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71. Arvisia vina quæ Vina novum fundam calathis Arvisia nectar. sunt
Cantabunt mihi Damætas, et Lyctius Ægon : 79. Ut Agricolæ fa- Saltantes Satyros imitabitur Alphesibeus. cient vota quotannis Hæc tibi semper erunt ; et cùm solennia vota Baccho Cererique, sic Reddemus Nymphis, et cùm lustrabimus agros.
75 facient ea tibi
Dum juga montis aper, fluvios dum piscis amabit, 81. Que, que dona reddam
Dumque thymo pascentur apes, dum rore cicadæ, 82. Nam neque sibi. Semper honos, nomenque tuum, laudesque manebunt. lus venientis Austri ju- Ut Baccho Cererique, tibi sic vota quotannis vat me tantùm ; nec litora Agricolæ facient : damnabis tu quoque votis.
80 percussa fluctu tam ju
Mo. Quæ tibi, quæ tali reddam vant me; nec flumina
carmine dona ?
pro Nam quæ decurrunt inter neque me tantùm venientis sibilus Austri, saxosas valles, tam ju- Nec percussa juvant fluctu tam litora, nec quæ
Saxosas inter decurrunt flumina valles.
71. Arvisia vina : Chian wine. Arvisia : ration of her darling child. He endeavored an adj. from Arvisus, a promontory of the to reconcile her to Fluto as a son-in-law ; island Chios, in the Archipelago, famous for but to no purpose. At length he consented its good wine. Novum nectar : nectar was that she should be restored, provided she properly any kind of pleasant wine, or had eaten nothing in the dominions of the other liquor. Hence the poets feigned it to ravisher. Ceres repaired immediately to be the drink of the gods. Novum : good— the infernal regions, and found she had excellent. The wine here offered was to eaten the seeds of a pomegranate, found in be as good as nectar-good or excellent the Elysian fields. Iler retuin, therefore, nectar. See Ecl. iii. 66.
was impossible : but Jupiter consented that 72. Lyctus : an adj. from Lyctus, a city she might pass six months of the year with of Crete,
her mother on earth, and the reinainder
with Pluto. 73. Sultantes Satyros: leaping or wonton satyrs. The Satyri were demi-gods of the During all this time, the cultivation of the country, the ori of whom is not well earth had been neglected. To repair the known. They were of a hideous form, loss which mankind sustained by her aband generally distinguished themselves by sence, Cercs went to Attica and instructed their riotous and wanton demeanor in the Triptolemus, the son of Celeus, in all that orgies of Bacchus, which they generally at- pertained to agriculture. tended. The Romans cailed them indis
Ceres is supposed to be the same as the criminately Fauni, Panes, and Szivani. Egyptian Isis, and her worship to have been Alphesibæus. See Ecl. 8.
brought into Greece by Erechtheus about 75. Lustrabimus. Lustro may here be 1426 years before Christ. She is supposed taken in the sense of circumeo, to go around to be the same as Tellus, Cybele, Berecynthia, or encompass ; or of purgo, to cleanse or &c. The Ronans paid her great veneration, purify by sacrifice ; or it may comprehend and her festivals were generally celebrated both. For it is agreed by all, that the poet for eight days in the month of April. Ceres, dinih a reference to what is called the sacri- by meton. is often put for bread grain, &c. ficrum ambervale, spoken of Geor. i. 345, Circumimus campos cum hostia,
80. Damnabis tu, &c. Thou shalt also -says Ruæus. Reddemus : in the sense of bind them to their vows—thou shalt grant
requests of those, who ask. The pro79. Cereri. Ceres was the goddess of priety of this mode of expression will ap
when it is considered that the person husbandry, the daughter of Saturn and Ops, who asked any thing of a God, viriually, and mother of Proserpine by Jupiter, whom if not directly, promised or vowed somePluto carried off whilo she was gathering thing in return ; and if his requests were flowers in the plains of Enna, in Sicily: granted, then he became condemned, and The loss was grievous to Ceres, who sought judicially bound to the performance of his her both day and night; when at length
promise or vow. And the god, when he she found her veil near the fountain of Cyane. She could obtain no information to condemn, or bind the promiser to pay his
granted any petition or request, was said of her daughter, till the nymph Arethusa told her that she was carried off by Pluto. Upon this, she immediately ascended to 82. Sibilus: the whistling of the rising heaven, and demanded of Jupiter the resto- south wind.
