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Dant signum : fulsere ignes, et conscius æther
167. Conscius connuConnubüs ; summoque ululârunt vertice Nymphæ. Ille dies primus lethi, primusque malorum
169. Ille dies primus Causa fuit: neque enim specie famâve movetur,
170 fuit causa lethi Didoni, Nec jam furtivum Dido meditatur amorem :
primusque fuit causa
malorum Conjugium vocat: hoc prætexit nomine culpam.
Extemplò Libyæ magnas it Fama per urbes : Fama, malum, quo non aliud velocius ullum : Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo :
175 Parva metu primò: mox sese attollit in auras,
178. Parens terra irIngrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit.
ritata irâ Deorum proIllam Terra parens, irâ irritata Deorum,
genuit illain, ut homines Extremam, ut perhibent, Ceo Enceladoque sororem perhibent, extremam soProgenuit, pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis : 180 rorem Ceo EnceladoMonstrum horrendum, ingens : cui quot sunt corpore
que, celerem pedibus, et
pernicibus alis Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu ! [plumæ,
181. Monstrum horTot linguæ, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit aures. renduin, ingens; cui sunt Nocte volat cæli medio terræque per umbram
tot vigiles oculi subter, Stridens, nec dulci declinat lumina somno.
185 mirabile dictu! tot lin
guæ, totidem ora sonant, Luce sedet custos, aut summi culmine tecti,
subrigit tot aures, quot Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes ·
sunt plumæ in corpore. Tam ficti pravique tenax, quàm nuntia veri.
191. Canebat Æneam Hæc tum multiplici populos sermone replebat
venisse, cretum à TrojaGaudens, et pariter facta atque infecta canebat: 190 no sanguine, cui viro
pulchra Dido dignetur Venisse Æneam, Trojano à sanguine cretum,
jungere se: nunc luxu Cui se pulchra viro dignetur jungere Dido :
fovere inter se hyemem, Nunc hyemem inter se luxu, quàm longa, fovere, quàm longa est,
Its primitive meaning is bride-maid. Some escaped censure. Malum : in the sense of rank Tellus among the Divinities that pre- pestis vel monstrum. sided over marriage. She gave signs of 179. Cæo Enceladoque. These were two disapprobation by an earthquake, or some Giants, who took the lead in the war motion of the earth. Servius says, there against the gods. They were the sons of was no omen more inauspicious to nuptials Titan and Tellus. Their object in the war than this. Juno also gave her sign against was to restore their father Titan to the the match, by rain and storms of hail. throne, from which Jupiter had driven him. Flashes of lightning supplied the place of They attempted to attack Heaven, by putthe nuptial torch; and the only song was ting mount Ossa upon Pelron ; but in the the howling of the mountain nymphs. attempt they were chastised by Jupiter, in These were all sad presages of the future. an exemplary manner.
At this vengeance 169. Ille dies primus fuit causa : that day, (ira) of the gods, Tellus was irritated; and the first in an especial inanner,) was the by way of revenge, produced fame, their cause of death to Dido; and the beginning youngest sister, swift on tho foot, and on (primus) of her woes.
the niinble wing. 170. Specie fama-ve. By the species we 184. Medio : in the middle of heaven and are to understand the appearance and de- earth-between heaven and earth. Umformity of the action, as it passed in review bram: in the sense of tenebras. before her own mind; and by fama, the 186. Luce : in the sense of die. Custos : scandal and infamy of it, in the eyes of the world.
138. Tam tenar : as tenacious of false172. Prætexit : palliates or covers.
Cule hood and wickedness, as a messenger of pam : in the sense of crimen.
truth. 174. Fama malum quo: Fame, a fiend, 189. Sermone : in the sense of rumore. than which there is not another more swift, 190. Canebat : she equally proclaimed &c. In this account of fame, the Poet imic facts and fictions. tates Homer's description of discord. A ju 193. Nunc fovere luxu: that now in luxdicious critic is of opinion that this descrip- ury they caress one another during the tion of fame is one of the greatest orna winter, as long as it may be. Hyemem ments of the Æneid. It has not, however, quàm longa : in the sense of longam hr
Regnorum immemores, turpique cupidine captos.
Hæc passim Dea fæda virûm diffundit in ora. 130 Protinùs ad regem cursus detorquet larbam ;
Incenditque animum dictis, atque aggerat iras. 198. Hic satus Am- Hic Ammone satus, raptà Garamantide Nymphâ, mone, Nyınphâ Gara- Templa Jovi centum latis immania regnis, mantide raptâ, posuit Centum aras posuit ; vigilemque sacraverat ignem, 200 Jovi centum immania templa in latis regnis,
Excubias Divûm æternas, pecudumque cruore posuit centum aras; sa- Pingue solum, et variis florentia limina sertis. craveratque
Isque amens animi, et rumore accensus amaro, 203. Isque amens ani- Dicitur ante aras, media inter numina Divûm, mi, et accensus amaro M-:Ita Jovem manibus supplex orâsse supinis : 205 rumore, dicitur supplex orâsse Jovem multa su- Jupiter omnipotens, cui nunc Maurusia pictis pinis manibus, stans ante Gens epulata toris Lenæum libat' honorem, aras, inter media numina Aspicis hæc? an te, genitor, cùm fulmina torques, Divûm.
