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Fusaque in obscænum se vertere vina cruorem. 455 456. Effata est hoc vi- Hoc visum nulli, non ipsi effata sorori. suin nulli, non etiam

Prætereà, fuit in tectis de marmore templum
Conjugis antiqui, miro quod honore colebat,

Velleribus niveis et festà fronde revinctum. 460. Hinc voces, et Hinc exaudiri voces et verba vocantis

460 verba viri vocantis eam Visa viri, nox cùm terras obscura teneret : visa sunt exaudiri, cùm

Solaque culminibus ferali carmine bubo obscura nox tereret terras; solaque bubo sæpe Sæpe queri, et longas in fletum ducere voces. visa est queri ferali car- Multaque prætereà vatum prædicta piorum inine super culininibus, 'Terribili inonitu horrificant. Agit ipse furentem 465 et ducere

In somnis ferus Æneas : semperque relinqui 466. Æneas ipse ferus Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur agit eum furentem in somnis ; semperque vi- Ire viam, et Tyrios desertâ quærere terrâ. detur sibi relinqui sola, Eumenidum veluti demens videt agmina Pentheus, seinper incomitata ire Et solem geminum, ct duplices se ostendere Thebas : longam viam, et quæ- Aut Agamemnonius scenis agitatus Orestes,

Armatam facibus matrem et serpentibus atris
Cùm fugit; ultrices sedent in limine Diræ.

Ergò ubi concepit furias, evicta dolore,
Decrevitque mori; tempus secum ipsa modumque 475




455. Obscænum cruorem. Servius explains rum: but piorum is the best. It is a proper obscenum, by mali ominis, of bad omen. So epithet of prophets. Heyne reads piorum. says Heyne.

Vina fusa : the wine poured 469. Eumenidum : as crazy Pentheus sees out upon the altar, to turn, &c.

bands of furies, and a double sun, and Thebes 457. Fuit in tectis : there was in the pa- to show itself double. The poet here comlace a marble chapel of her former husband.

pares the fury of Dido with that of the By templum, some understand the sepulchre frantic Pentheus and Orestcs. Pentheus was of Sichæus, which Dido had caused to be king of Thebes in Beotia, son of Echion, built in her palace, and which she had con

and grandson of Cadmus. He prevented secrated to his memory. Others think it his subjects from worshipping Bacchus, and to have been a chapel, or shrine, sacred to commanded that god to be put in prison; his memory.

Others again take it to be an for which he was deprived of his senses by image or statue sacred to his memory: Ser- the god. After this, he went to mount Civius thinks Virgil had reference to the cus- theron, where the bacchanals were celetom of the Romans, of the bride, when she brating their orgies. As soon as they saw came to the door of her husband's house, him, they set upon him, and tore him in pie which was gurnished with flowers and See Ovid Met. 3. 700. Virgil hero leaves, binding about the posts woollen fil, speaks of the furies as being an army lets, and washing them over with melted (agmina) whereas they were only three in tallow to keep out enchantments and sor

number. See Geor. i. 278. cery. According to him, Dido, in building

470. Et solem. This line is taken from this temple to Sichæus, had devoted herself to him forever, by performing the saine nup

Euripedes. tial rites towards him as if he had been

471. Orestes. He was the son of Aga living ; and thereby signified her resolution

He is said to have been haunted never to marry again. But this appears a by the ghost of his mother, Clytemnestra, refinement. It is much easier to consider it whom he had slain, and by the furies. He a reference to the general custom of adorn

went to the oracle of Apollo, at Delphi, to ing the door-posts of temples with fillets of consult in the business, and was informed wool, especially on holy-days.

that he had been acquitted ny the court of 461. Viri : of her husband calling her. Areopagus, at Athens. Whereupon the fu

462. Bubo: the owl. Ferali carmine : in ries blocked up the door, so that he could a mournful strain-cry. Sola : some copies not get out. He, however, made his , scape. have sera, in reference to the time of her Hence the expression, sedent limine : they singing; which is generally late at night. sit in the door. See Æn. iii. 331. Agitalus Poccs : notes.

acto d, or exhibited on the stage. 464. Pioruin. Some copies have prio- 474. Concepit: received or admitted



