Page images

æquor misceri



Convectant calle angusto : pars grandia trudunt 405
Obnixæ frurnenta humeris : pars agmina cogunt,
Castigantque inoras : opere omnis semita fervet.
Quis tibi tunc, Dido, ceruenti talia sensus ?

408. Quis sensus erul

tunc tibi Quosve dabas gemitus, cùnı litora fervere latè Prospiceres arce ex summa, totumque videres 410 410. Videresque totum Misceri ante oculos tantis clamoribus æquor ? Improbe amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogis !

412. Quid non cogis Ire iterum in lachrymas, iterum tentare precando

mortalia pectora perpeCogitur, et supplex animos submittere amori ; Ne quid inexpertum, frustrà moritura, relinquat. 415 Anna, vides toto properari litore : circùm

419. O soror, si eso Undique convenêre : vocat jam carbasus auras,

potui sperare hunc tanPuppibus et læti nautæ imposuere coronas.

tum dolorem, potui perHunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem, 419 ferre; et potero perferre Et perferre, soror, potero.

Miseræ hoc tamen unum Exsequere, Anna, mihi : solam nam perfidus ille

421. Nam ille perfidus

hono solebat colere te Te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus ;

solam, etiam credere arSola viri molles aditus et tempora nôras.

canos sensus tibi : tu sola 1, soror, atque hostem supplex affare superbum : nôras molles aditus

NOTES. 405. Convectant: they carry often. By her indignation, to love—to give up all to using this verb, the poet represents those the superior power and efficacy of her love. animals marching backward and forward, 415. Moritura frustrà. Commentators and returning frequently to their cells, full are not agreed upon the meaning of the laden with their booty, like soldiers reaping word frustrà in this place. Servius conthe spoils of an enemy. Pars obniżce : a nects it with inexpertum. The meaning part, shoving with their shoulders, push then will be : that she might not leave any along the large grains.

thing unattempted, though in vain; since 406. Moras : in the sense of morantes : she was resolved to die. But it is more like those that delay. Frequent allusions have a lover to entertain some gliminering hope been made by poets of all ages to the ants, as long as the dear object is within reach. as examples of industry, wisdom, and fore- The better meaning is : lest by leaving any sight. “Go to the ant, thou sluggard, con- thing unattempted, or untried, she should sider her ways, and be wise,” says Solomon. die in vain-she should seem to throw away Modern observation has not discovered in her life. them any such instances of industry. On 416. Properari: there is a hastening, stir, certain days they carry out of their cells, or bustle around on the whole shore. This and expose to the warmth of the sun, their verb is used impersonally. eggs; but we find no store of provisions 418. Nautæ imposuere : the joyous malaid up against approaching want. For riners have placed garlands on the sterns. during the cold season of the year, they lie It was a custom among sailors to deck the in a torpid state, and require no food. sterns of the ship, both at sailing and land

409. Fervere : to be all in a bustle-to be ing. The reason for this was, that on the busily occupied.

sterns was a chapel in honor of the gods 412. Improbe : in the sense of crudelis, vel Pelæci, who were considered the patrons rehemens.

and protectors of the ship. 414. Cogitur ire iterum : she is forced 419. Si ego potui sperare, &c. Ruæus again to go into tears, again to try him by obscures this, and the following line, by consupplication, &c. As the poet had used necting them closely together. It is plain cogis just before, so here he repeats the same there is an ellipsis of the words potui perword, and shows the constraining power of ferre, which must be supplied. This sudden love in Dido's conduct—she is forced, in and abrupt transition is perfectly agreeable spite of her pride, her resentment, her reso to the temper of Dido's mind, and shows the lutions, and her imprecations.

propriety of potero being in the future ; Animos. Animus, in the plu. properly which otherwise cannot be justified on any signifies the affections or passions of the principles of language. mind. The meaning of the passage is : she 421. Exsequere : do-perforin. is forced again to have recourse to tears, 422. Colere: in the sense of amare. again to try him with prayers, and to submit 424. Hostem. This word sometimes was her passions, her resentment, her pride, and used by the ancients in the sense of hospes,

