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8. Malè sana regina Cùm sic unanimem alloquitur malè sana sororem alloquitur

Anna soror, quæ me suspensam insomnia terrent! 10. Quis novus hospes Quis novus hic nostris successit sedibus hospes ! hic successit

Quem sese ore ferens! quàm forti pectore et armis ! 12. Eum esse genus Credo equidem, nec vana fides, genus esse Deorum. Deorum

Degeneres animos timor arguit. Heu, quibus ille
Jactatus fatis! quæ bella exhausta canebat !

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet,
16. Ne vellem sociare Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare jugali,
me cui in jugali vinclo, Postquàm primus amor deceptam morte fefellit;
postquàm meus primus Si non pertæsum thalami tædæque fuisset ;
amor fefellit me

24. Sed optem vel Hric uni forsan potui succumbere culpæ. ima tellus dehiscat mihi, Anna, fatebor enim, miseri post fata Sichæi vel pater omnipotens adi- Conjugis, et sparsos fraternâ cæde penates, gat me fulmine ad um- Solus hic inflexit sensus, animumque labantem bras, ; allentes umbras Erebi, profundamque Impulit: agnosco veteris vestigia flammæ. noctem, priùsquàm, o

Sed mihi vel tellus optem priùs ima dehiscat, pudor, ego violo te Vel pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras,

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NOTES.

8. Malè sana : the love-sick queen address- tum signifies, sometimes, as in this place ed her concordant sister. Unanimem, here, distress-misfortunes--calamities. is very emphatical. It implies that there 14. Canebat : in the sense of narrabat. was such a harmony and agreement sub 15. Sederet : in the sense of maneret. sisting between them, that they both seemed 16. Sociare: to connect myself in marto be animated with the same soul: (of riage with any one. unus and animus.) Malè sana : Malè, here, 17. Primus amor : after my first love dehas the force of non. The queen was so in ceived ine, disappointed by the death of love with Æneas, that she disregarded the my husband. She had pictured to herself sober dictates of reason, and her better an uninterrupted course of conjugal felicity, judgment. Valpy says, “ with disturbed of which she was disappointed by the death mind.” Insomnia : dreams. Suspensam : in of her husband. This led her to enter into the sense of solicitam.

the resolution of never forming a second 11. Quem sese ferens ore : what an illus- connexion. trious person, showing himself (to be) by his countenance ! of how great fortitude and been weary (displeased) with the marriage

18. Si non perlæsum fuisset : if I had not prowess! The Quàm forti pectore et armis, is an

bed, and nuptial torch, perhaps, &c. Tædæ. elliptical expression. It is thus filled : Quàm It was a custom among the Ronans to carry

a torch before the newly married wife, when forti pectore est ille ; et quàm fortibus armis. The preposition è, or ex, being still under- she was conducted to the house of her husstood, governing the ablative cases.

By the

band. Hence it is often put for the nuptials

themselves. forti pectore, we are to understand his fortitude in undergoing hardships, and support

19. Potui : I might yield to this one fault. ing misfortunes : and by the armis, his cou

Potui : in the sense of potuissem. rage and prowess in arms.

Second marriages were considered disre13. Timor arguit: fear shows a base and putable among the Roman women, as show. ignoble mind. As fear argues a base and ing a want of respect for the memory of the ignoble mind, so courage and valor bespeak deceased, and as conveying a suspicion of a noble and divine original. The poet has incontinency. filled the speech of Dido with these abrupt But culpa is sometimes taken simply for half sentences, and made her speak incohe- the indulgence of the passion of love, howrently, on purpose to show the confusion ever innocent. and perturbation of her mind.

21. Fruternâ cæde. Sichæus was murder 14. Exhausta : drawn out-endured to ed, by her brother, at the altar. Hence the the last. Not only begun, but accomplished, murder is called fraternal. Fata: in the and with resolution brought to an end. Here sense of mortem. See note 1. supra. is plainly an allusion to the draining of some 22. Inflexit sensus : he alone hath changed bitter cup to the very last dregs. A parti- my inclinations, and made an impression ciple from exhaurio. Fatis. The word fa- upon my wavering mind.