Nequicquam horremus ? cæcique in nubibus ignes
Fæmina, quæ nostris errans in finibus urbem 212. Cui dedimus litus Exiguam pretio posuit, cui litus arandum,
Cuique loci leges dedimus, connubia nostra
mem. Ruæus says, traducere hyemem internation, feasting on painted couches, &c. se luxu.
The Maurusii, vel Mauri, were inhabitants 194. Cupidine: by cupido, Servius in- of Mauritania, an extensive country in Afforms us that the ancients understood an rica, bounded on the west by the Atlantic ungovernable and irregular passion of love ocean,' on the north by the Mediterranean -lust. Captos : enslaved.
sea, and on the east by Numidia and Car198. Hic Ammone satus : this man, sprung thage. It seems this news reached Iarbas, from Ammon, had built to Jove, &c. Jupiter while he and his people were feasting upon Ammon had a celebrated temple and oracle the remains of the victims which had been in Libya, on a spot of ground watered by a offered to Ammon. At such banquets, it was fountain, and enclosed by a pleasant grove. usual to pour forth wine by way of libation "This temple is said to have been built by to the gods—an offering of wine. Bacchus, or Hercules. This Ammon some 207. Lenæum honorem: simply, winewill have to be the same with Ham, the son the liquor of Bacchus. Lenæus, a name of of Noah. Sir Isaac Newton thinks him to Bacchus, used as an adj. derived from a have been the father of Sesostris, and cotem Greek word, signifying a wine-press. Epuporary with Solomon, king of Israel. Iar- lata : feasting, or having feasted. bus was the son of this Jupiter Ammon, by 209. Cæci: undirected-fortuitous. Igthe nymph Garamantis. Aggerat : in the nes: lightnings. Inania murmura : vain, or sense of auget.
empty sounds. 200. Vigilem ignem. Plutarch informs 212. Posuit : in the sense of condidit. us that in this temple there was a lamp con- Litus arandum : the shore to be ploughcd. tinually burning. This was also a custom The province or territory of Carthage is common to many nations. Posuit : in the here called litus, because it lay along the sense of ædificavit.
sea coast-a tract of country to cultivate. 201. Excubias æternas Divûm: a perpe- Pretio.' This alludes to the price paid, or tual watch of the gods--sacred to the ser- stipulated to be paid, for her territory, or vice of the gods. Solum : a tract of ground tract of country. See the following note. enriched by the blood of victims.
213. Cuique dedimus : and on whom we 202. Limina florentia : an entrance (into imposed the laws of the place. We are told the temples) adorned with various garlands. that Dido engaged to pay the Africans an Amens animi : distracted in mind; of à, pri- annual tribute for the tract of country which vitivum, and mens.
she purchased for her culony. This, how204. Numina : the shrines or statues, ever, the Carthaginians afterwards refused which represented the gods. Supinis. Ru- to do, and was the cause of the first war in æus says, elatis : properly, with the palm which they were engaged. Excepting this apwards.
tribute, Carthage, from the first, was an in206. Qui nunc : to whom the Moorish dependent sovereignty.
Et nunc ille Paris, cum semiviro comitatu,
215 Mæoniâ mentum mitrâ crinemque madentem Subnexus, rapto potitur : nos munera templis
217. Subnexus quoad Quippe tuis ferimus, famamque fovemus inanem. mentum madentemque
crinem Mæonia mitra, Talibus orantem dictis, arasque tenentem
potitur rapto Audiit omnipotens : oculosque ad menia torsit 220
220. Omnipotens auRegia, et oblitos famæ melioris amantes.
diit eum orantem in taTunc sic Mercurium alloquitur, ac talia mandat: Jibus dictis, tenentemVade, age, nate, voca Zephyros, et labere pennis : que aras, torsitque ejus
oculos ad regia menia, Dardaniumque ducern, Tyriâ Carthagine qui nunc
et ad amantes oblitos Expectat, fatisque datas non respicit urbes,
225 melioris famæ. Alloquere, et celeres defer mea dicta per auras.
226. Alloquereque Non illum nobis genitrix pulcherrima talem
Dardanium ducem, qui Promisit, Graiûmque ideò bis vindicat armis :
nunc expectat in Tyria Sed fore qui gravidam imperiis, belloque frementem
Carthagine, nonque reItaliam regeret, genus alto à sanguine Teucri 230
spicit urbes datas ei
fatis Proderet, ac totum sub leges mitteret orbem.