425. Ego non juravi Non ego cum Danais Trojanam exscindere gentem 425 Aulide cum Danais ex• Aulide juravi, classemve ad Pergama misi : scindere Trojanam urbein, misi-ve,

Nec patris Anchisæ cineres Manesve revelli.
Cur mea dicta negat duras demittere in aures ?
Quò ruit ? extremum hoc miseræ det munus amanti :
Expectet facilemque fugam, ventosque ferentes. 430
Non jam conjugium antiquum, quod prodidit, oro;
Nec pulchro ut Latio careat, regnumque relinquat
Tempus inane peto, requiem spatiumque furori;
Dum mea me victam doceat fortuna dolere.
Extremam hanc oro veniam : miserere sororis ! 435
Quam mihi cùm dederit, cumulatum morte remittam.


a guest or stranger. Cicero says: Apud referam, and morte in the sense of antequam majores nostros, is dicebatur hostis, quem nunc moriar, vel grata ero per totam vitam usque peregrinus dicemus.

ad mortem. This must appear to the most 426. Aulide : abl. of Aulis, a town upon superficial reader a forced and unwarranted the strait, which separates Eubea from xposition; and nothing but the difficulty Beotia, nearly opposite Chalcis. Here the attending the reading could have led that Greeks, on their way to the siege of Troy, learned commentator into it.

Valpy obtook an oath never to return to their coun serves of this exposition of Heyne, that, try, till they had destroyed that city. " though stated by him with considerable 427. Revelli : in the sense of violavi. confidence, it appears forced and impro428. Demittere: to admit-receive. bable.”

430. Ferentes : in the sense of secundos. If we consider the passage as referring to Munus : benefit-favor.

Æneas, it will be rendered easier. In this 431. Non jam oro: I do not now plead case, we must read cumulatum. Ruæus our former marriage, which he hath violated. considers it in this view, but appears to have Antiquus sometimes signifies, honorable. mistaken the sense of cumulatum, and This is the sense Mr. Davidson gives to the thereby given to the words, cumulatum word in this place.

morte remittam, a turn which they will 433. Pelo inane tempus : I ask a little hardly bear. Adjiciam meam mortem, quasi time as a respite, and a space for (allaying) cumulum votis ejus, says he. By adjiciam my love. Ad extinguendum amorem, says meam mortem, we are to understand that Ruæus.

Dido informed her sister of her resolution 435. Veniam : request-favor.

to kill herself, and that she makes a direct 436. Quam mihi cùm. This verse has declaration to that effect. But from the very inuch perplexed commentators, and di- subsequent part of the story, it appears to vided their opinions. The readings, also, have been her anxious solicitude to conceal are various. Ruæus' reading is most gene- from her that desperate resolution. And, rally approved. He makes the following by cumulum votis ejus, we are given to uncomment upon the passage : Cùm contulerit derstand that her death was an object of mihi hoc beneficium paulò longioris more, desire to Æneas—that it would afford him hanc extremam gratiam, remittam illum, si- pleasure, and be a source of gratification to nam abire, et adjiciam meam mortem, quasi him. But this is altogether inconsistent cumulum votis ejus.

with those feelings which he manifested toThe meaning of this much disputed pas- wards her, verse 393 supra, et sequens; and sage will in a great measure depend upon also with those tender expressions of his in the reading either of cumulatum or cumula- the sixth book, when he met her in the retam. Servius reads : Quam mihi cùm dede- gions below. See verse 450, et sequens. ris, cumulatam morte relinquam, referring Hortensius reads cumulatum, and takes it to her sister Anna. Morte" relinquam, he in the sense of abundè pensatum : abundanttakes in the sense of sola morte relinquam te. ly, or fully compensated, or requited. Here cumulatam is made to agree with the Dido had besought Æneas to stay a short

But of this it is difficult to make time longer with her, till the weather should any sense. Nor will it be easier, if we refer be more favorable for his departure, since the cumulatam to veniam, as some commen he was resolved to leave her; and till she tators have done. Heyne reads : Quam should bring her mind the better to bear his inihi cùm dederis, cumulatam morte remittam, loss. This was the extremam veniam, the referring likewise to Anna. Cumulatam last, the only favor she asked of him; and remittam, he takes in the sense of cumulatè if granted to her, she would dismiss him, of

pron, te.