Exigit; et, mostam dictis aggressa sororem,
Consilium vultu tegit, ac spem fronte serenat:
Inveni, germana, viain, gratare sorori,
Quæ mihi reddat eum, vel eo me solvat amantem.
Oceani finem juxta Solemque cadentem,
Ultimus Æthiopum locus est : ubi maximus Atlas
Axem humero torquet, stellis ardentibus aptum.
Ilinc mihi Massylæ gentis monstrata sacerdos,
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi
Quæ dabat, et sacros servabat in arbore ramos,
Spargens humida mella, soporiferumque papaver.
Hæc se carminibus promittit solvere mentes,
Quas velit; ast aliis duras immittere curas ;
Sistere aquam fluviis, et vertere sidera retrò :
Nocturnosque ciet Manes. Mugire videbis
Sub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus ornos.
Testor, chara, Deos et te, germana, tuumque
Dulce caput, magicas invitam accingier artes.
Tu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras

485 487. Hæc promittit 88

posse solvere illas mentes, quas velit; ast immittere duras curas aliis

492. O chara germana,"

testor Deos et te, tuum490 que dulce caput, me in

vitam accingier ad has.

494. Tu secreta erige pyram in interiore tecto sub auras; et superimponas arma viri




476. Exigit: she concludes—fixes upon. whose flocks produced wool of a reddish Aggressa: in the sense of compellans. color, somewhat resembling gold, which

477. Serenat spem fronte : she brightens, Hercules plundered, having slain their keep(or clears up) hope on her countenance. She er, whose name was Draco. The Greek shows it on her countenance. Vultu : vi- word for sheep, signifying also apples, made sage-looks.

the poets feign that Hercules stole the apples 481. Æthiopum. Æthiopia is properly a of the Hesperides: and their keeper's name country of Africa, now called Abyssinia. being Draco, led them to pretend they were But the name was frequently applied by the kept by a dragon. See Ecl. vi. 61. ancients to any country lying in a warm cli- 486. Soporiferum papaver. As the dragon mate. Æthiops is compounded of two Greek

was always to be awake, a question arises, words, and means a person of a tawny com

how the priestess came to feed hiin with plexion-one scorched by the heat of the poppy. To solve this there are several con

jectures. Some will have it that poppies 482. Aptum : fitted—adorned—bespan- mixed with honey, was his food, and had no gled with refulgent stars. See 247, supra. effect to lay him asleep. Others say it was Axem: for cælum.

to procure sleep for him at certain intervals. 483. Massylæ gentis. The Marsyli or Servius thinks that the poppy, which proMasæsyli were a people between the rivers

cures sleep to men, has a contrary effect Malva and Mulucha, both of which fall into upon dragons, and keeps them awake. the Mediterranean. Hence the adj. Massy- Others again, avoid this difficulty, make lus. Sacerdos: in the sense of saga. Mon

a full stop after ramos, connecting this line strata : was shown to me. Est is under- with the following one. Some again think stood.

it is only mentioned to show the skill of the 484. Custos templi Hesperidum. The gar- Sorceress, that she was even able to lay the dens of the Hesperides, Virgil places in Mau- wakeful dragon asleep. But as this animal ritania, near the shore of the Atlantic, and had a hundred heads, we may suppose that not far from the town of Lixus. There they kept awake and slept by turns. She are, however, various opinions respecting is said to be the keeper, custos, of the tem. their situation. The Hesperides were the ple, because she gave food to the dragon, fabled daughters of Atlas, or of Hesperus; and supported liim. his brother, and the nymph Hesperis. Their father gave thein gardens, in which were

487. Solvere mentes : to free ininds from trees producing golden apples. Hercules, love by her magic rites (carminil us) or at the command of Eurystheus, king of My

charms. cena, stole the apples, having slain the 493. Accingier inr:itam : that I wils undragon that kept them. These apples were willing to betake myself to these magic arts. sacred to Venus.

Accingier: by paragoge, for accingi. The The truth of the matter is this : the Hes. verb here is used in the sense of the Greek perides were shepherdesses of noble birth, middle voice. It has a reflux signification.

