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Erige: et arma viri, thalamo quæ fixa reliquit 495
Impius, exuviasque omnes, lectumque jugalem,
Quo perii, superimponas. Abolere nefandi
Cuncta viri monumenta jubet monstratque sacerdos.
Hæc effata silet: pallor simul occupat ora.

Non tamen Anna novis prætexere funera sacris • 500 501. Nec concipit tan- Germanam credit : nec tantos mente furores mente ; aut timet gra- Ergò jussa parat. Man tos furores esse in ejus Concipit ; aut graviora timet, quàm morte Sichæi. viora quàm quæ evenerant morte Sichæi. Ergò

At regina, pyrå penetrali in sede sub auras parat que jussa erant Erectâ ingenti, tædis atque ilice sectå,

505 Ingenti pyrå Intenditque locum sertis, et fronde coronat erectà in penetrali sede Funereâ : super exuvias, ensemque relictum, sub auras, è tædis atque Effigiemque toro locat, haud ignara futuri. 509. Effusa quoad

Stant aræ circùm : et crines effusa sacerdos, crines

Tercentum tonat ore Deos, Erebumque, Chaosque, 510
Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianæ.
Sparserat et latices simulatos fontis Averni;
Falcibus et messæ ad Lunam quæruntur ahenis
Pubentes herbæ, nigri cum lacte veneni.


secta ilice


495. Arma viri. The sword which Æne- that definite number is used for an indefinite as left hanging in Dido's bedchamber. number. Erebum. Erebus was the son of

498. Jubet : the priestess orders and di- Chaos and Nox. For aiding the Titans in rects me to burn all the memorials of the their war against the gods, he was changed cursed man. These she had just mentione into a river, and placed in the lowest part of ed-his sword-his clothes—the bridal bed, hell. He is one of the infernal gods. Chaos. &c.

He was the most ancient of the gods, and 500. Prætexere : in the sense of celare. the father of them all, according to Hesiod.

504. Penetrali sede : in the inner court Geor. iv. 347. middle of the palace.

511. Hecaten. Hecate is called tergem505. Tædis. The tæda or teda was a tree nam from the circumstance of her having of a resinous nature, of which torches were three names. In heaven she is called Luna; made. The ilex was a species of oak called on the earth Diana ; in hell Proserpina. the holm. Of these two kinds of wood the Hecate was not so properly her name, as funeral pile was constructed.

an epithet given her to denote her hundred 506. İntendit: in the sense of cingit. various qualities; or because she was ap

508. Efigiem: she places his image on peased by a hundred victims. From a Greek the bed upon his clothes and sword. word signifying a hundred. The goddess

One of the rites of magic was to prepare was painted with three heads, one of a an image of the person against whom the horse, another of a dog, and another of a enchantment was designed, either of wax or Hence tria ora virginis : the triple wool, and use it in the same manner as they form of the virgin. would have used the person himself if he 512. Sparserat: she had sprinkled the fichad been present. Or, super may be taken titious (or substituted) waters of the lake in the sense of insuper (moreover;) or su Avernus. In performing magic rites, those per-locat may be considered a coinpound materials requisite to the occasion, that word in the sense of superimponit. The could not be conveniently procured, were meaning will then be, that the image, the allowed to be emblematically represented ; clothes, and sword, were placed upon the as in the present case. Averni. Avernus, bed without any reference to their situation. a lake in Campania, fabled to be the en

510. Tonat ore: she thunders out with trance of hell. Its waters were of a very her voice hree hundred gods. Servius in- noxious quality, which occasioned an unforms us, that in the sacred rites of Hecate wholesome atmosphere; insomuch so, that in particular, they used to imitate thunder; it was shunned by birds of every kind. Its which gives a reason for the use of the word name is of Greek origin. See Geor. iv. tonat. Hortensius would read sonat. We 493. are not to suppose that the priestess invoked 514. Pubentes herbe full blown herbs, the precise number of three hundred godsm cut by moonlight, are sought for. The


Quæritur et nascentis equi de fronte revulsus, 515

515. Et amor eque

revulsus de fronte nasEt ratri præreptus amor.