Talibus orabat, talesque miserrima fletus
Fertque refertque soror : sed nullis ille movetur
Fletibus, aut voces ullas tractabilis audit.
Fata obstant; placidasque viri Deus obstruit aures. 440
Ac velut annoso validam cùm robore quercum

441. Ac velut cùm Alpini Boreæ, nunc hinc, nunc flatibus illinc

Alpini Boreæ nunc hinc,

nunc illinc certant inter Eruere inter se certant; it stridor, et altè

se flatibus eruere querConsternunt terram concusso stipite frondes :

validam Ipsa hæret scopulis : et quantùın vertice ad auras

445 robore. Æthereas, tantùm radice in 'Tartara tendit.

445. Tendit tantùm

radice ad Tartara, quanHaud secùs assiduis hinc atque hinc vocibus heros

tùm vertice tendit ad Tunditur, et magno persentit pectore curas :

æthereas auras. Mens immota manet; lachrymæ volvuntur inanes. Tum verô infelix fatis extcrrita Dido

450 Mortem orat: tædet cæli convexa tueri. Quò magis inceptum peragat, lucemque relinquat;

453. Cùm imponeret Vidit, thuricremis cùm dona imponeret aris,

dona thuricremis aris, Horrendum dictu ! latices nigrescere sacros ;

vidit sacros latices.


consent to his departure, fully compensated 439. Tractabilis : in the sense of exoraor requited for the favor and indulgence, by bilis. her death.

442. Borece. The north wind is here Dido here conforins to the usual language called Alpine, from the circumstance of the of disappointed lovers, who suppose they Alps lying north of Mantua, and a great confer the greatest possible favor upon those part of Italy. And the poet would give us they love, by dying for their sake. See to understand that the north wind had its Ecl. viii. verses 59 and 60. The most seat among those mountains, and from weighty objection to this interpretation is, thence descended in storms, and mighty that it includes a declaration of her death; blasts. but it does not necessarily imply, that it 446. Tantum radice. This is said accord. would be by her own hand. Her grief, ing to the opinion of those naturalists, who sorrow, and affliction, in consequence of his

suppose the roots of the tree equal to the loss, might become insupportable, and bring body. Tartaru: neu. plu. properly the her to the grave.

lowest part of hell—that place which the But, after all the ingenuity displayed by poets assign for the punishment of offenders. commentators, cumulatum, perhaps, is to be In Tartara : toward Tartarus-downward. taken in its usual acceptation. Cumulatum It is opposed to ad æthereas auras : toward morte remittam : I will dismiss him loaded, heaven-upward. or oppressed, with my death—with the re

448. Curas : in the sense of dolores. flection and consciousness of being the cause of my death, by leaving me in this cruel

,449. Inanes: his tears are useless-una

vailing, both with respect to himself and DiThis appears the least objectionable of do; as they produced not the effect which any solution that has been proposed. Nor she desired, and altered not his steadfast redoes it necessarily include the idea of sui- solution. cide. Dido may be supposed to declare, 451. Tædet: it irketh her to behold the that though he should comply with her re canopy of heaven. Convexa, neu. plu. of quest, and tarry with her till the weather convexus, taken as a substantive. It appears, became favorable for his departure, yet that hence, that convexus in Latin, has a differshe should eveniually be unable to supportent meaning from convex in English. The nis loss, and that grief and disappointinent convex face of heaven to us is invisible. It would be the cause of her death.

is the vaulted arch, or canopy alone, which For this suggestion, I acknowledge my we can behold—the cava cæli convexitas, as obligations to a distinguished classical Dr. Clark explains it. So, also : in convexo scholar of our own country.

nemorum, in the bosom, or nnder the shelter 438. Miserrima soror: her sister, most of the bending groves. And Justin, speakdistressed, carries, and again carries, such ing of the actions of Xerxes, says: montes tears—such piteous messages. Preces cum in planum ducebat, el convexa vallium æquae lachrymis, says Heyne.



