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Hæc alternanti potior sententia visa est.

Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat, fortemque Cloanthum: 289. Jubet ut taciti Classem aptent taciti, sociosque ad litora cogant, aptent classem,

Arma parent; et, quæ sit rebus causa novandis, 290
Dissimulent: sese intereà, quando optima Dido

Neseiat, et tantos rumpi non speret amores,
293. Intereà statuit Tentaturum aditus, et quæ mollissima fandi
sese tentaturum aditus, Tempora ; quis rebus dexter modus. Ocyùs omnes
et quæ sint mollissima
tempora fandi; quis mo-
Imperio læti

295 parent, ac jussa facessunt. dus sit dexter rebus con

At regina dolos (quis fallere possit amantem ?) ficiendis

Præsensit, motusque excepit prima futuros,
Omnia tuta timens. Eadem impia Fama furenti
Detulit armari classem, cursumque parari.
Sævit inops aniini, totamque incensa per

urbem 300 301. Talis qualis Thy. Bacchatur: qualis commotis excita sacris

Thyas, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho
Orgia, nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithæron.

Tandem his Æneam compellat vocibus ultro, 305. O perfide homo, Dissimulare etiam sperâsti, perfide, tantum

305 sperâsti te posse Posse nefas, tacitusque meâ decedere terra ?

Nec te noster amor, nec te data dextera quondam,
Nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido?
Quin etiam hyberno moliris sidere classem,
Et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire per altum,

310 311. O crudelis hospes ! Crudelis ! Quid ? si non arva aliena domosque Quid? si tu non peteres Ignotas peteres, et Troja antiqua inaneret;

Troja per undosum peteretur classibus æquor ?

as, excita

NOTES

287. Hæc alternanti : this plan secmed and carried about in procession by his franthe better to him, wavering in mind, and tic votaries. The mysteries of Bacchus were examining what had best be done in his celebrated every third year: hence they are present situation. Ruæus says consilium, for called trieterica. sententia.

302. Thyas : a bacchanal; from a Greek 293. Aditus : the avenues or passages to word signifying to roar about in wild and laer heart. Quæ : what might be the fittest frantic disorder. or softest moments of addressing her, to

303. Nocturnus Cithæron. Cithæron was obtain her consent. Rebus : for effecting

a mountain in Bcotia sacred to Bacchus. his purposes. 298. Excepit : heard—found out. Ti

Here his mysteries were celebrated in the mens omnia luta: fearing all things when followers. They were, for the most part,

most distinguished manner by his infatuated even safe—fearing danger when all things celebrated in the night. Hence nocturnus are safe. Furenti : in the sense of ad aures

Cithæron. Eam is understood after vocat. furentis, sive amantis. Impia: in the sense of sæva, says Heyne. Delulit: in the sense 307. Dextera quondam data: thy right of nuntiavit.

hand once given.

This alludes to their 300. Inops animi : devoid of reason. marriage. Supra, 172. Tenet is to be sup

301. Qualis Thyas : as a bacchanal roused plied, or repeated, with each of the preceat the moving of the sacred symbols, &c. ding nominatives. Servius informs us that commovere sacra was

309. Moliris classem: do you prepare your a phrase used by the Romans to signify the fleet in the winter season. The north winds opening of the solemnities of particular di were directly against Æneas in sailing from vinities, on their high festival days; when Africa to Italy. This speech of Dido is their sacred syinbols were removed from tender and persuasive. And since it aptheir temples, in order to be carried about peared his purpose to sail to Italy, she ennompous procession. This was particu- deavors to dissuade him from it, until the e case in celebrating the Orgia, or winter and contrary winds were over, in the

of Bacchus, when the statues of hope that, by repeated instances of her afvere removed from his temples, fection and regard, ne might be induced to