ME. Hâc te nos fragili donabimus antè cicutâ. 85 86. Hæc eadem cicuta Hæc nos, Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexim : Hæc eadem docuit, Cujum pecus ? an Melibæi?
83. Sume podum forMo. At tu sume pedum, quod, me cùm sæpe rogaret,
mosum paribus nodis Non tulit Antigenes (et erat tum dignus ameri)
atque ære, quod Anti
gines non tulit, cùm Formosum paribus nodis atque ære, Menalca. 90 sæpe rogaret me, et
85. Nos donabimus: I will present thee pecus? i. e. with this same pipe I sang the with this, &c. Cicula : properly a pipe third Eclogue. made of the stalk of the hemlock. See Ecl. I. 10.
88. Sume pedum : take this crook, as a 86. Hæc eadem docuit : this same pipe
testimony of iny regard. taught me: formosum Corydon, &c. i. e. with 90. Formosum: beautified with equal knobs this same pipe I sang the second Eclogue. and brass with knobs at equal distances : Hæc docuit : this same taught me : Cujum or uniform, in regard to size.
What is the subject of this pastoral? By whom were they introduced into Who probably is meant by Daphnis ? Greece ? and from what country?
Who is to be understood under the cha What were his votaries called ? racter of Menalcas ? Who under that of What were some of the names of Bacchus? Mopsus ?
How is he represented as drawn? When does Ruæus suppose it to have
What is the word Bacchus frequently been written:
used for? Where is the scene laid?
Who were the Satyri? How did they Into how many parts is the pastoral die distinguish themselves? vided ?
Who was Ceres ? What is said of her? Who was Alcon? and what is said of
Is she supposed to be the same with the him?
Who was Codrus ? and what is said of Egyptian Isis? him ?
By whom was her worship introduced Who was Bacchus ? What is said of him? into Greece ? and at what time? What were his festivals called ?
When were her festivals celebrated ?
The subject of this fine pastoral is Silenus. He had promised the swains Chromis and
Mnasilus a song; but had put it off from time to time. Wearied with the delay, they surprised him asleep in his grotto, just recovering from his intoxication. His garlands lay at some distance from him : with these they bind him fast; and in this condition they demand of him the fulfilment of his promise. At this moment, Ægle, one of the nynıphs, joins them. Upon which he begins, and explains to them the origin of the world upon the principles of the Epicurean philosophy; and concludes with several
interesting fables by way of episode. It is generally supposed this pastoral was designed as a compliment to Syro the Epicu
rean, who taught Virgil the principles of that philosophy. By Silenus we are to understand Syro, and by the swains Chromis and Mnasilus, his two pupils, Virgil and Varus.
PRIMA Syracosio dignata est ludere versu 2. Nostra Thalia pri- Nostra, nec erubuit sylvas habitare, Thalia. ma dignata est
Cùm canerem reges et prælia, Cynthius aurem
Pascere oportet oves, deductuin dicere carmen. 5
Agrestem tenui meditabor arundine Musam.
1. Syracosio versu : in pastoral verse. 7. Vare. It is generally thought that the tracosio: an adj. from Syracusa, the birth poet here means Quintilius Varus, who p.ice of Theocritus, the first pastoral poet arose to the highest honors under Augustus. of eminence; the chief city of Sicily, and He was consul in the year of Rome 741; fanious for its defence against the Roinans after which he was præfect of Syria eight under Marcellus.
