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censum amore

Barcæi. Quid bella Tyro surgentia dicam,

Germanique minas ? 45. Ego equidem reor Dîs equidem auspicibus reor, et Junone secundà, 45 Uliacas carinas tenuisse Huc cursum Iliacas vento tenuisse carinas. cursum huc vento, Pis Quam tu urbem, soror, hanc cernes ! quæ surgere regna auspicibus, et Junone secundâ.

Conjugio tali! Teucrûm comitantibus armis,
Punica se quantis attollet gloria rebus!
Tu modò posce Deos veniam, sacrisque litatis, 50
Indulge hospitio, causasque innecte morandi ;
Dum pelago desævit hyems, et aquosus Orion ;

Quassatæque rates, et non tractabile cælum.
54. Animum jam in His dictis incensum animum inflammavit amore,

Spemque dedit dubiæ menti, solvitque pudorem. 55 59. Sed Junoni ante

Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras omnes, cui jugalia vin- Exquirunt: mactant lectas de more bidentes cla sunt curæ.

Legiferæ Cereri, Phæboque, patrique Lyæo 60. Pulcherrima Dido Juhoni ante omnes, cui vincla jugalia curæ. ipsa tenens

60 dextrâ fundit vinum in- Ipsa tenens dextrâ pateram pulcherrima Dido, ter media cornua can

Candentis vaccæ media inter cornua fundit : dentis vaccæ :

Aut ante ora Deùm pingues spatiatur ad aras,

NOTES. 43. Barcæi. These were a people to the 54. Incensum : burning, or inflamed with east, inhabiting a dry and barren country. love.

Quid dicam : why shall I mention the 55. Dubiæ: wavering. Solvit pudorem. wars arising from Tyre, and the threats of removed her scruples in regard to disrespect your brother ? Justin says, when Pygmalion to the memory of her late husband. Valpy. understood that Dido had fed her country, 57. Exquirunt pacem per aras : they seek and taken with her much treasure, he deter- peace by the altars. This refers to the way mined to pursue her; but was dissuaded of prying into the entrails of the victims, in from his purpose by his mother, and the order to know the will of the gods. Bidenthreats of the gods.

tes lectas de more. It was a regulation that 45. Junone secunda. Juno is here parti. no victims should be offered to the gods, but cularly named, because she presided over such as were without blemish. Bidentes : marriage, and because Carthage was under properly sheep of two years old. her peculiar protection. Auspicibus : in the 58. Legiferæ Cereri. Ceres was the sense of fauloribus, vel auctoribus. Secunda: daughter of Saturn and Ops, and the godin the sense of propitia.

dess of husbandry. It is said, she was the 49. Quantis rebus : by what noble deeds first institutor of laws, especially those of will the Carthaginian glory exalt itself, the marriage. See Ecl. v. 79. Phæbo. Dido arms of the Trojans accompanying yours ? offers sacrifices to Phæbus, as the god who

50. Sacris litatis : sacrifices being offered. presided over futurity, that he might send The proper signification of litare, is, to pro- her favorable omens. See Ecl. iv. 10. To pitiate by sacrifice. Sacris : in the sense of father Bacchus, as the god of mirth and victimis.

jollity, that he might crown the match with 51. Innecte: devise causes for detaining joy. See Ecl. v. 69. And especially (anle him.

omnes) to Juno, as the goddess who presided 52. Desævit. Ruæus takes this in the

over nuptials. Cui vincla jugalia curæ : to sense of desæviet, the present for the future. whom the marriage knot is for a care. See

53. Non tractabile: in the sense of procel- Æn. i. 4. losum, vel scevum. Cælum: the air or weather. 61. Fundit, &c. This was according to Æneas arrived in Africa, it is probable, in the manner of the Romans performing sathe latter part of autumn, some time before crifice. After the immolatio, which consistthe approach of winter. It appears to be ed in throwing corn and frankincense, lothe plan of Anna to detain him during the gether with the mola, (which was made of pleasant part of the season, until the navi- bran or meal inixed with salt and water,) gation should become dangerous, and when upon the head of the victim, the priest it would be imprudent to set sail ; in the sprinkled wine between the horns. hope that having passed so long a time 62. Spatiatur : she walks before the with them, he might be persuaded finally to images (ora) of the gods, &c. It was a settle at Carthage, and give over his intend custom among the Romans for matrons to eci purpose of settling in Italy.