227. Ejus pulcherrima Si nulla accendit tantarum gloria rerum,
genitrix non promisit
215. Et nunc ille Paris. Here Iarbas words of Iarbas, quippe, &c. are extremely calls Æneas, Paris, to denote him effemi- ironical. Ironia acerba vocabulo, quippe, innate, and a ravisher, who had carried off a est, says he. Both Ruæus and Heyne take princess whom he considered his own. In quippe in the sense of scilicet. But quippe allusion to this, he says, potitur rapto : he may be taken perhaps in the sense of dum: possesses the ravished prize. Semiviro co while we are presenting offerings unto thee, mitatu: with his effeminate train. This is &c. Æneas is enjoying the ravished prize. said in allusion to the Phrygians, who were great worshippers of the goddess Cybele, It was a custom in the more solemn acts of
219. Tenentem aras : holding the altars. whose priests were eunuchs.
216. Mæoniâ mitrâ : a Mæonian, or Ly. religion, to embrace the altars. It was esdian mitre. This was
a kind of bonnet pecially so for suppliants. worn by the Lydian and Phrygian women.
221. Amantes : lovers-Æneas and Dido. It was a part of dress unbecoming in men, 223. Pennis : in the sense of alis. Mer more especially when it had the fillets or cury was represented as having winged strings with which it was tied under the shoes, on which he was borne through the chin. Iarbas mentions it as a mark of in- air. They were called talaria. famy and badge of reproach. Mæonia : an
225. Expectat : in the sense of moratur. extensive country in the Lesser Asia. It is here used as an adj. Jts more modern name
228. Bis vindicat : preserved him twice,
&c. is Lydia, from Lydus, one of its kings, as
Æneas was twice saved by Venus. Strabo tells us. That part bordering upon with Diomede, when he was struck to the
from impending death : once in a contest Ionia and Caria, still retains its ancient Athenæus observes, that Homer at- ground by the stroke of a huge stone, and
would have been slain, had not Venus cast tributes the use of unguents to none of his characters in the Iliad, besides Paris. These the fight; and a second time, when under
her veil over him, and carried him off from were chiefly for the hair. The use of them was considered a mark of effeminacy. lar- her own conduct, he passed unhurt through bas therefore says of Æneas, that his hair enemies, during the sack of that city.
the flames of Troy, and the midst of his was moistened or besmeared with unguents -crinem madentem.
229. Gravidam imperiis. Ruæus says, 217. Subnexus : in the sense of subligatus. plenam regnis. Servius says, parituram
218. Quippe nos ferimus : we to be sure imperia, vel unde multi imperatores possunt bring offerings to thy temples, and cherish creari. Heyne says, quæ proferet multos pothe vain report of being thy offspring.
tentes, et latè imperantes populos. It appears Iarbas speaks by way of complaint. The to be in the sense of paritura magnum imofferings which we present unto thee are of perium, populumque latè dominunter. In no avail, and the report of thy being our
which a mighty empire is about to be esfather is vain and without foundation, or tablished, says Valpy. else thou wouldst not have suffered this evil 231. Proderet genus : should evince, or to fall upon me. Heyne observps, that the prove his descent, &c.
nobiz illum fore talem, Nec super ipse suâ molitur laude laborem : ideòque bis vindicat Ascanio-ne pater Rcmanas invidet arces ? illum ab armis Graiûm : Quid struit au quâ spe inimicâ in gente moratur ? 236 sed promisit illum fore unum, qui regeret Itali. Nec prolem Ausoniam et Lavinia respicit arva? am gravidam imperiis, Naviget. Hæc summa est : hic nostri nuntius esto. fremente.nque bello ; qui Dixerat. Ille patris magni parere parabat prodere:
Imperio : et primùm pedibus talaria nectit 237. Hic esto illi nunAurea ; quæ sublimnem alis, sive æquora supra,
240 tius nostri
Seu terram, rapido pariter cum flamine portant.
Tum virgam capit: hâc animas ille evocat Orco charco
Pallentes ; alias sub tristia Tartara mittit :
Nubila. Jamque volans apicem et latera ardua cernit
Atlantis duri, cælum qui vertice fulcit : 248. Atlantis, cui pi- Atlantis, cinctum assiduè cui nubibus atris miferum caput assidhè Piniferum caput et vento pulsatur et imbri : cinctum atris nubibus pulsatur et vento et im
Nix humeros infusa tegit : tum flumina mento 250 bri: nix infusa
Præcipitant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba.