Fusaque in obscænum se vertere vina cruorem. 455 456. Effata est hoc vi- Hoc visum nulli, non ipsi effata sorori. suin nulli, non etiam

Prætereà, fuit in tectis de marmore templum
Conjugis antiqui, miro quod honore colebat,

Velleribus niveis et festà fronde revinctum. 460. Hinc voces, et Hinc exaudiri voces et verba vocantis

460 verba viri vocantis eam Visa viri, nox cùm terras obscura teneret : visa sunt exaudiri, cùm

Solaque culminibus ferali carmine bubo obscura nox tereret terras; solaque bubo sæpe Sæpe queri, et longas in fletum ducere voces. visa est queri ferali car- Multaque prætereà vatum prædicta piorum inine super culininibus, 'Terribili inonitu horrificant. Agit ipse furentem 465 et ducere

In somnis ferus Æneas : semperque relinqui 466. Æneas ipse ferus Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur agit eum furentem in somnis ; semperque vi- Ire viam, et Tyrios desertâ quærere terrâ. detur sibi relinqui sola, Eumenidum veluti demens videt agmina Pentheus, seinper incomitata ire Et solem geminum, ct duplices se ostendere Thebas : longam viam, et quæ- Aut Agamemnonius scenis agitatus Orestes,

Armatam facibus matrem et serpentibus atris
Cùm fugit; ultrices sedent in limine Diræ.

Ergò ubi concepit furias, evicta dolore,
Decrevitque mori; tempus secum ipsa modumque 475




455. Obscænum cruorem. Servius explains rum: but piorum is the best. It is a proper obscenum, by mali ominis, of bad omen. So epithet of prophets. Heyne reads piorum. says Heyne.

Vina fusa : the wine poured 469. Eumenidum : as crazy Pentheus sees out upon the altar, to turn, &c.

bands of furies, and a double sun, and Thebes 457. Fuit in tectis : there was in the pa- to show itself double. The poet here comlace a marble chapel of her former husband.

pares the fury of Dido with that of the By templum, some understand the sepulchre frantic Pentheus and Orestcs. Pentheus was of Sichæus, which Dido had caused to be king of Thebes in Beotia, son of Echion, built in her palace, and which she had con

and grandson of Cadmus. He prevented secrated to his memory. Others think it his subjects from worshipping Bacchus, and to have been a chapel, or shrine, sacred to commanded that god to be put in prison; his memory.

Others again take it to be an for which he was deprived of his senses by image or statue sacred to his memory: Ser- the god. After this, he went to mount Civius thinks Virgil had reference to the cus theron, where the bacchanals were celetom of the Romans, of the bride, when she brating their orgies. As soon as they saw came to the door of her husband's house, him, they set upon him, and tore him in pie which was gurnished with flowers and See Ovid Met. 3. 700. Virgil hero leaves, binding about the posts woollen fil, speaks of the furies as being an army lets, and washing them over with melted (agmina) whereas they were only three in tallow to keep out enchantments and sor

number. See Geor. i. 278. cery. According to him, Dido, in building

470. Et solem. This line is taken from this temple to Sichæus, had devoted herself to him forever, by performing the saine nup

Euripedes. tial rites towards him as if he had been

471. Orestes. He was the son of Aga living ; and thereby signified her resolution

He is said to have been haunted never to marry again. But this appears a by the ghost of his mother, Clytemnestra, refinement. It is much easier to consider it whom he had slain, and by the furies. He a reference to the general custom of adorn

went to the oracle of Apollo, at Delphi, to ing the door-posts of temples with fillets of consult in the business, and was informed wool, especially on holy-days.

that he had been acquitted ny the court of 461. Viri : of her husband calling her. Areopagus, at Athens. Whereupon the fu

462. Bubo: the owl. Ferali carmine : in ries blocked up the door, so that he could a mournful strain-cry. Sola : some copies not get out. He, however, made his , scape. have sera, in reference to the time of her Hence the expression, sedent limine : they singing; which is generally late at night. sit in the door. See Æn. iii. 331. Agitalus Poccs : notes.

acto d, or exhibited on the stage. 464. Pioruin. Some copies have prio 474. Concepit: received or admitted