Pallentes umbras Erebi, noctemque profundam,
Antè, pudor, quàm te violo, aut tua jura resolvo.
Ne meos, primus qui me sibi junxit, amores
Abstulit ; ille habeat secum, servetque sepulchro.
Sic effata, sinum lachrymis implevit obortis.

Anna refert : 0.luce magis dilecta sorori,
Solane perpetuâ merens carpère juventâ ?
Nec dulces natos, Veneris nec præmia nôris ?
Id cinerem, aut Manes credis curare sepultos ?
Esto : ægram nulli quondam fexere mariti,
Non Libyæ, non antè Tyro : despectus Iarbas,
Ductoresque alii, quos Africa terra triumphis
Dives alit: placitone etiam pugnabis amori ?
Nec venit in mentem, quorum consederis arvis ?
Hinc Getulæ urbes, genus insuperabile bello,
Et Numidæ infræni cingunt, et inhospita Syrtis :
Hinc deserta siti regio, latèque furentes

28. Ille Sichæus abstu. lit meos amores, qui 30

31. O tu, magìs dilecta sorori lucê, sola-ne merens carpêre in perpetuâ juventâ ?

34. Credis cinerem 35 Sichæi, aut sepultos

36. Esto: larbas despectus est, aliique ductores

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NOTES.

26. Erebi : the place of the dead—the in- undertake the business ; upon this the queen fernal regions.

rebuked them, and declared that if the safety 27. Antè. The antè here is plainly ex of his country required it, any one should pletive. Priùs goes before it, and is to be be willing to give up even his life. They connected with quàm. Some copies have then opened the whole matter, saying, the riolem and resolvam. Pudor: in the sense very thing she had enjoined on others, she of pudicitia.

had to perform herself, if she would consult 30. Implevit sinum: she filled her bosom the good of the city. Being taken by this with flowing tears. Servius and Turnebus device, after much lamentations, and many take sinum, here, for the cavity of the eye. invocations of her husband, she declared But the common import of the word is much that she would obey the call of her country. more.expressive, as it shows her tears to be Having passed three months in this manner, much more copious, and paints her passion she caused a funeral pile to be erected in as more violent. Refert : in the sense of one part of the city, as if to appease the respondet. Luce : in the sense of vita. Manes of her departed husband, and to offer

32. Sola-ne curpêre : will you fade and sacrifices for him before her nuptials. She wither away, mourning alone as a widow ascended the pile, and taking a sword in her through all your youth, &c. Ruæus says, hand, said to her people, that she would go an sola consumeris dolens per totam juventu- to her husband as they required, and, with Cem. But carpêre may be used in the sense her own hand, put an end to her existence, of the Greek middle voice. The meaning While Carthage remained, she was worshipis obvious.

ped as a goddess. 35. Nulli mariti : no suitors moved you 37. Terra dives triumphis. It appears from sorrowing—while your loss was fresh in Servius, that the Africans were the inventory your memory, and your grief unabated. of triumphal shows. Some say they never Mariti : in the sense of proci. Ægram: in triumphed. But Justin tells us that Asdruthe sense of dolentem. Te is understood. bal, in particular, was honored with four

36. Iarbas. Among the many who made triumphs. Placito: in the sense of grato. suit to Dido, was Iarbas, a rich and power- Ne is interrogative. ful prince of Africa, and reputed son of 40. Getulæ urbes. The Getuli were a Jupiter Ammon. But Justin gives a very brave and warlike people, to the south of different account of the matter from the one Carthage. Hinc, when it has its corresgiven here by the poet. He says, Iarbas, pondent hinc, the former is rendered, on the having gotten ten of the principal Cartha one side ; and the latter, on the other side. ginians, demanded of them Dido in mar 41. Numidæ. The Namidians, again, were riage; and, in case of a refusal, he threaten a people fierce and uncivilized, lying to the ed to declare war against them. Fearing westward. Inhospita Syrtis. Both the to deliver the message to the queen, they greater and the less Syrtis lay in the Sinus said the king demanded a person who might Libycus, to the north and east of Carthage, teach him and his people the arts of civilized and rendered the navigation dangerous.

but that no one could be found who was 42. Deserta siti: rendered desert b willing to leave his relations and friends to drought.

life;

censum amore

Barcæi. Quid bella Tyro surgentia dicam,

Germanique minas ? 45. Ego equidem reor Dîs equidem auspicibus reor, et Junone secundà, 45 Uliacas carinas tenuisse Huc cursum Iliacas vento tenuisse carinas. cursum huc vento, Pis Quam tu urbem, soror, hanc cernes ! quæ surgere regna auspicibus, et Junone secundâ.