centis equi, et præreptus Ipsa mola manibusque piis, altaria justa,

matri Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recinctå,

517. Dido ipsa moriTestatur moritura Deos, et conscia fati

tura, exuta quoad unum Sidera : tum, si quod non æquo fædere amantes 520 pedein vinclis, in re

cincta veste, stans justa Curæ numen habet justumque memorque, precatur.

altaria, moli piisque Nox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa sopotem

manibus, testatur Deos, Corpora per terras, sylvæque et sæva quiêrant

et sidera conscia fati. Æquora : cùm medio volvuntur sidera lapsu :

Tum precatur numen, Cùm tacet omnis ager, pecudes, pictæque volucres, 525 si quod justumque meQuæque lacus latè liquidos, quæque aspera dumis

morque habet amantes

junctos non æquo fædere Rura tenent, somno positæ sub nocte silenti

curæ sibi. Lenibant curas, et corda oblita laborum.

526. Quæque latè teAt non infelix animi Phænissa : neque unquam

nent liquidos lacus, quæSolvitur in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem

530 que tenent rura aspera

dumis, omnes positæ sub Accipit. Ingeminant curæ, rursusque resurgens

silenti nocte lenibant cu. Sævit amor, magnoque irarum fluctuat æstu.

ras somno; et corda ob Sic adeò insistit, secumque ita corde volutat :

lita sunt laborum. En! quid ago ? rursusne procos irrisa priores


dews, which were thought to distil from the it as a description of night in general; but moon upon herbs, were reckoned favorable only of a calm and serene one, in order that for magic. Those herbs, however, were to he might set off to greater advantage the be cut with brazen sickles, ahenis falcibus. opposite image of Dido's anxiety and disLacte: in the sense of succo.

quietude. And indeed nothing could give 516. Et amor revulsus : and the love (of us a more lively idea of her restless situation, the mare) torn from the forehead of a newly than thus to set it forth in opposition to the foaled colt. The poet here means what is universal quiet and repose which reigned called the hippomanes ; of which there are over all nature beside. She is so far from two kinds. See Geor, iii. 280. et sequens. partaking of the blessings of sleep with the The one here meant is very different from rest of the world, that the silence and solithe one there described. According to the tude of the night, which dispose others to account given of it by the ancients, it was rest, only feed her care, and swell the tumult a lump of Aesh growing on the forehead of of her passion. the foal just brought forth, which the mare 524. Lapsu : in the sense of cursu. presently devours, or else she loses all af. 527. Tenent : in the sense of incolunt. fection for her young, and denies it suck. 528. Lenibant curas, &c. This beautiful Its being so greedily sought after by the line Heyne marks as spurious, and conmother, is the reason of its being called her cludes the sentence at silenti. It is not love. The circumstance just mentioned gave found in some ancient MSS. rise to the vulgar opinion of its efficacy in 529. Phanissa. Dido is so called, bephiltres, love potions, and magic rites. cause she was a native of Phænicia, a coun

518. Exuta pedem. It appears from this try lying on the eastern shore of the Medipassage that Dido put herself in the habit terranean; within the boundaries of which of a sorceress. According to Ovid, it was was the kingdom of Tyre. The words their custom to strip bare one of their feet, leniebat curas are to be supplied. and to be clad in a loose flowing robe. Ru 530. Noctem : in the sense of quietem. æus takes recincta, in the sense of succincta; 532. Irarum : passions affections. Amor but in this he differs from most commenta- sævit. Here love is represented as a nighty tors. Heyne takes it in the sense of soluta. sea, which had been for some time calin and

520. Non æquo fædere : by this we are to still; but now begins to rise in furious waves, understand an inequality in the love and af- and rack her soul with a variety of tumulfection of the parties--in an unequal match: tuous passions.

Volutot. in the sense of where love is not reciprocated.

cogitat. 522. Nox erat. The whole of this de. 534. Rursus-ne irrisa, &c. Rueus and scription is a most beautiful, and, at the Servius take rursus in the sense of ricissim: same time, perfect image of nature. Dr. shall I in turn have, &c. Dido had rejected Trapp objects to it as imperfect. But it is the match of Iarbas and others; and shall to be observed that the poet did not design she now pay court to them, as they hao

Experiar? Nomadumque petam connubia supplex, 535
Quos ego sum toties jam dedignata maritos ?