320 miserere

Mene fugis? per ego haz lacrymas dextramque tuam, te,

314. Ego oro te per Quando aliud mihi jam miseræ nihil ipsa reliqui,

315 has lacrymas, tuamque Per connubia nostra, per inceptos Hymenæos ;

dextram (quando ipsa

jam reliqui nihil aliud Si benè quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quicquam

mihi miseræ) per nostra Dulce meum; miserere domûs labentis, et istam,

317. Aut si quicquam Oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem. meum fuit dulce tibi, Te propter Libycæ gentes, Nomadumque tyranni Odere, infensi 'Tyrii: te propter eundem

321. Odere me, et TyExtinctus pudor, et, quâ solå sidera adibam,

rii infensi sunt mihi : Fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes ?

propter te eundem, meus

pudor extinctus est, et Hoc solum nomen quoniam de conjuge restat.

mea prior fama
Quid moror ? an mea Pygmalion dum menia frater 325
Destruat ? aut captam ducat Getulus Iarbas?
Saltem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset

327. Siqua soboles salAnte fugam soboles; si quis mihi parvulus aula

tem suscepta fuisset miLuderet Æneas, qui te tantùm ore referret ;

hi de te ante fugain; si Non equidem omninò capta aut deserta viderer.

quis parvulus Æneas

330 Dixerat. Ille Jovis monitis immota tenebat Lumina, et obnixus curam sub corde premebat. Tandem pauca refert : Ego te, quæ plurima fando 334. O Regina, ego Enumerare vales nunquam, regina, negabo

nunquam negabo te proPromeritam: nec me meminisse pigebit Elisæ ; 335 meritam esse plurima de

me, quæ tu vales enumeDum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos reget artus.

rare fando Pro re pauca loquar. Nec ego hanc abscondere furto 336. Dum ego ipse ero Speravi, ne finge, fugam; nec conjugis unquam

memor mei, dum

NOTES.

give over the idea of it altogether. Sidere: person and features. But this sentiment in the sense of tempore.

does not very well agree with the present 316. Hymencos : in the sense of amores. strain of her discourse; which is full of tenQui novitate sunt dulces, says Servius. derness, soft address, and moving expostu

319. Mentem : purpose-design of leav- lation. ing me.

Since she could not enjoy his person, it 320. Tyranni Nomadum: the kings of the would have been some alleviation of her Numidians. The ancient Romans used the distress, if she had a son by him, who inight words tyrannus and rex promiscuously. only set the image of the father before her

321. Tyrii infensi. She here alludes to eyes, if he could do nothing more. Heyne the purpose of her brother to pursue her, as reads tamen. Ruæus says, qui repræsentaalready mentioned.

rit te tantùm modò vultu. 322. Pudor extinctus: my chastity is gone, 330. Capla. Ruæus interprets this by and my former fame, by which alone I reach- decepta, which is very harsh, and cannot be ed the stars.

the meaning of the speaker. Capta refors 324. Quoniam hoc nomen: since this name to what she had said just before, 326 supra, alone remains of the husband. It is to be aut captam ducat Getulus Iarbas. observed that Dido does not address him by In order to paint her distress to Æneas in the endearing name of husband, but by that the liveliest colors, she represents him as the of stranger or guest, hospes: and she can only person, on whom she could depend for look upon him in no other light, since he is protection; and now he was going to abangoing to leave her.

don her, considers herself forlorn, deserted, 325. Quid moror? what do I wait for? and left a prey to her enemies, who had al

328. Siquis parrulus: if any little Æneas ready, as it were, made her their captive. could play to me in my hall, who only might This is the dreary image that haunts her resemble you in form, I should not, &c. disturbed fancy by day, and her dreams by Some ancient copies read tamen, instead of night. See verse 466. infra. tantùm: who nevertheless should resemble 333. Refert: in the sense of respondet. thee, &c. Some explain the words, qui te 337. Loquar pauca pro re: I will speak a tantùm referret ore; as if Dido did not wish few things to the point in question. Nec her son to resemble Æneas in his mind, ego speravi: nor did I hope to conceal my cruelty and hardness of heart, but only in departure, &c. This is a reply to Dido's

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nain

Prætendi tædas, aut hæc in fædera veni.
Me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam

340
Auspiciis, et sponte meâ componere curas ;
Urbem Trojanam primùm dulcesque meorum
Relliquias colerem ; Priami tecta alta manerent ;

Et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis. 345. Grynæus Apollo Sed nunc Italiam magnam Grynaeus Apollo;

345 jussit me capessere mag- Italian Lyciæ jussêre capessere sortes. Italiam, Lycie Hic amor, hæc patria est.

