ?
What was the consequence of their refuWho was Jupiter Ammon?
sal? Had he any celebrated temple?
Is it supposed by some that Virgil is guilWhere was it situated ?
of an anachronism in making Dido and Whom does Sir Isaac Newton make this Æneas cotemporary ? Ammon to have been ?
What does Bochart say of it? Does Justin the historian give a different Upon what does he found his conclusions? account of this matter?
Does Sir Isaac Newton make a different What does he say of it?
calculation ? What was the issue of it as related by How much later has he brought down the him?
destruction of Troy? In what character was Dido considered Is it a fair conclusion that it was a general afterward by her countrymen ?
received opinion, they were cotemporary? Who was Dido?
Was this sufficient ground for the poet to What is the meaning of that word ? assume it as a fact?
By what other name was she sometimes Does the introduction of Dido into the calied ?
Æneid add much to its embellishment ? What was the name of her father, ac- How long did Carthage continue? cording to Josephus ?
What was the character of its inhabitants? What does Virgil call him?
Were the Carthaginians a powerful na. What does Marollius call him?
tion ? Is Belus, probably, an abbreviation of Itho- Who was the most distinguished combalus?
mander and general aniong them? To whom was she married at Tyre? By whom was Carthage finally destroyed? Who was Sichæus?
In what year of Rome was that effected ? What office did he hold ?
Finding she could not prevail upon Æneas What was the character of Pygmalion, to remain at Carthage, what desperate reher brother?
solution did Dido make! What atrocious deed did he perform? Under what pretence did she order the What was his conduct afterward ?
altar to be erected ? How was Dido informed of the cruel What effect had the departure of the deed ?
Trojans from her coast upon her ? What advice did the ghost of her hus- Did she make any imprecation against band give her?
Æneas and the Trojans ? What did she do in consequence of that?
Was it realized with regard to Æneas, if we may believe history?
Was it realized in regard to the Romans, his descendants ?
Was there always a jealousy subsisting between the two nations ?
How many celebrated wars were waged between them?
How does the book conclude:
This book opens with the departure of Æneas from Carthage. He had not been long at
sea before a violent storm arose, which forced him to turn his course to Sicily. He entered the port of Drepanum. Here he is received with great cordiality and affection by king Acestes. After offering sacrifice, and celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, Æneas institutes four kinds of games in honor of him. These occupy froņ verse 114 to 602. In the mean time, the Trojan women, at the instigation of Iris, who was sent by Juno for that purpose, set fire to the ships, in the hope, by these means, to put an end to the voyage of which they were weary. At the intreaty of Æneas, Jupiter sent a heavy shower of rain, which extinguished the flames. Four of the fleet, however, were lost. Upon this Nautes advises Æneas, since he had lost part of his fleet, to leave in Sicily the aged, and all who were weary of the voyage. This advice was confirmed the following night by the ghost of Anchises, which appeared to him in a vision. It also directed him to go to the Sibyl of Cume, who would conduct him to the infernal regions, where he should receive a fuller account of his own fortune, and of
that of his race. The hero followed the advice; and having founded a city, which he called Acestes, after
his venerable friend, he set sail for Italy. He had not long been at sea, before he lost Palinurus, the pilot of his ship, who fell over
board in sleep; after which Æneas took upon himself the duty and business of pilot. This book is of a gay and lively nature, and very properly comes after the tragical account
of Dido's unhappy end. The games are imiiated from the 23d book of the Iliad, where Achilles is' represented as instituting games in honor of his friend Patroclus.
INTEREA medium Æneas jam classe tenebat
Collucent Hammis ; quæ tantum accenderit ignem, 5. Sed duri labores Causa latet: duri magno sed amore dolores
5 ex magno amore pol- Polluto, notumque, furens quid fæmina possit, luto, noli; quidque furens fæmina possit fa
Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt. cere, notum, ducunt Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nec jam ampliùs ulla
9. Sed undique cre- Occurrit tellus, cælum undique, et undique pontus , lum, et undique pontus Olli cæruleus supra caput adstitit imber,
Noctem hyememque ferens : et inhorruit unda tenebris.
1. Medium iter. This is literally the mid- by the wind; or he cut the blackened waves dle of his course. But this, strictly speak- before the wind. Aquilo: the north wind, ing, cannot be ; for he beheld the flames of put for wind in general; the species for the Dido's funeral pile. Ruæus and Davidson genus. Mania: in the sense of urbem. take medium in the sense of profundum ; and 6. Polluto: in the sense of lweso, vel understand the phrase to meaň, that Æneas violato. had gotten into the full or deep sea.