Iliacas igitur classes, atque ultima Teucrûm 538. Quiane juvat me Jussa sequar ? quiane auxilio juvat antè levatos, eos antè levatos fuisse Et benè apud memores veteris stat gratia facti ? meo auxilio ; et gratia Quis me autem, fac velle, sinet ? ratibusque superbis 540 yeteris facti stat apud eos benè inemores ejus.?

Invisam accipiet ? nescis heu, perdita, necdumn 540. Autem fac me

Laomedonteæ sentis perjuria gentis ? velle sequi eos, quis Quid tum ? sola fugâ nautas comitabor ovantes ?

543. Quid tum agen- An Tyriis, omnique manu stipata meorum, dum est ? ego-ne sola Insequar ? et quos Sidoniâ vix urbe revelli,

545 fugâ comitabor

544. An stipata Tyriis, Re:rsus again pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo ?. oinnique manu ineorum Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. civium insequar eos Tu lachrymis evicta meis, tu prima furentem

His, germana, malis oneras, atque objicis hosti.

Non licuit thalami expertem sinè crimine vitam 550 552. Fides promissa

Degere more feræ, tales nec tangere curas ? Sichæo cineri non ser

Non servata fides cineri promissa Sichæo. vata est.

Tantos illa suo rumpebat pectore questus. 556. Forma Dei re- Æneas celsâ in puppi, jam certus eundi, deuntis eodem vultu ob- Carpebat somnos, rebus jam ritè paratis.

555 tulit se huic in somnis, Huic se forma Dei, vultu redeuntis eodem, visaque est rursus ita


Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est; Mercurio quoad omnia, Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque, coloremque,


еит :


formerly done to her? Irrisa : mocked 546. Rursus agam : shall I again conduct despised. Ruæus says, contemnenda. on the sea, those whom with difficulty I forced

536. Dedignata sum : disdained as hus- from the Sidonian city? Sidonia : an adj. bands.

from Sidon, which formed a part of the 537. Ultima : the lowest-basest.

kingdom of Tyre: here in the sense of Ty538. Quia-ne juvat : because it delighted ria. Revelli : this expresses the difficulty of me formerly, that they should be relieved by her former enterprise. my assistance; and the grateful remem 248. Tu, Germana, evicta: thou, O sister, brance of my former deed remains with

overcome by my tears, thou first, &c. Futhem, duly mindful of it? Dido here speaks rentem: in the sense of amantem. Dido ironically. Some copies have exilio, in allu- here alludes to the speech of her sister. See sion to the friendly retreat which Dido gave

verse 32. supra, and following. Anna could to Æneas and his followers: but auxilio is

not bear to see her pine away in mournful the most approved reading.

widowhood, and therefore dissuaded her 541. Invisam: hated-an object of their from it, and encouraged a love for Æneas. aversion. Some copies have irrisam. This

550. Non licuit: was it not lawful for is the reading of Ruæus. Heyne reads, invisam, and assures us it is the best.

me, without blame, to lead a life free from the 542. Necdum sentis, &c. Here Dido al- marriage bed, &c. Sume copies have experJudes to the well known story of Laomedon, tam vitam: a life having experienced the who defrauded the gods, Neptune and A pol- marriage bed. But the other is evidently lo, of their hire for building the walls of

the most approved reading. Troy. See Geor. i. 502. Laomedontece: an

Though Dido here seemingly approves of adj. in the sense of Trojane.

a single life; by representing it as the life 543. Ovantes: in the sense of lætantes, vel

of a savage beast, she in fact condeinns it; triumphuntes. It is applicable to mariners

and insinuates that marriage is the most in general, who usually set out with accla

perfect society, and distinguishes the life of

man from that of brute animals. mations of joy: but here it is to be considered in that particular, in which Dido

551. Tangere: to know, or experience. . viewed them as triumphing over her in their 558. Similis Mercurio omnia : like Mer. departure. Insequar. Some copies have in cury in all things. All the commentators ferar. This is the reading of Heyne, and make this god to be Mercury himself, except Valpy after him.