Piscosos scopulos, humilis volat æquora juxta. 255 256. Haud aliter Cyl- Haud aliter, terras inter cælumque, volabat
NOTES. 233. Molitur laborem : undertakes the en- mountain, or rather range of mountains, terprise for his own glory.
commencing at the Atlantic ocean, to which 235. In gente inimicâ : in a hostile nation. it gives name, and running in an easterly This is said by anticipation, because of the direction, dividing Mauritania from Libya enmity which subsisted between Rome and Interior. It is fabled that Atlas, king of Carthage in after times. Struit: in the Mauritania, was transformed into this sense of parat.
mountain by Perseus, at the sight of his 236. Lavinia arva. See Æn. i. 2.
Gorgon's head, because he refused to treat 239. Talaria.
a kind of him with hospitality. Virgil describes the winged shoes, which the poets say the mes mountain as retaining the form and shape sengers of the gods wore-sandals.
of a man. Atlas was a very skilful astro241. Flamine : in the sense of vento. norner and astrologer : this probably gave
242. Virgam. This was the celebrated rise to the fạble. His supporting heaven rod, or Caduceus, presented to Mercury by on his shoulder is explained, from the cirApollo, in return for his lyre. Mercury, in cumstance of the top of the mountain being his way to Arcadia, observing two serpents lost in the clouds. Its top, or suinmit, was going to fight, appeased them by casting covered with perpetual snow. Hence, nir down his rod between them. Hence a rod infusa tegit humeros. wreathed round with two serpents, became 248. Cui: in the sense of cujus. a symbol of peace. Orco : the place of the 250. Mento senis : from the chin of the dead.
old man. 243. Tartara : the lowest part of hell 252. Cyllenius : Cyllenius moving (nitens) the place of the damned.
on equal or balanced wings, stopped. This 244. Lumina morte resignat: he opens was a name of Mercury, from Cyllene, in eyes in death.
This is the sense given to Arcadia, the place of his birth. He was resigno by Turnebus, Davidson, and others. the son of Maia, the daughter of Atlas, by They think the poet alludes to a Roman Jupiter. custom of opening the eyes on the funeral 254. Similis avi. The whole of this paspile, though shut all the time the corpse lay sage is in imitation of Homer, Odys. Lib. in the house. But Servius takes resigno in v. 43. The bird here alluded to, is supthe sense of claudo : he closes, or shuts posed to be the coot, or cormorant. eyes in death. Ruæus says, aperit oculos ex 256. Volabat. This and the two followmorte, id est, revocat corpora é morte. This ing lines, Heyne marks as spurious. They reems to be the opinion of Heyne.
were probably left in an unfinished state. 17. Atlantis duri. Atlas is a very high Bentley would alter volabat to legebat, which
Materno veniens ab avo Cyllenia proles, 32c
Litus arenosum Libyæ, ventosque secabat,
lenia prolcs veniens ab materno
volabat Ut primùm alatis tetigit magalia plantis,
arenosum litus Libyæ,
inter terras cælumque,
At verò Æneas aspectu obmutuit amens ;
is the reading of Davidson; but without the web with a small thread of gold. Rueus sufficient authority. Between heaven and says, distinxerat. earth, he flew along the sandy shore, and 265. Invadit: in the sense of alloquitur. cut the winds.
266. Uzorius: a slave to your wife. It 258. Ab materno avo. Mercury was the refers to the pron. tu, understood. son of Maia, the daughter of Atlas, which 267. Oblile: the voc. of oblitus, agreeing made him his grandfather on his mother's with Æneas, understood. side. Cyllènia proles : simply, Mercury. 271. Teris olia: you waste your time.
259. Magalia: neu. plu. either the huts Struis : in the sense of facis, vel paras. of the African shepherds, mentioned Geor. 276. Tali ore: in the sense of talibus ii. 340, or the towers and buildings of Car- verbis. thage erected on the spot where the magalia 277. Reliquit : in the sense of mutavit. once stood.
Mercury had assumed a human form, morla261. Ensis erat illi stellatus: there was to les visus, in his conference with Æneas; but him a sword studded with yellow jasper. as soon as he had ended his speech, in meThe hilt and scabbard were studded with dio sermone, and before Æneas had time to gems, sparkling like stars, particularly with make any reply, he left, changed, or put it jaspers. Servius informs us it was a recei- off, and vanished from his eyes. Sermo is ved opinion that there was a virtue in the properly a conference between two or more jasper-stone, to assist orators in their plead- persons, and, when one only has spoken, it ings, and that Gracchus wore one of them is not complete or finished. for that purpose.
279. Amcns : in the sense of atlonitus vel 262. Læna. This was a thick double stupefactus. garment--a cassock. Arbebat: in the sense 283. Quo affatu : in what words by what of fulgebat.
address. Ambire: to speak to-to address. 264. Discreverat telas : had distinguished 235. Dividit : in the sense of vertit.