Conjugio tali! Teucrûm comitantibus armis,
Punica se quantis attollet gloria rebus!
Tu modò posce Deos veniam, sacrisque litatis, 50
Indulge hospitio, causasque innecte morandi ;
Dum pelago desævit hyems, et aquosus Orion ;

Quassatæque rates, et non tractabile cælum.
54. Animum jam in- His dictis incensum animum inflammavit amore,

Spemque dedit dubiæ menti, solvitque pudorem. 55 59. Sed Junoni ante

Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras omnes, cui jugalia vin- Exquirunt: mactant lectas de more bidentes cla sunt curæ.

Legiferæ Cereri, Phæboque, patrique Lyæo 60. Pulcherrima Dido Juhoni ante omnes, cui vincla jugalia curæ. ipsa tenens

60 dextrâ fundit vinum in- Ipsa tenens dextrâ pateram pulcherrima Dido, ter media cornua can

Candentis vaccæ media inter cornua fundit : dentis vaccæ :

Aut ante ora Deùm pingues spatiatur ad aras,

NOTES. 43. Barcæi. These were a people to the 54. Incensum : burning, or inflamed with east, inhabiting a dry and barren country. love.

Quid dicam : why shall I mention the 55. Dubiæ: wavering. Solvit pudorem. wars arising from Tyre, and the threats of removed her scruples in regard to disrespect your brother ? Justin says, when Pygmalion to the memory of her late husband. Valpy. understood that Dido had fed her country, 57. Exquirunt pacem per aras : they seek and taken with her much treasure, he deter- peace by the altars. This refers to the way mined to pursue her; but was dissuaded of prying into the entrails of the victims, in from his purpose by his mother, and the order to know the will of the gods. Bidenthreats of the gods.

tes lectas de more. It was a regulation that 45. Junone secunda. Juno is here parti. no victims should be offered to the gods, but cularly named, because she presided over such as were without blemish. Bidentes : marriage, and because Carthage was under properly sheep of two years old. her peculiar protection. Auspicibus : in the 58. Legiferæ Cereri. Ceres was the sense of fauloribus, vel auctoribus. Secunda: daughter of Saturn and Ops, and the godin the sense of propitia.

dess of husbandry. It is said, she was the 49. Quantis rebus : by what noble deeds first institutor of laws, especially those of will the Carthaginian glory exalt itself, the marriage. See Ecl. v. 79. Phæbo. Dido arms of the Trojans accompanying yours ? offers sacrifices to Phæbus, as the god who

50. Sacris litatis : sacrifices being offered. presided over futurity, that he might send The proper signification of litare, is, to pro- her favorable omens. See Ecl. iv. 10. To pitiate by sacrifice. Sacris : in the sense of father Bacchus, as the god of mirth and victimis.

jollity, that he might crown the match with 51. Innecte: devise causes for detaining joy. See Ecl. v. 69. And especially (anle him.

omnes) to Juno, as the goddess who presided 52. Desævit. Ruæus takes this in the

over nuptials. Cui vincla jugalia curæ : to sense of desæviet, the present for the future. whom the marriage knot is for a care. See

53. Non tractabile: in the sense of procel- Æn. i. 4. losum, vel scevum. Cælum: the air or weather. 61. Fundit, &c. This was according to Æneas arrived in Africa, it is probable, in the manner of the Romans performing sathe latter part of autumn, some time before crifice. After the immolatio, which consistthe approach of winter. It appears to be ed in throwing corn and frankincense, lothe plan of Anna to detain him during the gether with the mola, (which was made of pleasant part of the season, until the navi- bran or meal inixed with salt and water,) gation should become dangerous, and when upon the head of the victim, the priest it would be imprudent to set sail ; in the sprinkled wine between the horns. hope that having passed so long a time 62. Spatiatur : she walks before the with them, he might be persuaded finally to images (ora) of the gods, &c. It was a settle at Carthage, and give over his intend- custom among the Romans for matrons to eci purpose of settling in Italy.

