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nobiz illum fore talem, Nec super ipse suâ molitur laude laborem : ideòque bis vindicat Ascanio-ne pater Rcmanas invidet arces ? illum ab armis Graiûm : Quid struit au quâ spe inimicâ in gente moratur ? 236 sed promisit illum fore unum, qui regeret Itali. Nec prolem Ausoniam et Lavinia respicit arva? am gravidam imperiis, Naviget. Hæc summa est : hic nostri nuntius esto. fremente.nque bello ; qui Dixerat. Ille patris magni parere parabat prodere:

Imperio : et primùm pedibus talaria nectit 237. Hic esto illi nunAurea ; quæ sublimnem alis, sive æquora supra,

240 tius nostri

Seu terram, rapido pariter cum flamine portant.

Tum virgam capit: hâc animas ille evocat Orco charco

Pallentes ; alias sub tristia Tartara mittit :
Dat somnos adimitque, et lumina morte resignat.
Illâ fretus agit ventos, et turbida tranat

245 vuono

Nubila. Jamque volans apicem et latera ardua cernit

Atlantis duri, cælum qui vertice fulcit : 248. Atlantis, cui pi- Atlantis, cinctum assiduè cui nubibus atris miferum caput assidhè Piniferum caput et vento pulsatur et imbri : cinctum atris nubibus pulsatur et vento et im

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Nix humeros infusa tegit : tum flumina mento 250 bri: nix infusa

Præcipitant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba.
Hìc primùm paribus nitens Cyllenius alis
Constitit: hinc toto præceps se corpore ad undas
Misit : avi similis, quæ circum litora, circum

Piscosos scopulos, humilis volat æquora juxta. 255 256. Haud aliter Cyl- Haud aliter, terras inter cælumque, volabat

NOTES. 233. Molitur laborem : undertakes the en- mountain, or rather range of mountains, terprise for his own glory.

commencing at the Atlantic ocean, to which 235. In gente inimicâ : in a hostile nation. it gives name, and running in an easterly This is said by anticipation, because of the direction, dividing Mauritania from Libya enmity which subsisted between Rome and Interior. It is fabled that Atlas, king of Carthage in after times. Struit: in the Mauritania, was transformed into this sense of parat.

mountain by Perseus, at the sight of his 236. Lavinia arva. See Æn. i. 2.

Gorgon's head, because he refused to treat 239. Talaria.

These were

a kind of him with hospitality. Virgil describes the winged shoes, which the poets say the mes mountain as retaining the form and shape sengers of the gods wore-sandals.

of a man. Atlas was a very skilful astro241. Flamine : in the sense of vento. norner and astrologer : this probably gave

242. Virgam. This was the celebrated rise to the fạble. His supporting heaven rod, or Caduceus, presented to Mercury by on his shoulder is explained, from the cirApollo, in return for his lyre. Mercury, in cumstance of the top of the mountain being his way to Arcadia, observing two serpents lost in the clouds. Its top, or suinmit, was going to fight, appeased them by casting covered with perpetual snow. Hence, nir down his rod between them. Hence a rod infusa tegit humeros. wreathed round with two serpents, became 248. Cui: in the sense of cujus. a symbol of peace. Orco : the place of the 250. Mento senis : from the chin of the dead.

old man. 243. Tartara : the lowest part of hell 252. Cyllenius : Cyllenius moving (nitens) the place of the damned.

on equal or balanced wings, stopped. This 244. Lumina morte resignat: he opens was a name of Mercury, from Cyllene, in eyes in death.