walk on holy days, in a grave and solemn

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Instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis
Pectoribus inhians, spirantia consulit exta.
Heu, vatum ignaræ mentes ! quid vota furentem,
Quid delubra juvant ? est mollis flamma medullas
Intereà, et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus.
Uritur infelix Dido, totâque vagatur
Urbe furens: qualis conjectâ cerva sagittà,
Quam procul incautam nemora inter Cressia fixit
Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum
Nescius: illa fugâ sylvas saltusque peragrat
Dictæos: hæret lateri lethalis arundo.
Nunc media Æneam secum per mænia ducit;
Sidoniasque ostentat opes, urbemque paratam.
Incipit effari, mediâque in voce resistit.
Nunc eadem, labente die, convivia quærit;
Iliacosque iterum demens audire labores
Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore.
Pòst, ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim
Luna premit, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos ;
Sola domo mæret vacuâ, stratisque relictis
Incubat : illum absens absentem auditque videtque :
Aut gremio Ascanium, genitoris imagine capta,
Detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem.
Non cæptæ assurgunt turres, non arma juventus
Exercet, portusve, aut propugnacula bello
Tuta parant: pendent opera interrupta, minæque
Murorum ingentes, æquataque machina cælo. •

74. Nunc Dido ducit Æneam secum

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NOTES.

consumes.

manner, before the altars, with torches in stars disappear in the superior light of the their hands. Ora : in the sense of statuas, sun, they are said to set; so when the sun vel imagines.

disappears, and withdraws his light, they 63. Instaurat : she passes the day in of- become visible, and are said to rise. The ferings. Ruous says, renoval sacrificiu per same may be said of the moon. Vicissim. diem.

after having given light in her course. 64. Inhians : prying into-exploring at 82. Relictis stratis. The couch on which tentively. Spirantia · throbbing-palpita- Æneas had been sitting, and which he had ting. Exta: properly the part which we just left to retire to rest. call the lungs, including the heart, liver, &c. 84. Cupta : taken, or captivated with the

65. Vatum: in the sense of extispicum. resemblance of his father, she hugs, &c. 66. Mollis flamma est :

a gentle flame 88. Pendent : stand, or remain. InterEst : in the sense of edit. Fu- rupta: in the sense of imperfecta. Ingentes rentem : in the sense of amantem. Tacitum : minæ murorum. Heyne takes this simply concealed.

for the high walls, (alti muri,) which by 69. Qualis cerva. This is a very proper their altitude, presented a threatening ascomparison, and agrees almost in every cir- pect. Valpy is of the same opinion : bu. cumstance. There is a peculiar beauty in most interpreters take minæ murorum to be the hæritlateri lethalis arundo, which strong- the fortifications built upon the walls, which ly images the fast hold that the arrows of presented a threatening appearance to an Čupid had gotten of Dido's heart. Cressia: enemy. Hortensius and Ruæus are of opian adj. Cretan.

nion, they were huge and unfinished parts 71. Ferrum : in the sense of arundinem. of the wall, which seemed to threaten a

74. Mania: properly the fortifications of rnin, and presented a terrific appearance. a city. Ruæus says, munimenta.

89. Machina. By this we are most pro77. Eadem: the same entertainment she bably to understand the engines used in had received the preceding night.

raising stones, beams, and timber generally, 81 Luna obscura vicissim: the moon, in for carrying on the building. Heyne says, turn obscure, withdraws her light. This moles-ædificium, referring to the buildings shows the approach of day. When the themselves.

men ;

90. Quam (Didonem) Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri

90 simul ac Saturnia, cha- Chara Jovis conjux, nec famam obstare furori, ra conjux Jovis, persen- Talibus aggreditur Venerem Saturnia dicus : famam obstare ejus fu- Egregiam verò laudem, et spolia ampla refertis rori, aggreditur Vene- Tuque puerque tuus, magnum et memorabile numen; rem talibus dictis: verò Una dolo Divûm si fæmina vieta duorum est :