7. Per triste augurium: through gloomy could read mare instead of iter, then there presages or conjectures. would be no difficulty in this interpretation. 8. Ut: in the sense of quando.
2. Certus : determined on going. Fluctus 10. Imber: in the sense of nubes vel nin. atros Aquilone : he cut the waves blackened bus. Olli: for illi, by antithesis.
Ipse gubernator puppi Palinurus ab altâ :
12. Palinurus ipse Heu! quiaŋam lanti cinxerunt æthera nimbi ?
gubernator exclamat ab
altâ puppi: heu! quiaQuidve, pater Neptune, paras ? sic deinde locutus, Colligere arma jubet, validisque incumbere remis; 15 Obliquatque sinus in ventum, ac talia fatur: Magnanime Ænea, non, si mihi Jupiter auctor Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere cælo.
21. Nos sufficimus nec Mutati transversà fremunt, et vespere ab atro
te: iere contrà, nec tanConsurgunt venti: atque in nubem cogitur aër. 20 tùın obniti Nec nos obniti contrà, nec tendere tantùm
24. Nec reor fida fra. Sufficimus : superat quoniam fortuna, sequamur:
terna litora Erycis, SiQuòque vocat, vertamus iter. Nec litora longè
longè. Fida reor fraterna Erycis, portusque Sicanos,
28. An ulla tellus sit Si modò ritè memor servata remetior astra.
25 gratior mihi, quòque rnaTum pius Æneas : Equidem sic poscere ventos
gis optem deinittere fesJamdudum, et frustrà cerno te tendere contrà.
sas naves, quàm quæ
servat mihi Dardanum Flecte viarn velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla,
Acesten, et que comQuòque magis fessas optem demittere naves;
plectitur ossa patris AnQuàm æ Dardanium tellus mihi servat Acesten, 30 chise in ejus gremio?
NOTES. 13. Quianam : in the sense of cur. rightly, I measure over again the stars ud
14. Quidve, pater Neptune, paras? This served before. From the relative situation apostrophe to Neptune gives us a very lively of those stars which he had observed upon idea of his wonder and astonishment. the coast of Sicily, and from their corres
15. Arma : properly signifies any kind of pondence with his present observations, he instruments whatever-here the tackling of judges himself to be on that coast again. the ship—the sails, spars and rigging of 27. Tendere : strove-contended. every description. Davidson confines it to the sails. But this is not necessary. It was
28. Viam: in the sense of cursum. Turn proper that all things should be stowed your course before the wind. The south
west wind was favorable for them to go to away, as well as the sails reefed, that the ship might the better weather the storm.
Sicily. 16. Obliquat sinus : he turns the sail into 29. Demillere : in the sense of dirigere. the wind-he brings the vessel more into 30. Acesten. What is said of the origin the wind-he lies, in nautical language, of Acestes, is so incorporated with fable, nearer the wind.
that little dependence can be placed upon it. 17. Auctor : the founder of our race. The account, which Dionysius Halicarnas
18. Cælo: in this weather. Vespere : in sus gives, is probably the most correct. It the sense of occidente.
appears that Laomedon, king of Truy, be19. Transversà : an adj. neu. plu. taken ing offended at some Trojan nobleman, as an adverb in imitation of the Greeks. caused him and his sons to be put to death.
21. Nec nos sufficimus : nor are we able Lycophron calls him Phænodamus: but Serto proceed against it, nor so much as to vius and Pomponius call him Hippotcs. But hold our own-to bear up against the storm thinking his daughters, who were three in -to contend against it.
number, less deserving his displeasure, the 24. Reor fida : I think the faithful frater- king solu them to some Sicilian merchants, nal shores of Eryx, &c. Eryx was the son on condition that they should transport them of Butes and t'enus, according to common to some foreign country. A person of some report. Some say, his inother was Lycaste, distinction being on board, by the name of a Sicilian courtezan, who, on account of her Crinisus, Crimisus, or Crimissus, fell in love extraordinary beauty, was called Venus. with one of them, whose name was Egesta, Virgil, following tradition, calls him the and married her. Soon after she bore a son, brother of Æneas, both being reputed to be whom Virgil calls Aeestes, but others Egestes, the sons of Venus. His grandfather was or Ægestes. Upon the death of Laomedon, Amycus, who was slain by Pollux in a con- he obtained permission of Priam to return test with the gauntlet: upon which Butes to Troy; where he was during the siege Aed into Sicily, and founded a city. Eryx, and destruction of that city, when he conin like manner, was slain by Hercules. He tracted a friendship with Æneas. He aftergave his name to a mountain and city not ward returned to Sicily. The river Crinifar from the Promontorium Lilybæum. sus being afterward called by his name, gave