This is the sense given to Arcadia, the place of his birth. He was resigno by Turnebus, Davidson, and others. the son of Maia, the daughter of Atlas, by They think the poet alludes to a Roman Jupiter. custom of opening the eyes on the funeral 254. Similis avi. The whole of this paspile, though shut all the time the corpse lay sage is in imitation of Homer, Odys. Lib. in the house. But Servius takes resigno in v. 43. The bird here alluded to, is supthe sense of claudo : he closes, or shuts posed to be the coot, or cormorant. eyes in death. Ruæus says, aperit oculos ex 256. Volabat. This and the two followmorte, id est, revocat corpora é morte. This ing lines, Heyne marks as spurious. They reems to be the opinion of Heyne.

were probably left in an unfinished state. 17. Atlantis duri. Atlas is a very high Bentley would alter volabat to legebat, which

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Litus arenosum Libyæ, ventosque secabat,

lenia prolcs veniens ab materno

volabat Materno veniens ab avo Cyllenia proles, 32c Ut primùm alatis tetigit magalia plantis,

arenosum litus Libyæ,

inter terras cælumque,
Æneam fundantem arces, ac tecta novantem 260 secabatque ventos.
Conspicit : atque illi stellatus iaspide fulvâ
Ensis erat, Tyrioque ardebat murice læna
Demissa ex humeris: dives quæ munera Dido
Fecerat, et tenui telas discreverat auro.
Continuò invadit : Tu nunc Carthaginis altæ 265
Fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem
Extruis! heu, regni rerumque oblite tuarum !
Ipse Deûm tibi me claro demittit Olympo
Regnator, cælum et terras qui numine torquet :
Ipse hæc ferre jubet celeres mandata per auras :

270
Quid struis ? aut quâ spe Libycis teris otia terris ?
Si te nulla movet lantarum gloria rerum,
Nec super ipse tuâ moliris laude laborem;
Ascanium surgentem et spes hæredis lüli
Respice : cui regnum Italiæ Romanaque tellus 275
Debentur. Tali Cyllenius ore locutus,
Mortales visus medio sermone reliquit,
Et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram.

At verò Æneas aspectu obmutuit amens ;
Arrectæque horrore comæ ; et vox faucibus hæsit. 280 280. Comæ sunt ar
Ardet abire fuga, dulcesque relinquere terras,
Attonitus tanto monitu imperioque Deorum.
Heu! quid agat ? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem
Audeat affatu ? quæ prima exordia sumat ?
Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illuc;
In partesque rapit varias, perque omnia versat. 286

recte

NOTES.

is the reading of Davidson; but without the web with a small thread of gold. Rueus sufficient authority. Between heaven and says, distinxerat. earth, he flew along the sandy shore, and 265. Invadit: in the sense of alloquitur. cut the winds.

266. Uzorius: a slave to your wife. It 258. Ab materno avo. Mercury was the refers to the pron. tu, understood. son of Maia, the daughter of Atlas, which 267. Oblile: the voc. of oblitus, agreeing made him his grandfather on his mother's with Æneas, understood. side. Cyllènia proles : simply, Mercury. 271. Teris olia: you waste your time.

259. Magalia: neu. plu. either the huts Struis : in the sense of facis, vel paras. of the African shepherds, mentioned Geor. 276. Tali ore: in the sense of talibus ii. 340, or the towers and buildings of Car- verbis. thage erected on the spot where the magalia 277. Reliquit : in the sense of mutavit. once stood.

Mercury had assumed a human form, morla261. Ensis erat illi stellatus: there was to les visus, in his conference with Æneas; but him a sword studded with yellow jasper. as soon as he had ended his speech, in meThe hilt and scabbard were studded with dio sermone, and before Æneas had time to gems, sparkling like stars, particularly with make any reply, he left, changed, or put it jaspers. Servius informs us it was a recei- off, and vanished from his eyes. Sermo is ved opinion that there was a virtue in the properly a conference between two or more jasper-stone, to assist orators in their plead- persons, and, when one only has spoken, it ings, and that Gracchus wore one of them is not complete or finished. for that purpose.

279. Amcns : in the sense of atlonitus vel 262. Læna. This was a thick double stupefactus. garment--a cassock. Arbebat: in the sense 283. Quo affatu : in what words by what of fulgebat.

address. Ambire: to speak to-to address. 264. Discreverat telas : had distinguished 235. Dividit : in the sense of vertit.

Hæc alternanti potior sententia visa est.

Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat, fortemque Cloanthum: 289. Jubet ut taciti Classem aptent taciti, sociosque ad litora cogant, aptent classem,

Arma parent; et, quæ sit rebus causa novandis, 290
Dissimulent: sese intereà, quando optima Dido

Neseiat, et tantos rumpi non speret amores,
293. Intereà statuit Tentaturum aditus, et quæ mollissima fandi
sese tentaturum aditus, Tempora ; quis rebus dexter modus. Ocyùs omnes
et quæ sint mollissima
tempora fandi; quis mo-
Imperio læti

295 parent, ac jussa facessunt. dus sit dexter rebus con

At regina dolos (quis fallere possit amantem ?) ficiendis

Præsensit, motusque excepit prima futuros,
Omnia tuta timens. Eadem impia Fama furenti
Detulit armari classem, cursumque parari.
Sævit inops aniini, totamque incensa per

urbem 300 301. Talis qualis Thy. Bacchatur: qualis commotis excita sacris

Thyas, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho
Orgia, nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithæron.

Tandem his Æneam compellat vocibus ultro, 305. O perfide homo, Dissimulare etiam sperâsti, perfide, tantum

305 sperâsti te posse Posse nefas, tacitusque meâ decedere terra ?

Nec te noster amor, nec te data dextera quondam,
Nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido?
Quin etiam hyberno moliris sidere classem,
Et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire per altum,

310 311. O crudelis hospes ! Crudelis ! Quid ? si non arva aliena domosque Quid? si tu non peteres Ignotas peteres, et Troja antiqua inaneret;

Troja per undosum peteretur classibus æquor ?

as, excita

NOTES

287. Hæc alternanti : this plan secmed and carried about in procession by his franthe better to him, wavering in mind, and tic votaries. The mysteries of Bacchus were examining what had best be done in his celebrated every third year: hence they are present situation. Ruæus says consilium, for called trieterica. sententia.

302. Thyas : a bacchanal; from a Greek 293. Aditus : the avenues or passages to word signifying to roar about in wild and laer heart. Quæ : what might be the fittest frantic disorder. or softest moments of addressing her, to

303. Nocturnus Cithæron. Cithæron was obtain her consent. Rebus : for effecting

a mountain in Bcotia sacred to Bacchus. his purposes. 298. Excepit : heard—found out. Ti

Here his mysteries were celebrated in the mens omnia luta: fearing all things when followers. They were, for the most part,

most distinguished manner by his infatuated even safe—fearing danger when all things celebrated in the night. Hence nocturnus are safe. Furenti : in the sense of ad aures

Cithæron. Eam is understood after vocat. furentis, sive amantis. Impia: in the sense of sæva, says Heyne. Delulit: in the sense 307. Dextera quondam data: thy right of nuntiavit.

hand once given.

This alludes to their 300. Inops animi : devoid of reason. marriage. Supra, 172. Tenet is to be sup

301. Qualis Thyas : as a bacchanal roused plied, or repeated, with each of the preceat the moving of the sacred symbols, &c. ding nominatives. Servius informs us that commovere sacra was

309. Moliris classem: do you prepare your a phrase used by the Romans to signify the fleet in the winter season. The north winds opening of the solemnities of particular di were directly against Æneas in sailing from vinities, on their high festival days; when Africa to Italy. This speech of Dido is their sacred syinbols were removed from tender and persuasive. And since it aptheir temples, in order to be carried about peared his purpose to sail to Italy, she ennompous procession. This was particu- deavors to dissuade him from it, until the e case in celebrating the Orgia, or winter and contrary winds were over, in the

of Bacchus, when the statues of hope that, by repeated instances of her afvere removed from his temples, fection and regard, ne might be induced to

320 miserere

Mene fugis ? per ego has lacrymas dextramque tuam, te, 314. Ego oro te per Quando aliud mihi jam miseræ nihil ipsa reliqui,