95 tuque tuusque puer re- Nec me adeò fallit, veritam te menia nostra, fertis egregiam laudem et ainpla spolia, mag

Suspectas habuisse domos Carthaginis altæ. num et memorabile nu Sed quis erit modus ? aut quò nunc cert nina tanta ?

si una fænina Quin potiùs pacem æternam pactosque hymenæos victa est dolo duorum Exercemus ? habes, totâ quod mente petîsti : 100 Divûm. Nec adeò fal- Ardet amans Dido, traxitque per ossa furorem. tra mania habuisse do Communem hunc ergò populum, paribusque regamus

altæ Carthaginis Auspiciis : liceat Phrygio servire marito, suspectas.

Dotalesque tuæ Tyrios permittere dextræ. 98. Modus nostræ con Olli, sensit enim simulata mente locutam,

105 tentionis

Quò regnum Italiæ Libycas averteret oras, 103. Liceat Didoni

Sic contrà est ingressa Venus : Quis talia demens 107. Contrà Venus Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere bello? ingressa est respondere Si modò, quod memoras, factum fortuna sequatur. olli sic; enim sensit eam Sed fatis incerta feror, si Jupiter unam

110 locntam esse simulatâ Esse velit Tyriis urbem, Trojâque profectis ; mente, quò averteret

mos

servire

NOTES.

nus.

90. Peste : in the sense of amore. Ruæus 99. Hymencos: match. says, veneno.

102. Regamus hunc populum. The mean93. Spolia: in the sense of victoriam.

ing plainly is : Let us rule this people (com94. Numen. This is the reading of munem) composed of Trojans and CarthaHeyne, after Pierius, Heinsius, and Burman- ginians, with equal authority and power.

It is also approved by Valpy, though Let them be both equally under our proteche retains the common reading, nomen. In tion and auspicious influence. Auspiciis: a note upon this passage, he has numen, and in the sense of potestate. observes that vestrum is understood. “Your divine power will be nobly employed,” says

103. Phrygio. Servius, and some others, he. Heyne makes this turn to the words: say, that Phrygio, here, is a word of conMagnum verò et memorabile erit numen ves

tempt, and implies that Æneas was in exile trum, si vos duo Dei circumveneritis unam

and in slavery, as the Phrygians then were. fæminam. He takes rumen in the sense of But Virgil uses the words Phrygius and potestas, vel potentia. Nomen is the com Trojanus promiscuously. Beside, Juno plays mon reading. This part of Juno's speech the hypocrite, and would, therefore, industriis extremely satirical. Tuus puer: Cupid. ously avoid every expression that might be He was the son of Jupiter and Venus.

offensive, or render her suspected. The 98. Aut quò nunc : or, for what purpose expression servire marito is in allusion to one now are so great contentions? Juno and

of the three ways of contracting marriage Venus took opposite sides in the affairs of among the Romans, (viz.) Coemptio: when Æneas and the Trojans. The former is the parties solemnly bound themselves to always represented their bitterest enemy,

each other by the ceremony of giving and and the latter their warmest friend. The taking a piece of money. By this the wowhole of Juno's speech is artful, and the

man gave herself over into the power of the plan deep laid. She now proposes to lay man, and entered into a state of liberal ser. down their arms, to conclude a lasting peace

vitude, or subjection to him. -to form a match between Æneas and 104. Dotalos: as a dowry. Dos is properDido, and by these means unite the Trojans ly the patrirnony of the wife-anything with the Carthaginians into one people. given to the lsusband with the wife. Tyrios, This plan, could she have brought it about, nempe, regnum Carthaginis. would have been to her a complete victory

105. Olli : for illi, by antithesis. over her antagonist. The common reading is certamine tanto. Heyne reads certamina 110. Feror incerta fatis, si : Iam rendered inta, which is much easier, and he says, is uncertain by the decrees of the gods, who true reading.

ther, &c.

cas oras

Miscerive probet populos, aut fædera jungi.