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Erige: et arma viri, thalamo quæ fixa reliquit 495
Impius, exuviasque omnes, lectumque jugalem,
Quo perii, superimponas. Abolere nefandi
Cuncta viri monumenta jubet monstratque sacerdos.
Hæc effata silet: pallor simul occupat ora.

Non tamen Anna novis prætexere funera sacris 500
501. Nec concipit tan- Germanam credit : nec tantos mente furores
tos furores esse in ejus Concipit; aut graviora timet, quàm morte Sichæi.
mente ; aut timet gra- Ergò jussa parat. Den
viora quàm quæ evene-
rant morte Sichæi. Ergò

At regina, pyrå penetrali in sede sub auras parat que jussa erant Erectà ingenti, tædis atque ilice sectå,

505 504. Ingenti pyrå Intenditque locum sertis, et fronde coronat erectà in penetrali sede Funereâ : super exuvias, ensenique relictum, sub auras, è tædis atque Effigiemque toro locat, haud ignara futuri.

509. Effusa quoad Stant aræ circùm : et crines effusa sacerdos, crines

Tercentum tonat ore Deos, Erebumque, Chaosque, 510
Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianæ.
Sparserat et latices simulatos fontis Averni;
Falcibus et messæ ad Lunam quæruntur ahenis
Pubentes herbæ, nigri cum lacte veneni.

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495. Arma viri. The sword which Æne that definite number is used for an indefinite as left hanging in Dido's bedchamber. number. Erebum. Erebus was the son of

498. Jubet: the priestess orders and di- Chaos and Nox. For aiding the Titans in rects me to burn all the memorials of the their war against the gods, he was changed cursed man. These she had just mention into a river, and placed in the lowest part of ed_his sword_his clothes—the bridal bed, hell. He is one of the infernal gods. Chaos. &c.

He was the most ancient of the gods, and 500. Prætexere : in the sense of celare. the father of them all, according to Hesiod.

504. Penetrali sede: in the inner court Geor. iv. 347. middle of the palace.

511. Hecalen. Hecate is called tergeme505. Tædis. The tæda or teda was a tree nam from the circumstance of her having of a resinous nature, of which torches were three names. In heaven she is called Luna; made. The ilex was a species of oak called on the earth Diana; in hell Proserpina. the holm. Of these two kinds of wood the Hecate was not so properly her name, as funeral pile was constructed.

an epithet given her to denote her hundred 506. İntendit: in the sense of cingit. various qualities; or because she was ap

508. Efigiem: she places his image on peased by a hundred victims. From a Greek the bed upon his clothes and sword. word signifying a hundred. The goddess

One of the rites of magic was to prepare was painted with three heads, one of a an image of the person against whom the horse, another of a dog, and another of a enchantment was designed, either of wax or Hence tria ora virginis : the triple wool, and use it in the same manner as they form of the virgin. would have used the person himself if he 512. Sparserat: she had sprinkled the fichad been present. Or, super may be taken titious (or substituted) waters of the lake in the sense of insuper (moreover;) or su. Avernus. In performing magic rites, those per-locat may be considered a coinpound materials requisite to the occasion, that word in the sense of superimponit. The could not be conveniently procured, were meaning will then be, that the image, the allowed to be emblematically represented; clothes, and sword, were placed upon the as in the present case. Averni. Avernus, bed without any reference to their situation. a lake in Campania, fabled to be the en

510. Tonat ore: she thunders out with trance of hell. Its waters were of a very her voice three hundred gods. Servius in- noxious quality, which occasioned an unforms us, that in the sacred rites of Hecate wholesome atmosphere; insomuch so, that in particular, they used to imitate thunder; it was shunned by birds of every kind. Its 'ch gives a reason for the use of the word name is of Greek origin. See Geor. iv.