315 has lacrymas, tuamque Per connubia nostra, per inceptos Hymenæos ;

dextram (quando ipsa

jam reliqui nihil aliud Si benè quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quicquam

mihi miseræ) per nostra Dulce meum; miserere domûs labentis, et istam,

317. Aut si quicquam Oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem. meum fuit dulce tibi, Te propter Libycæ gentes, Nomadumque tyranni Odere, infensi 'Tyrii: te propter eundem

321. Odere me, et TyExtinctus pudor, et, quâ solå sidera adibam,

rii infensi sunt mihi : Fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes ?

propter te eundem, meus

pudor extinctus est, et Hoc solum nomen quoniam de conjuge restat.

mea prior fama
Quid moror ? an mea Pygmalion dum menia frater 325
Destruat ? aut captam ducat Getulus Iarbas?
Saltem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset

327. Siqua soboles salAnte fugam soboles; si quis mihi parvulus aulâ

tem suscepta fuisset miLuderet Æneas, qui te tantùm ore referret ;

hi de te ante fugain; si Non equidem omninò capta aut deserta viderer.

quis parvulus Æneas

330 Dixerat. Ille Jovis monitis immota tenebat Lumina, et obnixus curam sub corde premebat. Tandem pauca refert : Ego te, quæ plurima fando 334. O Regina, ego Enumerare vales nunquam, regina, negabo

nunquam negabo te proPromeritam: nec me meminisse pigebit Elisæ ; 335 meritam esse plurima de

me, quæ tu vales enumeDum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos reget artus.

rare fando Pro re pauca loquar. Nec ego hanc abscondere furto 336. Dum ego ipse ero Speravi, ne finge, fugam; nec conjugis unquam memor mei, dum

NOTES.

give over the idea of it altogether. Sidere: person and features. But this sentiment in the sense of tempore.

does not very well agree with the present 316. Hymencos : in the sense of amores. strain of her discourse; which is full of tenQui novitate sunt dulces, says Servius. derness, soft address, and moving expostu

319. Mentem : purpose-design of leav- lation. ing me.

Since she could not enjoy his person, it 320. Tyranni Nomadum: the kings of the would have been some alleviation of her Numidians. The ancient Romans used the distress, if she had a son by him, who inight words tyrannus and rex promiscuously. only set the image of the father before her

321. Tyrii infensi. She here alludes to eyes, if he could do nothing more. Heyne the purpose of her brother to pursue her, as reads tamen. Ruæus says, qui repræsentaalready mentioned.

rit te tantùm modò vultu. 322. Pudor extinctus: my chastity is gone, 330. Capla. Ruæus interprets this by and my former fame, by which alone I reach- decepta, which is very harsh, and cannot be ed the stars.

the meaning of the speaker. Capta refors 324. Quoniam hoc nomen: since this name to what she had said just before, 326 supra, alone remains of the husband. It is to be aut captam ducat Getulus Iarbas. observed that Dido does not address him by In order to paint her distress to Æneas in the endearing name of husband, but by that the liveliest colors, she represents him as the of stranger or guest, hospes: and she can only person, on whom she could depend for look upon him in no other light, since he is protection; and now he was going to abangoing to leave her.

don her, considers herself forlorn, deserted, 325. Quid moror? what do I wait for? and left a prey to her enemies, who had al

328. Siquis parrulus: if any little Æneas ready, as it were, made her their captive. could play to me in my hall, who only might This is the dreary image that haunts her resemble you in form, I should not, &c. disturbed fancy by day, and her dreams by Some ancient copies read tamen, instead of night. See verse 466. infra. tantùm: who nevertheless should resemble 333. Refert: in the sense of respondet. thee, &c. Some explain the words, qui te 337. Loquar pauca pro re: I will speak a tantùm referret ore; as if Dido did not wish few things to the point in question. Nec her son to resemble Æneas in his mind, ego speravi: nor did I hope to conceal my cruelty and hardness of heart, but only in departure, &c. This is a reply to Dido's

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Prætendi tædas, aut hæc in fædera veni.
Me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam

340
Auspiciis, et sponte meâ componere curas ;
Urbem Trojanam primùm dulcesque meorum
Relliquias colerem ; Priami tecta alta manerent ;

Et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis. 345. Grynæus Apollo Sed nunc Italiam magnam Grynaeus Apollo;

345 jussit me capessere mag- Italian Lyciæ jussêre capessere sortes. Italiam, Lycie Hic amor, hæc patria est.