Catrou. He thinks it to be some other god, 544. Stipata : in the sense of comitala, who assumed the likeness of Mercury,

Et crines flavos, et membra decora juventæ :
Nate Deâ, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos? 560
Nec, quæ circumstent te deinde pericula, cernis ?
Demens ! nec Zephyros audis spirare secundos ?
Illa dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat,

563. Illa Dido certa Certa mori, varioque irarum fluctuat æstu.

mori versat dolos Non fugis hinc præceps, dum præcipitare potestas ? 565 Jam mare turbari trabibus, sævasque videbis

566. Dum potestas Collucere faces; jam fervere litora flammis ;

est tibi præcipitare Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem. Eia age, rumpe moras : varium et mutabile semper *

aho Fæmina. Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atræ. 570

Tum verò Æneas, subitis exterritus umbris, Corripit è somno corpus, sociosque fatigat: Præcipites vigilate, viri, et considite transtris : Solvite vela citi. Deus æthere missus ab alto, Festinare fugam, tortosque incidere funes,

575 Ecce iterum stimulat. Sequimur te, sancte Deorum, 576. Ecce Deus misQuisquis es, imperioque iterum paremus ovantes.

sus ab alto æthere ite.

rum stimulat me festiAdsis, ô, placidusque juves, et sidera cælo

nare fugam, incidereque Dextra feras ! Dixit: vaginâque eripit ensem

tortos funes.
Fulmineum, strictoque ferit retinacula ferro. 580
Idem omnes simul ardor habet: rapiuntque, ruuntque :
Litora deseruere : latet sub classibus æquor.
Adnixi torquent spumas, et cærula verrunt.

583. Cerula maria. Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile :


NOTES. 560. Sub hoc casu : in this juncture or gods, whoever thou art, &c. This mode of crisis of affairs.

expression is in imitation of the Greeks. 561. Deinde: this appears to be in this 578. O adsis: O may thou be propitious. place entirely expletive. Videtur otiosum esse, 579. Dextra sidera : favorable, or propisays Heyne.

tious stars in the heavens. Feras: give563. Versat : in the sense of meditatur.

grant. 566. Turbari trabibus : to be in commo 580. Ferit : in the sense of secat. Fultion with ships. Heyne says, impleri navi- mineum : shining, glittering. Ruæus says, bus Carthaginiensium: and Ruvus, agitari coruscantem. temis.

582. Deseruere litora. This change of the 567. Fervere : to glitter—to shine with tense adds much to the description. They flames. The meaning is, that as soon as hale off, and hurry away; and no sooner the morning shall return, Dido will pursue have they done this, than they have left the you with her ships, with torches and with shore, and are completely out to sea. flames. You must weigh anchor and be 585. Et jam Aurora : and now Aurora, gone.

leaving the saffron bed of Tithonus, first 570. Fæmina : a woman is something al- spreads the earth over with early light. Tiways variable, and subject to change. This thonus was either the son or brother of Lais a singular construction. Mercury here omedon, king of Troy. On account of his insinuates that hatred may succeed to Dido's beauty and gracefulness, Aurora fell in love love for him; which might induce her to with him, and endued him with immortality; seek revenge. Umbris : apparition. but not thinking to bestow on him perpetual

572. Fatigat : arouses his companions. youth and beauty, he grew so weak and ex.

573. Vigilate: wake quick-in haste. hausted by old age, that he wished for morTranstris : the seats or benches on which the tality. But the goddess not being able to rowers sat.

restore it to him, in pity to his case, changed 575. Tortos funes: the ropes, or cables, by him into a grasshopper. See Geor. iii. 48. which the ships were moored. Dr. Bentley This is a most beautiful circumlocution to thinks the anchors are intended; but how denote the early dawn, when the earth be. fortos can be applied to them, I see not. comes first enlightened by the beams of in

576. Sancte Deorum: O holy one of the


ventes comas,

Regina è speculis, ut primùm albescere lucem
Vidit, et æquatis classem procedere velis ;