Hortensius would read sonat. We 493.

suppose that the priestess invoked 514. Pubentes herbe full blown herbs,
niimber of three hundred gods cut by moonlight, are nought for. The


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Quæritur et nascentis equi de fronte revulsus, 515

515. Et amor eque

revulsus de fronte nasEt ratri præreptus amor.

centis equi, et præreptus Ipsa mola manibusque piis, altaria justa,

matri Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recinctå,

517. Dido ipsa moriTestatur moritura Deos, et conscia fati

tura, exuta quoad unum Sidera : tum, si quod non æquo fædere amantes 520 pedein vinclis, in re

cincta veste, stans justa Curæ numen habet justumque memorque, precatur.

altaria, moli piisque Nox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa sopotem

manibus, testatur Deos, Corpora per terras, sylvæque et sæva quiêrant

et sidera conscia fati. Æquora : cùm medio volvuntur sidera lapsu :

Tum precatur numen, Cùm tacet omnis ager, pecudes, pictæque volucres, 525 si quod justumque meQuæque lacus latè liquidos, quæque aspera dumis

morque habet amantes

junctos non æquo fædere Rura tenent, somno positæ sub nocte silenti

curæ sibi. Lenibant curas, et corda oblita laborum.

526. Quæque latè teAt non infelix animi Phænissa : neque unquam

nent liquidos lacus, quæSolvitur in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem

530 que tenent rura aspera

dumis, omnes positæ sub Accipit. Ingeminant curæ, rursusque resurgens

silenti nocte lenibant cu. Sævit amor, magnoque irarum fluctuat æstu.

ras somno; et corda ob Sic adeò insistit, secumque ita corde volutat :

lita sunt laborum. En! quid ago ? rursusne procos irrisa priores


dews, which were thought to distil from the it as a description of night in general; but moon upon herbs, were reckoned favorable only of a calm and serene one, in order that for magic. Those herbs, however, were to he might set off to greater advantage the be cut with brazen sickles, ahenis falcibus. opposite image of Dido's anxiety and disLacte: in the sense of succo.

quietude. And indeed nothing could give 516. Et amor revulsus : and the love (of us a more lively idea of her restless situation, the mare) torn from the forehead of a newly than thus to set it forth in opposition to the foaled colt. The poet here means what is universal quiet and repose which reigned called the hippomanes ; of which there are over all nature beside. She is so far from two kinds. See Geor, iii. 280. et sequens. partaking of the blessings of sleep with the The one here meant is very different from rest of the world, that the silence and solithe one there described. According to the tude of the night, which dispose others to account given of it by the ancients, it was rest, only feed her care, and swell the tumult a lump of Aesh growing on the forehead of of her passion. the foal just brought forth, which the mare 524. Lapsu : in the sense of cursu. presently devours, or else she loses all af. 527. Tenent : in the sense of incolunt. fection for her young, and denies it suck. 528. Lenibant curas, &c. This beautiful Its being so greedily sought after by the line Heyne marks as spurious, and conmother, is the reason of its being called her cludes the sentence at silenti. It is not love. The circumstance just mentioned gave found in some ancient MSS. rise to the vulgar opinion of its efficacy in 529. Phanissa. Dido is so called, bephiltres, love potions, and magic rites. cause she was a native of Phænicia, a coun

518. Exuta pedem. It appears from this try lying on the eastern shore of the Medipassage that Dido put herself in the habit terranean; within the boundaries of which of a sorceress. According to Ovid, it was was the kingdom of Tyre. The words their custom to strip bare one of their feet, leniebat curas are to be supplied. and to be clad in a loose flowing robe. Ru 530. Noctem : in the sense of quietem. æus takes recincta, in the sense of succincta; 532. Irarum : passions affections. Amor but in this he differs from most commenta- sævit. Here love is represented as a nighty tors. Heyne takes it in the sense of soluta. sea, which had been for some time calin and

520. Non æquo fædere : by this we are to still; but now begins to rise in furious waves, understand an inequality in the love and af- and rack her soul with a variety of tumulfection of the parties--in an unequal match: tuous passions.

Volutot. in the sense of where love is not reciprocated.

cogitat. 522. Nox erat. The whole of this de. 534. Rursus-ne irrisa, &c. Rueus and scription is a most beautiful, and, at the Servius take rursus in the sense of ricissim: same time, perfect image of nature. Dr. shall I in turn have, &c. Dido had rejected Trapp objects to it as imperfect. But it is the match of Iarbas and others; and shall to be observed that the poet did not design she now pay court to them, as they hao

Experiar? Nomadumque petam connubia supplex, 535
Quos ego sum toties jam dedignata maritos ?