years. Having returned home, he was sent 2. Thalia. One of the Muses. See Ecl. into Germany with three legions, which he iii. 60. Nec erubuit, &c. Nor did she blush lost, being drawn into an ambush. This to inhabit the woods. This verb here is mortified him so much, that he killed himboth expressive and beautiful; the perf. of self. This happened in the year 762. Conerubesco. Thalia was supposed to preside dere: to write--record. over comedy and pastoral poetry. Virgil was the first pastoral writer among the Ro 9. Non injussa cano: I do not sing things mans; which explains the words, nostra forbidden by Apollo. He perrnits me to Thalia prima: my muse first deigned, &c. sing of pastoral subjects, but not of kings
3. Cum canerem, &c. Virgil is said to and battles. Si quis lamen, &c. The tamen have begun a work upon the affairs of Alba does not refer to the words, non injussa cano, Longa, but afterwards relinquished it, and but to the third and fourth lines, where "commenced the Bucolics. Cynthius: a Apollo forbids him to write in the lofty name of Apollo. See Ecl. iv. 10. Vellit: style of heroic poetry. The meaning seems pinched my ear; a proverbial expression, to be this : though he forbid me to describe implying admonition.
your actions in heroic verse, he permits me 5. Deductum: a part. of deduco, humble, to do it in the humble style of pastoral. or slender. A metaphor taken from wool And if ar.y should be taken, captus amore, spun out till it is made fine or slender. with the love of this kind of writing, and
6. Supererunt: in the sense of erunt alii should read these pastorals, he shall here poetæ. The parts of the verb are separated find them. Hæc: these things—these my by Tmesis.
Bucolics. Quoque: in the sense of etiam.
Captus amore leget; te nostræ, Vare, myricæ,
24. Satis est me potuisse videri sic vobis. 25
25. Sunt carmina vobis : huic Ægle erit aliud mercedis.
10. Nostre myricæ : in the sense of nostra on him cords of these very garlands—they Bucolica. The omne nemus in the following bind him with cords made of them. line probably means every elevated com 20. Ægle. The name of a nymph, deposition, such as epic or heroic. We are rived from a Greek word signifying splendor, led to this interpretation from the declara or brightness. Naïadum. See Ecl. ii. 46. tion of the poet in the sixth line, that there Videnti : to him just opening his eyes. would be other poets, who would celebrate Timidis : to the trembling swains. the praises of Varus in heroic verse, though 22. Moris. Morus was the fruit of the he himself would prefer to do it in the mulberry-tree. It is here called sanguineus, humbler style of pastoral.
red, or bloody. It is said to have been ori14. Silenum. Silenus was one of the rural ginally white; but assumed the red or deities, the god of mysteries and knowledge, purple color, in memory of the two lovers, and the foster-father of Bacchus. He is Pyramus and Thisbe, who slew themselves said, by some, to have been the son of Pan; under a mulberry-tree. See Ovid. Met. others say, the son of Mercury. Malea, in Lib. 4. the island of Lesbos, is the supposed place 23. Quò: why-for what purpose. of his nativity. He is represented as a fat 25. Cognoscite : in the sense of audite, and merry old man, riding on an ass, 26. Aliud mercedis. The same as alia crowned with flowers, always intoxicated. merces : another reward. 15. Inflatum, &c. Swollen as to his veins, 27. Ludere in numerum :
to dance, or with his yesterday's wine. See Ecl. i. 55. leap about in regular time, or laccho: a name of Bacchus; here put, by Their motions exactly corresponded to the meton. for wine. It is derived from a Greek notes or measure of the verse. Faunos. word signifying a shout or confused noise. The Fauni were demi-gods of the country, It was given to him on account of the riot to whom the first fruits of all things were and vociferation of his inebriated followers. generally offered. See Ecl. v. 73. See Ecl. v. 69.
29. Parnassia rupes. The mountain Par16. Serla : plu. of sertum, a garland, or nassus in Phocis; a country in Grecia Prowrcath of flowers. To be crowned with a pria, much celebrated by the poets, and garland, was an indication of drunkenness. sacred to the Muses. Here Apollo had a Silenus had all the signs of being in such a famous temple. state. He was lying down—he was sleep 30. Rhodope— Ismarus. Two mountains, ing ; but his garlands were not on his head; or rather ranges of mountains, in Thrace, luntum delapsa : they had only fallen off, the country of Orpheus. they were neither broken nor bruised. 31. Namque canebat, &c. For he sung how
18. Aggressi, &c. The swains, seizing, put the seeds, both of the earth, and of the air,
Semina terrarumque, animæque, marisque fuissent, 33. Ut ex his primis Et liquidi simul ignis : ut his exordia primis omnia susceperunt Omnia, et ipse tener mundi concreverit orbis.