Si te Carthaginis arces sortes jussêre me

Phænissam, Libycæque aspectus detinet urbis : 350. Fas sit et nos Quæ tandem Ausoniâ Teucros considere terrâ quærere Invidia est ? et nos fas extera quærere regna.

350 353. Turbida imago patris Anchisæ admonet Me patris Anchisæ, quoties humentibus umbris et terret me in somnis, Nox operit terras, quoties astra ignea surgunt, quoties

Admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago : 354. Puer Ascanius, Me puer Ascanius, capitisque injuria chari, injuriaque ejus chari ca

Quem regno Hespériæ fraudo et fatalibus arvis. 355 pitis, quem fraudo regno Hesperiæ, et fatalibus Nunc etiain interpres Divûm, Jove missus ab ipso, arvis, admonet me. (Testor utrumque caput) celeres mandata per auras

NOTES.

accusation, dissimulare etiam, &c. Verse country. What makes the objection appear 305, supra.

the more specious is, that Virgil uses colerem 339. Prætendi. Ruæus takes this in the for coluissem ; but there are many instances sense of Prætexui, in allusion to verse 172, where the imperfect of the sub. has the where it is said of Dido, prætexil culpam same signification with the plup., and it is hoc nomine : nor did I ever cover over our plain that it has in the present instance, marriage with the name of husband, or come both from the sense, and the use of posuissem into the bands of Hymen.

in the following line, with which the preSome take prælendi in the sense of præ- ceding verbs are connected. Auspiciis : in tuli : nor did I ever bear before me the nup- the sense of voluntate. Curas: in the sense tial torch: in allusion to a Roman custom of negotia, says Heyne. of carrying lighted torches before the new

344. Recidiva : rebuilt-raised up after a married couple. In either case, the plain fall. Posuissem: in the sense of restituissem. meaning is: I had no part in our nuptialsI consented not to them ; nor did I enter

345. Grynaus Apollo. The epithet Gryinto any contract of that nature.

This an

næus was given to Apollo from Gryna, a swers Dido's charge against him : Nec te city of Æolia, near which was a grove call. noster amor, &c. Verse 305, supra.

ed Grynæum, where Apollo had an oracle of 340. Si fata paterentur: if the destinies great antiquity, and also a splendid temple. had permitted me to lead my life, &c. 346. Lyciæ sortes. Lycia, a maritime

This passage furnishes the critics with a country of Asia Minor, in which was the pretext to condemn Æneas of ingratitude city Patara, where Apollo had a famous and insensibility. Was it not enough, say temple and oracle. This and some other they, for him to let Dido know that he was

Oracles were called Sorles, because they deforced by the Destinies elsewhere, without termined the fate of the person by casting insulting her with an open declaration, that

or drawing lots, throwing dice, or by some he preferred other objects to her? But we

such inethod, which was thought to be unshall not think Æneas so much to blame, der the iminediate direction of the god. if we consider the true meaning of his 350. Fas. This word properly signifies a words. Dido had urged him to stay; he divine law-what is right or lawful—also a answers, it is not in his power, because the duty towards God. Ei, often, as here, bath Destinies opposed it: in proof of it, he as the sense of etiam, vel quoque. sures her that if they had left him to his 355. Fatalibus arvis: fields destined to own choice, he would never have left his him by fate. native country: he would have rebuilt Troy, Æneas had all along been directed to go which now lay in ashes. This is not say to Italy, under the assurance of a peaceful ing; if I were at liberty, I would forsake settlement. This country the gods had desyou and return, and rebuild Troy; but I tined to him. would never have formed any other design 357. Testor utrumque caput: I call to than that of repairing the desolation of my witness each god, viz. Mercury and Jove

centem

Detulit. Ipse Deum manifesto in lumine vidi
Intrantem muros, vocemque his auribus hausi.
Desine meque tuis incendere, teque querelis: 360
Italiam non sponte sequor.
Talia dicentem jamdudum aversa tuetur,