walk on holy days, in a grave and solemn

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Instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis
Pectoribus inhians, spirantia consulit exta.
Heu, vatum ignaræ mentes ! quid vota furentem,
Quid delubra juvant ? est mollis flamma medullas
Intereà, et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus.
Uritur infelix Dido, totâque vagatur
Urbe furens: qualis conjectâ cerva sagittà,
Quam procul incautam nemora inter Cressia fixit
Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum
Nescius: illa fugâ sylvas saltusque peragrat
Dictæos: hæret lateri lethalis arundo.
Nunc media Æneam secum per mænia ducit;
Sidoniasque ostentat opes, urbemque paratam.
Incipit effari, mediâque in voce resistit.
Nunc eadem, labente die, convivia quærit;
Iliacosque iterum demens audire labores
Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore.
Pòst, ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim
Luna premit, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos ;
Sola domo mæret vacuâ, stratisque relictis
Incubat : illum absens absentem auditque videtque :
Aut gremio Ascanium, genitoris imagine capta,
Detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem.
Non cæptæ assurgunt turres, non arma juventus
Exercet, portusve, aut propugnacula bello
Tuta parant: pendent opera interrupta, minæque
Murorum ingentes, æquataque machina cælo. •

74. Nunc Dido ducit Æneam secum

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consumes.

manner, before the altars, with torches in stars disappear in the superior light of the their hands. Ora : in the sense of statuas, sun, they are said to set; so when the sun vel imagines.

disappears, and withdraws his light, they 63. Instaurat : she passes the day in of- become visible, and are said to rise. The ferings. Ruous says, renoval sacrificiu per same may be said of the moon. Vicissim. diem.

after having given light in her course. 64. Inhians : prying into-exploring at- 82. Relictis stratis. The couch on which tentively. Spirantia · throbbing-palpita- Æneas had been sitting, and which he had ting. Exta: properly the part which we just left to retire to rest. call the lungs, including the heart, liver, &c. 84. Cupta : taken, or captivated with the

65. Vatum: in the sense of extispicum. resemblance of his father, she hugs, &c. 66. Mollis flamma est :

a gentle flame 88. Pendent : stand, or remain. InterEst : in the sense of edit. Fu- rupta: in the sense of imperfecta. Ingentes rentem : in the sense of amantem. Tacitum : minæ murorum. Heyne takes this simply concealed.

for the high walls, (alti muri,) which by 69. Qualis cerva. This is a very proper their altitude, presented a threatening ascomparison, and agrees almost in every cir- pect. Valpy is of the same opinion : bu. cumstance. There is a peculiar beauty in most interpreters take minæ murorum to be the hæritlateri lethalis arundo, which strong- the fortifications built upon the walls, which ly images the fast hold that the arrows of presented a threatening appearance to an Čupid had gotten of Dido's heart. Cressia: enemy. Hortensius and Ruæus are of opian adj. Cretan.

nion, they were huge and unfinished parts 71. Ferrum : in the sense of arundinem. of the wall, which seemed to threaten a

74. Mania: properly the fortifications of rnin, and presented a terrific appearance. a city. Ruæus says, munimenta.

89. Machina. By this we are most pro77. Eadem: the same entertainment she bably to understand the engines used in had received the preceding night.

raising stones, beams, and timber generally, 81 Luna obscura vicissim: the moon, in for carrying on the building. Heyne says, turn obscure, withdraws her light. This moles-ædificium, referring to the buildings shows the approach of day. When the themselves.

men ;