Si te Carthaginis arces sortes jussêre me

Phænissam, Libycæque aspectus detinet urbis : 350. Fas sit et nos Quæ tandem Ausoniâ Teucros considere terrâ quærere Invidia est ? et nos fas extera quærere regna.

350 353. Turbida imago patris Anchisæ admonet Me patris Anchisæ, quoties humentibus umbris et terret me in somnis, Nox operit terras, quoties astra ignea surgunt, quoties

Admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago : 354. Puer Ascanius, Me puer Ascanius, capitisque injuria chari, injuriaque ejus chari ca

Quem regno Hespériæ fraudo et fatalibus arvis. 355 pitis, quem fraudo regno Hesperiæ, et fatalibus Nunc etiain interpres Divûm, Jove missus ab ipso, arvis, admonet me. (Testor utrumque caput) celeres mandata per auras

NOTES.

accusation, dissimulare etiam, &c. Verse country. What makes the objection appear 305, supra.

the more specious is, that Virgil uses colerem 339. Prætendi. Ruæus takes this in the for coluissem ; but there are many instances sense of Prætexui, in allusion to verse 172, where the imperfect of the sub. has the where it is said of Dido, prætexil culpam same signification with the plup., and it is hoc nomine : nor did I ever cover over our plain that it has in the present instance, marriage with the name of husband, or come both from the sense, and the use of posuissem into the bands of Hymen.

in the following line, with which the preSome take prælendi in the sense of præ- ceding verbs are connected. Auspiciis : in tuli : nor did I ever bear before me the nup- the sense of voluntate. Curas: in the sense tial torch: in allusion to a Roman custom of negotia, says Heyne. of carrying lighted torches before the new

344. Recidiva : rebuilt-raised up after a married couple. In either case, the plain fall. Posuissem: in the sense of restituissem. meaning is: I had no part in our nuptialsI consented not to them ; nor did I enter

345. Grynaus Apollo. The epithet Gryinto any contract of that nature.

This an

næus was given to Apollo from Gryna, a swers Dido's charge against him : Nec te city of Æolia, near which was a grove call. noster amor, &c. Verse 305, supra.

ed Grynæum, where Apollo had an oracle of 340. Si fata paterentur: if the destinies great antiquity, and also a splendid temple. had permitted me to lead my life, &c. 346. Lyciæ sortes. Lycia, a maritime

This passage furnishes the critics with a country of Asia Minor, in which was the pretext to condemn Æneas of ingratitude city Patara, where Apollo had a famous and insensibility. Was it not enough, say temple and oracle. This and some other they, for him to let Dido know that he was

Oracles were called Sorles, because they deforced by the Destinies elsewhere, without termined the fate of the person by casting insulting her with an open declaration, that

or drawing lots, throwing dice, or by some he preferred other objects to her? But we

such inethod, which was thought to be unshall not think Æneas so much to blame, der the iminediate direction of the god. if we consider the true meaning of his 350. Fas. This word properly signifies a words. Dido had urged him to stay; he divine law-what is right or lawful—also a answers, it is not in his power, because the duty towards God. Ei, often, as here, bath Destinies opposed it: in proof of it, he as- the sense of etiam, vel quoque. sures her that if they had left him to his 355. Fatalibus arvis: fields destined to own choice, he would never have left his him by fate. native country: he would have rebuilt Troy, Æneas had all along been directed to go which now lay in ashes. This is not say- to Italy, under the assurance of a peaceful ing; if I were at liberty, I would forsake settlement. This country the gods had desyou and return, and rebuild Troy; but I tined to him. would never have formed any other design 357. Testor utrumque caput: I call to than that of repairing the desolation of my witness each god, viz. Mercury and Jove

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