35. Tum canebat quo. Tum durare solum, et discludere Nerea ponto modo solum cæperit Cæperit, et rerum paulatim sumere formas.
37. Jamque canebat Jamque novum ut terræ stupeant lucescere solem, ut terræ stupeant 38. Utque imbres ca
Altiùs utque cadant submotis nubibus imbres : dant è nubibus submo. Incipiant sylvæ cùm primùm surgere, cùmque tis altiùs à terra. Rara per ignotos errent animalia montes.
Hinc lapides Pyrrhæ jactos, Saturnia regna,
and of the sea, &c. Silenus here relates channel. Ruæus says, Dispellere aquas à the origin of the world, according to the se in mare. system of Epicurus, who taught that incor
38. Utque. Some copies have atque, but poreal space, and corporeal atoms, were the utque is the easier. first principles, or elements, of all things.
40. Rara : few in number, or thinly disThe former he denomenated Inane, the latter Plenum. The Inane or Vacuum, he
persed. considered space, every way indefinitely
41. Hinc refert lapides, &c. After that he extended. By the Plenum, he understood relates the thrown stones of Pyrrha, &c. the atoms or minute particles of matter Pyrrha was the daughter of Epimetheus, moving in every direction through the Inane, and wife of Deucalion, the son of Promewhich Virgil here calls the semina, because theus, and king of Thessaly. The poets it was thought by their fortuitous concur say, that some time during his reign the inrence arose what we call the four elements, habitants of the earth were destroyed by a earth, air, water, and fire. Epicurus held universal deluge, except himself and his many other erroneous notions, particularly wife Pyrrha. They were preserved in a concerning the nature of God. He was an
small ship, and carried by the waters to Athenian, and born about 340 years before mount Parnassus, which was the only place the Christian era. He had many followers. not overwhelmed. Here they consulted the
32. Animæ : in the sense of aëris. With- oracle of Themis concerning the restoration nut air, there could be no animal existence. of the human race; when they were in
33. Liquidi ignis: of pure fire. His pri- formed, to cast behind them the bones of mis: of these first principles or elements their great mother ; by which they under(earth, air, water, and fire) all things sprang command of the oracle, and those thrown
stood stones. They immediately obeyed the or had a beginning. The Epicureans maintained that, though their atoms and by Deucalion became men, and those by incorporeal space were the first principles Pyrrha, women. See Ovid. Met. Lib. i. or elements of earth, air, water, and fire, Saturnia regna : the reign of Saturn, or the yet these last were the principles or elements Golden age. See Ecl. iv. 6. of all other things, or out of which all other 42. Furtum Promethei : the theft of Prothings sprang. Omnia exordia : all things metheus. The poets say that he stole fire received or took a beginning. The verb from heaven, with which he animated a susceperunt, or some other of the like im man of clay, made by himself. At this, port, is plainly understood, and to be sup- Jupiter was so much enraged, that he orplied. Ut: how.
dered Mercury to chain him to a rock on 35. Nerea : acc. sing of Nereus, a god of mount Caucasus. He did so, and placed the sea, the son of Oceanus and Terra. He a vulture to prey upon his liver; which, married Doris, by whom he had fifty daugh- however, grew as fast as it was consumed. ters who were called Nereïdes. He possess- Hence Caucaseas volucres : the vultures of ed the gift of prophecy, and is said to have Caucasus. This is a very celebrated mouninformed Paris of the fatal consequences of tain, or rather_range of mountains, lying his carrying off Helen, the wife of Menelaus. between the Euxine and Caspian seas. It was by the direction and assistance of Promethei : the word Prometheus is of Nereus, that Hercules obtained the golden Greek origin, and properly signifies foreapples of the Hesperides. The word Nereus sight, or an anxious care or solicitude. is often put, by meton. for the sea, as in this This is a key to the story. It conveys a place. Solum, &c. Then he sang how the strong idea of the troubles men create to land began to grow hard and to separate the themselves, by taking too much care and waters from itself, and confine them to their thought for the morrow.