Litoraque et vacuos sensit sinè remige portus : 589. Percussa quoad Terque quaterque manu pectus percussa decorum, decorum pectus manu, Flaventesque abscissa comas : Proh Jupiter ! ibit 590 abscissaque quoad fa- Hic, ait, et nostris illuserit advena regnis ?

ait: Proh

Non arma expedient, totâque ex urbe sequentur ?
593. Non-ne alii diri- Diripientque rates alii navalibus ? ite,

Forte citi flammas, date vela, impellite remos, 594
Quid loquor ? aut ubi sum ? quæ mentem insania mutat?

Infelix Dido ! nunc te facta impia tangunt. 597. Decuit le tum Tum decuit, cùm sceptra dabas. En dextra, fidesque ! cogitare de his, cùm da- Quem secum patrios aiunt portare Penates! bas sceptra tua perfido homini. En dextra,

Quem subiisse humeris confectum ætate parentem! fidesque illius,

600 quem

Non potui abreptum divellere corpus, et undis aiunt

Spargere ? non socios, non ipsum absumere ferro 601. Non potui absu- Ascanium, patriisque epulandum apponere mensis ? mere socios, non potui Verùm anceps pugnæ fuerat fortuna : fuisset. absumere Ascanium ipsum ferro, apponereque

Quem metui moritura ? faces in castra tulissem:

Implêssemque foros flammis: natumque patremque 605 606. Ego ipsa dedis- Cum genere extinxêm: memet super ipsa dedissem. sem memet super eos. Sol, qui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras;

Tuque, harum interpres curarum et conscia, Juno,
Nocturnisque, Hecate, triviis ululata per urbes,


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587. Velis æquatis : the sails were equal- of her sister Philomela, served up his son ly distended on each side of the mast. This Itys for him at a banquet. See Ecl. vi. 78. shows that the wind blew fair, and directly 603. Fortuna : in the sense of eventus. after them : in nautical phrase, wing and 604. Moritura: in the sense of cum dewing.

creverim mori. Castra: in the sense of 593. Diripient alii : will not others tear classem. iny ships from the docks, and go in pursuit 605. Foros : the decks or hatches of his of him?

ships. Extinxêm: by syn. for extinxisscm: 596. Nunc impia facta. Mr. Davidson in the sense of interfecissem. observes that this is the reading of the 607. Sol. Dido invokes the sun, either Cambridge edition, founded on the autho- because he is the supporter of life in generity of Probus and the Codex Mediceus ; ral, or because, surveying all things here and it makes the sense obvious. By impia below, could be a witness of her wrongs; facta, we are to understand the violation of Juno, because she was the goddess of marher faith to Sichæus, and her amours with riage; and Hecate, because she presided Æneas; by which she brought on herself over magic rites; the Furies, because they infamy and disgrace. Now she feels the were the avengers of wrongs.

Flammis : weight of those actions, and the punish- in the sense of luce. ment due to her deeds. Ruæus and others, 608. Interpres : interpreter of these my who read fata, take impia in the sense of cares (sorrows) and conscious of my crudelia. Nunc ultima fata, dura sors, su wrongs. Servius takes interpres to mean, prema dies instant tibi, says Ruæus. Heyne witness, judge, or arbitress. Ruæus interand Davidson read facta.

prets curarum by nuptialium negotiorum. 599. Subiisse: to have carried, or borne 609. Hecate ululata : Hecate invoked, or upon his shoulders.

called upon, &c. When Pluto ravished 600. Divellere. There is here an allusion Proserpine, or Plecate, her mother Ceres to the manner in which the Bacchanals traversed the earth in search of her with tore the bodies of Orpheus and Pentheus in lighted torches, siopping at those places pieces.

where two or three ways met, to invoke her 602. Apponere : served him up to be feast- name, which she did with a doleful outcry. ed upon at his father's table Reference is Hence it became a custom in her sacred here nad to the story of Progne, who, to be sites, for the matrons, on certain days, to go revenged upon Tereus, for his cruel treatment about the streets and crossways, filling the

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