Exigit; et, mostam dictis aggressa sororem,
Consilium vultu tegit, ac spem fronte serenat:
Inveni, germana, viain, gratare sorori,
Quæ mihi reddat eum, vel eo me solvat amantem.
Oceani finem juxta Solemque cadentem,
Ultimus Æthiopum locus est : ubi maximus Atlas
Axem humero torquet, stellis ardentibus aptum.
Ilinc mihi Massylæ gentis monstrata sacerdos,
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi
Quæ dabat, et sacros servabat in arbore ramos,
Spargens humida mella, soporiferumque papaver.
Hæc se carminibus promittit solvere mentes,
Quas velit; ast aliis duras immittere curas ;
Sistere aquam fluviis, et vertere sidera retrò :
Nocturnosque ciet Manes. Mugire videbis
Sub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus ornos.
Testor, chara, Deos et te, germana, tuumque
Dulce caput, magicas invitam accingier artes.
Tu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras

485 487. Hæc promittit 88

posse solvere illas mentes, quas velit; ast immittere duras curas aliis

492. O chara germana,"

testor Deos et te, tuum490 que dulce caput, me in

vitam accingier ad has.

494. Tu secreta erige pyram in interiore tecto sub auras; et superimponas arma viri




476. Exigit: she concludes—fixes upon. whose flocks produced wool of a reddish Aggressa: in the sense of compellans. color, somewhat resembling gold, which

477. Serenat spem fronte : she brightens, Hercules plundered, having slain their keep(or clears up) hope on her countenance. She er, whose name was Draco. The Greek shows it on her countenance. Vultu : vi- word for sheep, signifying also apples, made sage-looks.

the poets feign that Hercules stole the apples 481. Æthiopum. Æthiopia is properly a of the Hesperides: and their keeper's name country of Africa, now called Abyssinia. being Draco, led them to pretend they were But the name was frequently applied by the kept by a dragon. See Ecl. vi. 61. ancients to any country lying in a warm cli 486. Soporiferum papaver. As the dragon mate. Æthiops is compounded of two Greek

was always to be awake, a question arises, words, and means a person of a tawny com

how the priestess came to feed hiin with plexion-one scorched by the heat of the poppy. To solve this there are several con

jectures. Some will have it that poppies 482. Aptum : fitted—adorned—bespan- mixed with honey, was his food, and had no gled with refulgent stars. See 247, supra. effect to lay him asleep. Others say it was Axem: for cælum.

to procure sleep for him at certain intervals. 483. Massylæ gentis. The Marsyli or Servius thinks that the poppy, which proMasæsyli were a people between the rivers

cures sleep to men, has a contrary effect Malva and Mulucha, both of which fall into upon dragons, and keeps them awake. the Mediterranean. Hence the adj. Massy- Others again, avoid this difficulty, make lus. Sacerdos: in the sense of saga. Mon

a full stop after ramos, connecting this line strata : was shown to me. Est is under- with the following one. Some again think stood.

it is only mentioned to show the skill of the 484. Custos templi Hesperidum. The gar- Sorceress, that she was even able to lay the dens of the Hesperides, Virgil places in Mau- wakeful dragon asleep. But as this animal ritania, near the shore of the Atlantic, and had a hundred heads, we may suppose that not far from the town of Lixus. There they kept awake and slept by turns. She are, however, various opinions respecting is said to be the keeper, custos, of the tem. their situation. The Hesperides were the ple, because she gave food to the dragon, fabled daughters of Atlas, or of Hesperus; and supported liim. his brother, and the nymph Hesperis. Their father gave thein gardens, in which were

487. Solvere mentes : to free ininds from trees producing golden apples. Hercules, love by her magic rites (carminil us) or at the command of Eurystheus, king of My

charms. cena, stole the apples, having slain the 493. Accingier inr:itam : that I wils undragon that kept them. These apples were willing to betake myself to these magic arts. sacred to Venus.

Accingier: by paragoge, for accingi. The The truth of the matter is this : the Hes. verb here is used in the sense of the Greek perides were shepherdesses of noble birth, middle voice. It has a reflux signification.

« PreviousContinue »