90. Quam (Didonem) Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri

90 simul ac Saturnia, cha- Chara Jovis conjux, nec famam obstare furori, ra conjux Jovis, persen- Talibus aggreditur Venerem Saturnia dicus : famam obstare ejus fu- Egregiam verò laudem, et spolia ampla refertis rori, aggreditur Vene- Tuque puerque tuus, magnum et memorabile numen; rem talibus dictis: verò Una dolo Divûm si fæmina vieta duorum est :

95 tuque tuusque puer re- Nec me adeò fallit, veritam te menia nostra, fertis egregiam laudem et ainpla spolia, mag

Suspectas habuisse domos Carthaginis altæ. num et memorabile nu Sed quis erit modus ? aut quò nunc cert nina tanta ?

si una fænina Quin potiùs pacem æternam pactosque hymenæos victa est dolo duorum Exercemus ? habes, totâ quod mente petîsti : 100 Divûm. Nec adeò fal- Ardet amans Dido, traxitque per ossa furorem. tra mania habuisse do Communem hunc ergò populum, paribusque regamus

altæ Carthaginis Auspiciis : liceat Phrygio servire marito, suspectas.

mos

Dotalesque tuæ Tyrios permittere dextræ. 98. Modus nostræ con Olli, sensit enim simulata mente locutam,

105 tentionis

Quò regnum Italiæ Libycas averteret oras, 103. Liceat Didoni

Sic contrà est ingressa Venus : Quis talia demens 107. Contrà Venus Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere bello? ingressa est respondere Si modò, quod memoras, factum fortuna sequatur. olli sic; enim sensit eam Sed fatis incerta feror, si Jupiter unam

110 locntam esse simulatâ Esse velit Tyriis urbem, Trojâque profectis ; mente, quò averteret

servire

NOTES.

nus.

90. Peste : in the sense of amore. Ruæus 99. Hymencos: match. says, veneno.

102. Regamus hunc populum. The mean93. Spolia: in the sense of victoriam.

ing plainly is : Let us rule this people (com94. Numen. This is the reading of munem) composed of Trojans and CarthaHeyne, after Pierius, Heinsius, and Burman- ginians, with equal authority and power.

It is also approved by Valpy, though Let them be both equally under our proteche retains the common reading, nomen. In tion and auspicious influence. Auspiciis: a note upon this passage, he has numen, and in the sense of potestate. observes that vestrum is understood. “Your divine power will be nobly employed,” says

103. Phrygio. Servius, and some others, he. Heyne makes this turn to the words: say, that Phrygio, here, is a word of conMagnum verò et memorabile erit numen ves

tempt, and implies that Æneas was in exile trum, si vos duo Dei circumveneritis unam

and in slavery, as the Phrygians then were. fæminam. He takes rumen in the sense of But Virgil uses the words Phrygius and potestas, vel potentia. Nomen is the com Trojanus promiscuously. Beside, Juno plays mon reading. This part of Juno's speech the hypocrite, and would, therefore, industriis extremely satirical. Tuus puer: Cupid. ously avoid every expression that might be He was the son of Jupiter and Venus.

offensive, or render her suspected. The 98. Aut quò nunc : or, for what purpose expression servire marito is in allusion to one now are so great contentions? Juno and

of the three ways of contracting marriage Venus took opposite sides in the affairs of among the Romans, (viz.) Coemptio: when Æneas and the Trojans. The former is the parties solemnly bound themselves to always represented their bitterest enemy,

each other by the ceremony of giving and and the latter their warmest friend. The taking a piece of money. By this the wowhole of Juno's speech is artful, and the

man gave herself over into the power of the plan deep laid. She now proposes to lay man, and entered into a state of liberal ser. down their arms, to conclude a lasting peace

vitude, or subjection to him. -to form a match between Æneas and 104. Dotalos: as a dowry. Dos is properDido, and by these means unite the Trojans ly the patrirnony of the wife-anything with the Carthaginians into one people. given to the lsusband with the wife. Tyrios, This plan, could she have brought it about, nempe, regnum Carthaginis. would have been to her a complete victory

105. Olli : for illi, by antithesis. over her antagonist. The common reading is certamine tanto. Heyne reads certamina 110. Feror incerta fatis, si : Iam rendered inta, which is much easier, and he says, is uncertain by the decrees of the gods, who true reading.

ther, &c.

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