regnum Italiæ ad LibyTu conjux : tibi fas animum tentare precando. Perge ; sequar. Tum sic excepit regia Juno: 114

113. Tu es ejus eonMecum erit iste labor : nunc quâ ratione, quod instat,

jux; fas est tibi tentare

115. Nunc, adverte tu, Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo.

docebo paucis verbis, qua Venatum Æneas, unàque miserrima Dido,

ratione, id, quod instat, In nemus ire paraut, ubi primos crastinus ortus possit confieri. Extulerit 'Titan, radiisque retexerit orbem..r His ego nigrantem commixtâ grandine nimbum, 120 Dum trepidant alæ, saltusque indagine cingunt,

121. Dum alæ trepiDesuper infundam, et tonitru cælum omne ciebo. dant, cinguntque saltus Diffugient comites, et nocte tegentur opaca.

indagine, ego desuper

infundam his nigrantem Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem

nimbum, grandine corsDevenient. Adero, et, tua si mihi certa voluntas, 125 mixta, et ciebo omne Connubio jungam stabili, propriarnque dicabo.

cælum tonitru, Hic Hymenaeus erit. Non adversata, petenti

125. Si tua voluntas

sit certa mihi Annuit, atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis.

128. Cytherea non adOceanum intereà surgens Aurora reliquit.

versata annuit ei petentio It portis, jubare exorto, delecta juventus

130 atque risit.dolis repertis. Retia rara, plagæ, lato venabula ferro, Massylique ruunt equites, et odora canum vis. Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi Penorum expectant : ostroque insignis et auro Stat sonipes, ac fræna ferox spumantia mandit. 135 Tandem progreditur, magnâ stipante caterva,

NOTES.

sun.

114. Excepit: replied-answered.

127. Hic Hymenæus erit: this shall be a 117. Venatum : a sup. in um, of the verb marriage. Some take the meaning to be renor, put after the verb ire. Dido is here that Hymen should be present. But this called miserrima, most unhappy, on account would be unnecessary, since the nuptials of the issue of her love.

were to be performed by Juno, without the 119. Titan : in the sense of Sol. See Ecl. assistance of any other. See Geor. iii. 60. iv. 6. and Geor. iii. 48. Radiisque : and Cytherea, a name of Venus. See Æn. i. shall have disclosed the world by his beams. 229. The poets pretended that light sunk into 130. Jubare: in the sense of luce vel diluthe ocean every night, and was every morn culo. ing brought from hence by the returning 131. Retia rara: the wide nets, the toils,

Hence the propriety of the verb extu- the spears of broad point, and the Massilian lerit.

horsemen, &c. rush forth. 121. Dum alæ. By ała, Servius under 132. Odora vis canum. Vis is here used stands the horsemen, or riding hunters, who in the sense of copia, or multitudo. And are termed alc, wings, because they covered odora, in the sense of odororum, by antiptosis: the foot as the cavalry of an army. Or alæ a multitude of strong scented dogs. Masmay signify the horsemen in general spread syli. They were a people of Africa, placed over the ground, like stretched out wings. by Virgil to the westward of Carthage. Lite Trepidant very strongly expresses the hurry tle is known concerning them. and bustle of a company of horsemen, flying 133. Primi: in the sense of primores. and scampering over the ground in quest of 135. Stat sonipes insignis : her horse their prey. Indagine. By this some under stands ready, richly decked in purple and stand the arranging of the hounds, and the gold. Stal : in the sense of adest. To take placing of them in proper places for taking it literally would ill agree with the fine the game: but Ruæus, and most commen- image of the courser here given ; ferox mantators, take it for the nets and toils in which dit spumantia fræna. Insignis: in the sense the game was taken. For alæ, Ruæus has of ornatus. equites.