362. Dido jamdudum Huc illuc volvens oculos, totumque pererrat

aversa tuetur illum diLuminibus tacitis, et sic accensa profatur: Nec tibi Diva parens, generis nec Dardanus auctor, 365 Perfide, sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens Caucasus, Hyrcanæque admôrunt ubera tigres. Nam quid dissimulo ? aut quæ me ad majora reservo ? Nun Hetu ingemuit nostro ? num lumina flexit ? Num lachrymas victus dedit ? aut miseratus amantem 970 Quæ quibus anteferam ? jam jam nec maxima Juno, Nec Saturnius hæc oculis pater aspicit æquis. Nusquam tuta fides. Ejectum litore, egentem Excepi, et regni demens in parte locavi:

374. Escepi eum ejecAmissam classem, socios à morte reduxi.

375 tum litore, egentem omHeu! furiis incensa feror. Nunc augur Apollo,

nium; et demens locavi

eum in parte regni
Nunc Lyciæ sortes, nunc et Jove missus ab ipso
Interpres Divûm fert horrida jussa per auras.
Scilicet is Superis labor est, ea cura quietos
Sollicitat. Neque te teneo, neque dicta refello. 380
I, sequere Italiam ventis; pete regna per undas.

[est?

NOTES.

que Deum.

Caput, by synec. is here put for the whole 368. Majora : in the sense of majores inpody, or person: so also in line

354. Val- jurias. py understands it of Dido and Æneas. But 369. Num ingemuit nostro : did he sigh at he is singular in this. Ruæus says, utrum- my tcars? did he inove his eyes, &c. This

refers to 331 supra: Ille Jovis monitis immola 359. Hausi his auribus: I drew his voice tenebat lumina, into these ears—I heard his voice. This is a 371. Quæ quibus anteferam: what things pleonasmus common to most languages. It can I mention before these? Ruæus says: adds strength to the affirmation.

Inter quæ omnia signa immanitatis, quænam 360. Incendere: to trouble-afflict. aliis majora dicam. Valpy says: how shall 362. Aversa: in the sense of infensa. I express myself? to which feeling shall I 363. Pererrut: surveys him all over. first give utterance? But the words will 364. Tacitis: steady-fixed.

bear another meaning: before whow can I 365. Nec tibi Diva, &c. Dido, finding carry these things' viz. my complaints. To Æneas deaf to all her entreaties, after recall- this we are led from considering what foling all the fine things she had said of him, lows; as if Dido had said: to whom can I verse 12 el sequens, breaks forth into the apply for redress? since neither powerful most bitter invectives : Nor is a goddess Juno, nor father Jove regards my sufferings your parent-nor Dardanus the founder of with equal eyes. There is justice neither your race; but frightful Caucasus brought in heaven nor earth. you forth among its hard rocks, and the 373. Ejectum: shipwrecked. Hyrcanian tigers gave you suck.

375. Reduxi : in the sense of servavr. Caucasus : a very inhospitable mountain, See Æn. vii. 431. Amissam : in the sense which divides Scythia from India. It lies of quassatam. between the Caspian and Euxine seas. 376. Nunc augur Apollo. She here alHyrcaniæ tigres: Hyrcania, a country in ludes to what Æneas had said before, verse Asia, anciently a part of Parthia, lying be- 345, et sequens. Feror: in the sense of raiween Media on the west, and Margiana on pior. the east ; and having the Caspian sea on the 381. I, sequere Italiam ventis, &c. This north. It is subject to the Persians. Ho- Quintilian gives as an instance of the irodie, Tabarestan. This country was infested nical style. Nothing is more in character with the most savage beasts. Admôrunt: of an injured lover, than to order him to do they moved their teats to you.