25. Si modò ritè: if now, remembering rise to the fabulous account of his birth.
Et patris Anchisæ gremio complectitur ossa ? 32. Ubi hæc dicta Hæc ubi dicta, petunt portus, et vela secundi sund
Intendunt Zephyri: fertur cita gurgite classis :
Et tandem læti notæ advertuntur arenæ. 35. At Acestes ex ex- At procul excelso miratus vertice montis
35 celso vertice montis pro- Adventum, sociasque rates, occurrit Acestes, cul miratus adventum,
Horridus in jaculis et pelle Libystidis ursæ : sociasque rates, occurrit nobis, horridus Troïa Crimiso conceptum flumine inater
39. Quem Troïa ma- Quem genuit. Veterum non immemor ille parentum, ter genuit conceptum Gratatur reduces, et gazâ lætus agresti
40 Crimiso flumine.
Excipit, ac fessos opibus solatur amicis. 42. Cùm postera clara Postera cùm primo stellas oriente fugârat dies fugârat stellas pri- Clara dies; socios in cætum litore ab omni mo oriente, Æneas
Advocat Æneas, tumulique ex aggere fatur: 45. Quorum genus est Dardanidæ magni, genus alto à sanguine Divûm, 45
Annuus exactis completur mensibus orbis ;
Ex quo relliquias divinique ossa parentis 50. O Di, vos, sic vo- Condidimus terrâ, mæstasque sacravimus aras. luistis.
Jamque dies, ni fallor, adest ; quem semper acerbum, 51. Ego agerem hunc diem, si essem exul in Semper honoratum, sic Dî voluistis, habebo.
50 Gætulis syrtibus, de- Hunc ego Gætulis agerem si syrtibus exul, prensus-ve
Argolicove mari deprensus, et urbe Mycenæ : 55. Nunc ultrò adsu- Annua vota tamen, solemnesque ordine pompas mus ad cineres et ossa ipsius parentis, equidem
Exsequerer ; strueremque suis altaria donis. reor haud sine numine Nunc ultrò ad cineres ipsius et ossa parentis,
Haud equidem sinè mente, reor, sinè numine Divûm,
33. Gurgite: in the sense of mari.
50. Habebo e I shall consider. Agerem : 34. Læti: sociï is understood: my joyous I would observe, or keep. companions.
53. Solemnes pompas. This is peculiarly 35. Miratus : observing-wondering at. proper in this place. Pompa properly signiOur arrival was unexpected, and a matter fics a funeral or other procession; and, erseof wonder to him.
querer: I would perform the exsequia, or fu37. Horridus in jaculis : rough with jave- neral obsequies; the principal of which was lins, and the hide of an African bear. The the following of the corpse to the grave, or word horridus is very applicable to the dress funeral pile. Hence exsequiæ came to sigand equipage of a hunter, bearing his darts nify the whole funeral rites: from sequor,
I and javelins in his hands, and guarded follow. against the savages of the mountains. In which character Åcestes is here represented. altars with his own proper gifts. These
54. Struerem altaria: I would cover the Libystidis : an adj. from Libystis, and that from the noun Libys. Pliny says there were
were milk, wine, honey, and blood, poured no bears in Africa, on account of its great the Umbra, or shade of the deceased, ted,
the tomb. upon
Upon these it was thought heat. But there are many good authorities
and especially upon the blood. Valpy says, against him. Solinus says the Numidian
fit offerings. bears excel all others in beauty and form: which is probably the reason that Virgil
56. Haud sinè mente. Æneas here attridresses Acestes in one of their skins,
butes their arrival in Sicily to the interposi39. Genuit: in the sense of peperit.
tion of the gods, as if they designed it to 40. Agresti gasâ: with his homely fare. afford him an opportunity of paying divine Gasa is a word of Persian origin, and signi- honors to his father. Mente: design. Rufies
any kind of sumptuous expense, either æus says, consilio. in provision or furniture. Nos is to be con- 58. Lætum honorem: the joyous festival. nected with reduces.
Ruæus interprets honorem by sacrificium. 44. Aggere: summitate, says Rueus. But it is plain that honorem includes every
46. Annuus orbis: the annual circle (to part of the rites and ceremonies which were wit, a year) is completed.
performed upon that occasion, as well as the 49. Acerbum : afflictive-sorrowful. offerings or sacrifices.