137. Circumdata Sidoniam: covered with 126. Jungam: I will join them in firm a Tyrian cloak. The chlamys was both a wedlock, and will consecrate her to be his military and hunting dress. It was a loose own. I will give her over to be his peculiar upper garment, which covered the breastproperty.

plate, and folded about the left arm to de

ex auro

omnes

auro

Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo:
138. Cui est pharetra Cui pharetra ex auro; crines nodantur in aurum;

Aurea purpuream subnectit fibula vestem
Necnon et Phrygii comites, et lætus lülus,

140 Incedunt: ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omnes 142. Æneas ipse pul- Intert se socium Æneas, atque agmina jungit: cherrimus ante

Qualis, ubi hybernam Lyciam Xanthique fluenta alios infcrt se sociuin. 143. Talis, qualis est

Deserit, ac Delum maternam invisit Apollo, Apollo, ubi deserit hy. Instauratque choros, mixtique altaria circum 145 bernain Lyciam, fiuen- Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt, pictique Agathyrsi : taque Xanthi, ac invisit Ipse jugis Cynthi graditur, mollique fluentem maternam Delum

Fronde premit crinem fingens, atque implicat auro : 148. Implicat cum

Tela sonant humeris. Haud illo segnior ibat
Æneas; tantum egregio decus enitet ore.

150 151. Postquam ven Postquam altos ventum in montes, atque invia lustra, tum est in altos montes, Ecce feræ saxi dejectæ vertice capræ atque invia lustra ; ecce Decurrêre jugis : aliâ de parle patentes feræ capræ dejectæ vertice saxi decurrêre jugis

Transmittunt cursu campos, atque agmina cervi 153. De aliâ parte Pulverulenta fugâ glomerant, montesque relinquunt. cervi transmittunt At puer Ascanius mediis in vallibus acri

156 Gaudet equo: jamque hos cursu, jam præterit illos :

Spumantemque dari pecora inter inertia votis 159. Optatque votis Optat aprum, aut fulvum descendere monte leonem. spumantem aprum dari

Intereà
magno
misceri murmure cælum

160 sibi inter inertia pecora Incipit : insequitur commixtâ grandine nimbus.

Et Tyrii comites passim, et Trojana juventus,
Dardaniusque nepos Veneris, diversa per agros
Tecta metu petiere; ruunt de montibus amnes.
Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus, eandem

165 Deveniunt: prima et Tellus et pronuba Juno

NOTES.

fend them from the wild beasts. The con- here mentioned seemed to be selected for struction is a Grecism.

Apollo's retinue, on account of their skill in 143. Qualis. The poet (Æn. i. 498.) com- archery. pared Dido to Diana: here he compares 148. Premit: binds up. Fingens : ad. Æneas to Apollo, her brother. It was a justing it. Molli fronde : with a soft wreath common opinion that, at certain times of the of leaves. Ruæus says, tenera coronâ. year, the gods changed the place of their Auro: in the sense of aurea vitta. residence. Servius says, it was believed 149. Haud segnior: he moved not less that Apollo gave out oracles at Palara, a city graceful than he-than Apollo himself. of Lycia, a country of Asia Minor, during 150. Ore: in the sense of vultu. the six months of the winter; and at Delos, 152. Dejectæ : dislodged-routed. Jugis the remaining six months of the year. Hence the sides of the rocks, or mountains. he was called both Patareus and Delius. 154. Transmittunt : in the sense of pose Fluenta : in the sense of fluvium.

currunt. 144. Malernam Delum. See Æn. iii. 75. 155. Glomerant fugâ : in their flight, they

146. Cretesque : the Cretans, Dryopes, crowd together the dusty herds, &c. Ruæus and painted Agathyrsi, mingled together, er says, colligunt se in greges pulverulentos. press their joy (fremunt) around the altars. 159. Optat votis : he wishes with vowsWhen Apollo came, or was thought to come he greatly wishes, that a foaming boar, &c. to Delos, the several people that came to 163. Dardanius nepos Veneris : the Troconsult his oracle, celebrated his arrival jan grandson of Venus-Ascanius. Tecta : with hymns and dances. Dryopes. These tectum signifies any covered place. Here were a people who dwelt at the foot of shelters, or retreat from the storm. mount Parnassus. Agathyrsi. These were 166. Tellus et pronuba. Pronuba, a title a people of Scythia, who used to paint their of Juno, from her being the goddess of bodies with various colors. The nations marriage : compounded of pro and nubo.

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