the very thing, which was contrary to her

382. Spero equidem Spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possunt, te hausurum supplicia Supplicia hausurum scopulis, et nomine Dido sæpe vocaturum Dido Sæpe vocaturum. Sequar atris ignibus absens : nomine, si pia numina Et, cùm frigida mors animâ seduxerit artus,

385 possunt efficere quid Omnibus umbra locis adero. Dabis, improbe, pænas :

387. Hæc fama tua- Audiam, et hæc Manes veniet mihi fama sub imos. rum pænarum veniet His medium dictis sermonem abrumpit, et auras mihi sub imos

Ægra fugit, seque ex oculis avertit et aufert,
390. Linquens eum Linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem
cunctantem metû, et

Dicere. Suscipiunt famulæ, collapsaque membra 331
Marmoreo referunt thalamo, stratisque reponunt.

1t pius Æneas, quanquam lenire dolentem

Solando cupit, et dictis avertere curas; 395. Labefactus quoad Multa gemens, magnoque animum labefactus amore: animum magno amore, Jussa tamen Divûm exsequitur, classemque revisit.

396 tamen exsequitur jussa Tum verò Teucri incumbunt, et litore celsas

Deducunt toto naves: natat uncta carina ; 401. Cernas Trojanos Frondentesque ferunt remos, et robora sylvis migrantes, ruentesque Infabricata, fugæ studio.

400 402. Ac veluti cùm Migrantes cernas, totâque ex urbe ruentes. formicæ memores hyeniis populant ingen

Ac veluti ingentem formicæ farris acervum tem acervum farris, re- Cùm populant, hyemis memores, tectoque reponunt: ponuntque in tecto It nigrum campis agmen, prædamque per herbas

NOTES.

in clinations. Servius observes too, that phantom or shade, which commonly freDido commands in a way that implies dis- quented the place where the body was busuasion, by mentioning the winds and the ried; or haunted those abodes to which it waves, which served to remind him of his had been accustoined in life: the Manes, danger; and by using the word sequere, as which were confined to the lower regions ; if Italy fled from him.

and the Spiritus, which returned to heaven, 382. Spero equidem : I hope indeed you its original abode. Manes is frequently will suffer punishment among the interven-, taken for the place of the dead, by meton ing rocks, &c.

Hausurum: part. fut. of which is the meaning here. haurio: to drink. This seems to be used 388. Auras : in the sense of lucem. in allusion to the death which she hoped he 389. Ægra fugit auras : faint, she fled the would die, that is, by drowning. This was light-she withdrew from further conference reckoned the peculiar punishment reserved with Æneas, into her private apartment. by Heaven for perfidious lovers. Dido: a Here, quite overcome, she fainted, as we Greek acc. of the contracted nouns.

may suppose, when her servants came to 384. Absens sequar, &c. The meaning her aid, and placed her upon her bed. “She is : that the remembrance of Dido, whom withdrew from the light to her apartment,” he had abandoned, though absent, would says Valpy. Some think she fainted quite still hasnt his guilty mind, like a grim fury. away, and ceased to breathe ; but this is not This satisfaction she should have in life; and consistent with what follows: avertit et when death should separate her soul and aufert, &c. body, and her ghost, umbra, should be at 390. Mulla. The multa in the preceding liberty to range over the universe, it should part of the line, appears entirely expletive. also haunt him wherever he went. Atris 393. Dolentem : referring to Dido. Some ignibus refers probably to the representation copies have dolorem, as Heyne informs us. of the furies, armed with torches ; which 393. Deducunt : launch the lofty ships Cicero explains of the stings and torments along the whole shore. of a guilty conscience.

399. Ferunt remos : they bring from the 386. Umbra adero: I, a shade, or ghost, woods green (unwrought) oars, and rough will be present with you, &c.

timber; such was their hurry and impa387. Hæc fama veniet: this news shall tience to be gone. Frondentes : covered come to me under the lowest shades. The with leaves--not even stripped of their ancients obser:ed a threefold distinction in leaves. the imn.ortal part of man, viz.: the Umbra, 403. Tecto: in their cells, or holes.

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