Iliacas igitur classes, atque ultima Teucrûm 538. Quiane juvat me Jussa sequar ? quiane auxilio juvat antè levatos, eos antè levatos fuisse Et benè apud memores veteris stat gratia facti ? meo auxilio ; et gratia Quis me autem, fac velle, sinet ? ratibusque superbis 540 yeteris facti stat apud eos benè inemores ejus.?

Invisam accipiet ? nescis heu, perdita, necdumn 540. Autem fac me

Laomedonteæ sentis perjuria gentis ? velle sequi eos, quis Quid tum ? sola fugâ nautas comitabor ovantes ?

543. Quid tum agen- An Tyriis, omnique manu stipata meorum, dum est ? ego-ne sola Insequar ? et quos Sidoniâ vix urbe revelli,

545 fugâ comitabor

544. An stipata Tyriis, Re:rsus again pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo ?. oinnique manu ineorum Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. civium insequar eos Tu lachrymis evicta meis, tu prima furentem

His, germana, malis oneras, atque objicis hosti.

Non licuit thalami expertem sinè crimine vitam 550 552. Fides promissa

Degere more feræ, tales nec tangere curas ? Sichæo cineri non ser

Non servata fides cineri promissa Sichæo. vata est.

Tantos illa suo rumpebat pectore questus. 556. Forma Dei re- Æneas celsâ in puppi, jam certus eundi, deuntis eodem vultu ob- Carpebat somnos, rebus jam ritè paratis.

555 tulit se huic in somnis, Huic se forma Dei, vultu redeuntis eodem, visaque est rursus ita


Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est; Mercurio quoad omnia, Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque, coloremque,


еит :


formerly done to her? Irrisa : mocked- 546. Rursus agam : shall I again conduct despised. Ruæus says, contemnenda. on the sea, those whom with difficulty I forced

536. Dedignata sum : disdained as hus- from the Sidonian city? Sidonia : an adj. bands.

from Sidon, which formed a part of the 537. Ultima : the lowest-basest.

kingdom of Tyre: here in the sense of Ty538. Quia-ne juvat : because it delighted ria. Revelli : this expresses the difficulty of me formerly, that they should be relieved by her former enterprise. my assistance; and the grateful remem- 248. Tu, Germana, evicta: thou, O sister, brance of my former deed remains with

overcome by my tears, thou first, &c. Futhem, duly mindful of it? Dido here speaks rentem: in the sense of amantem. Dido ironically. Some copies have exilio, in allu- here alludes to the speech of her sister. See sion to the friendly retreat which Dido gave

verse 32. supra, and following. Anna could to Æneas and his followers: but auxilio is

not bear to see her pine away in mournful the most approved reading.

widowhood, and therefore dissuaded her 541. Invisam: hated-an object of their from it, and encouraged a love for Æneas. aversion. Some copies have irrisam. This

550. Non licuit: was it not lawful for is the reading of Ruæus. Heyne reads, invisam, and assures us it is the best.

me, without blame, to lead a life free from the 542. Necdum sentis, &c. Here Dido al- marriage bed, &c. Sume copies have experJudes to the well known story of Laomedon, tam vitam: a life having experienced the who defrauded the gods, Neptune and A pol- marriage bed. But the other is evidently lo, of their hire for building the walls of

the most approved reading. Troy. See Geor. i. 502. Laomedontece: an

Though Dido here seemingly approves of adj. in the sense of Trojane.

a single life; by representing it as the life 543. Ovantes: in the sense of lætantes, vel

of a savage beast, she in fact condeinns it; triumphuntes. It is applicable to mariners

and insinuates that marriage is the most in general, who usually set out with accla

perfect society, and distinguishes the life of

man from that of brute animals. mations of joy: but here it is to be considered in that particular, in which Dido

551. Tangere: to know, or experience. . viewed them as triumphing over her in their 558. Similis Mercurio omnia : like Mer. departure. Insequar. Some copies have in- cury in all things. All the commentators ferar. This is the reading of Heyne, and make this god to be Mercury himself, except Valpy after him.

Catrou. He thinks it to be some other god, 544. Stipata : in the sense of comitala, who assumed the likeness of Mercury,

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