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Nec vates Helenus, cùm multa horrenda moneret,
Hos mihi prædixit luctus; non dira Celæno.
Hic labor extremus, longarum hæc meta viarum.
Hinc me digressum vestris Deus appulit oris.

Sic pater Æneas, intentis omnibus, unus
Fata renarrabat Divûm, cursusque docebat:
Conticuit tandem, factoque hic fine quievit.

1713. Dira Celæno non

prædixit 715

714. Hic fuit extremus labor

718. Fine narrationis

NOTES.

712. Moneret : in the sense of prædiceret. 717. Unus renarrabat": he alone related

714. Hic extremus: this line may be taken the purposes (decrees) of the gods (toward in two senses: either to mean the end of him,) and declared his wanderings. Unus : Anchises’ labor, and the termination of his in the sense of solus. long voyage, or that the death of his father 718. Quievit : he rested-he went to rest. was to Æneas the greatest of all his afflic- Segrais observes that the second and third tions, and the end of his voyage toward the books may be recited in two hours. The Italian coast. Ruæus takes it in the former story did not appear long to Dido and the sense; Mr. Davidson in the latter.

guests: for he ceased, intentis omnibus, and 715. Deus appulit: a god directed me, at midnight too, nor will they appear long departing hence (from the coast and port of to any reader of taste and judgment. Drepanum) to your shores.

QUESTIONS.

city ?

How did Æneas employ his time during Who were the founders of the Trojan his residence at Antandros ?

race ? How many ships had he when he set sail? Of what country were they natives? At what time of the year did he set sail? From Crete, to what country was he diHow long probably after the capture of the rected to sail?

How did he receive this instruction ? To what place did he direct his course ? What befel him soon after he set sail ? What city did he found in Thrace?

What land did he first make ? What did he call the name of it?

In what sea are the Strophades? What did he call his followers from this By whom were these islands inhabited ? circumstance?

Who was the chief of the Harpies ? Did he soon abandon the idea of remain Did she give to Æncas any intiination of ing in Thrace?

suffering and want, before he should find a Why did he thus abandon it?

permanent settlement? Who was Polydorus ?

How was this prediction accomplished ? How came he by his death?

From these islands, which way did he diFrom Thrace, to what place did Æneas rect his course? direct his course ?

At what places did he land? Where is Delos situated ?

What games did he celebrate ? Of what cluster of islands is it one?

For what was this coast celebrated ? How was he here received ?

Between whom was the battle fought ? Who was at that time king of the island ? From Actium, to what part of Epirus did For what is this island famous ?

he proceed ? What is the fable or story respecting it? What surprising news did he hear on en

From what Greek word is the name de- tering the port ? rived ?

Was the meeting of his friends very inWhat is the signification of that word ? teresting as well as unexpected ?

Did he consult the oracle of Apollo at What does Dr. Trapp observe of it? this place concerning the land destined to How was Andromache employed at that him?

time? What answer did he receive?

What effect had the sight of Æneas and How did his father Anchises interpret the Trojans upon her ? that answer?

Leaving Epirus, what sea did he first pass From Delos, to what place did he sail ? over?

What prevented him irom making a set How many miles is Italy from Epirus in ulement in Crete?

that place? What did he call the city, which he there What was the name of the promoutory, founded ?

where he landed ? Vhy did Æneas go to Crete?

What course did he then take?

Why did he not pass through the strait of Messina:

Where does this strait lie ?

What is the navigation of it-safe or dangerous ?

What renders it dangerous ?

Why is Sicily sometimes called Trinacria?

What are the names of its three promontories ?

Where did Æneas first land on this island ?
What famous mountain was near?
How long did he reinain ?
Was there an eruption at that time?
What effect had it upon the Trojans ?

What is the fabulous account of the cause of an eruption ?

Is this very far from the true cause ?

Who were the inhabitants of that part of Sicily?

Who was at that time their king?

From what circumstance were they called Cyclops ?

How large was their eye said to be ?

What was their employment according to the poets ?

Who had been upon this coast a short time before the arrival of Æneas ?

To what place was Ulysses bound ?

What misfortune befel him in the stı ait of
Messina ?

What did he do to Polyphemus ?
Why did he thus punish him?

Froin whom did Æneas receive this ac. count of the Cyclops ?

How many of these giants were there then on the island ?

Who was Achemenides?

On what part of Sicily did Æneas afterward land?

What is the name of the port !
What loss befel him here?

Does this close the account, which Æneas gave to Dido at her request ?

When does the poein open?
Where was Æneas at that time?

LIBER QUARTUS.

This book opens with the love of Dido for Æneas, and her conference with her sister

Anna upon the subject. Juno perceiving her passion, conceived the plan of forming a connexion between them. To effect this the easier, she endeavors to draw Venus over to her views. In the mean time, Æneas and Dido prepare to go on a party of hunting; and while in the chase, Juno raises a violent tempest. The thunder rends the skies, and torrents of rain fall. The party seek shelter wherever they can. Through a device of Juno, Æneas and Dido repair to the same cave, where the goddess consecrates their nuptials. Fame immediately spread the news abroad; and it reached the ears of larbas, king of the Getuli, the reputed son of Jupiter Ammon. He had formerly proposed a match with Dido, who rejected his offers. As soon as he heard that she was married to a stranger, he was transported to rage, mingled with grief. In this state of mind he made complaint to his father, who, taking pity on him, sends Mercury to dissolve the match, and to order Æneas to prepare to leave Carthage for Italy. In obedience to his commands, he privately makes the necessary preparations for setting sail. Dido perceiving his movements, endeavors to dissuade hin from his purpose, in the tenderest and most affectionate strain; but it had no influence over him. Being warned a second time, he weighs anchor in haste, and the love-sick Queen beholds him leaving her coast. The sight wrung her soul, and drew from her llips the most severe reproofs and bitter imprecations. She enjoins it upon her people to revenge the injury done to her, and to pursue his descendants with irreconcilable hatred. Having ordered a funeral pile to be erected, she ascends it, and with her own hand puts an end to her existence. The nature of the subject renders this book highly interesting; and it is considered one of the finest in the Æneid.

At regina, gravi jamdudum saucia cura,

NOTES.

1. Regina. Dido, sometimes called Eliza, calls him Metten. Her grandfather was was a Tyrian princess. Josephus informs Badezorus, and her great grandfather was us her father's name was Melginus. He Ithobalus, called in Scripture Ethbaal, whose obtained his information from the records of daughter Jezebel was married to Ahab, king the Tyrians: and Theophilus of Antioch of Israel. Virgil, however, makes the name

Vulnus alit venis, et cæco carpitur igni.
Multa viri virtus animo, multusque recursat
Gentis honos : hærent infixi pectore vultus,
Verbaque : nec placidam membris dat cura quietem. 5

6. Postera Aurora Postera Phæbeâ lustrabat lampade terras,

lustrabat terras l'hebeâ Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram : lampade

NOTES. of her father to be Belus. Æn. i: 625. Marol- her arrival in Africa, found Carthage allius has given a list of the kings of Tyre, and ready built, and that she only fortified it, makes Belus an abbreviation of Iihobalus, and added a tower or citade:, which she the father of Pygmalion and Dido; but he called Byrsa. This word is evidently from follows fabulous and traditionary accounts, the Hebrew Bosra, which means a fortificawhich should always be received with cau- tion, or fortified place. The Greeks, mistion. Among other things, what renders taking the meaning, or overlooking it, suphis account doubtful, is, that he brings Dido posed, froin the similarity of the words, that upon the stage of action more than a hun- it was the same with their Byrsa, which dred years before the destruction of Troy. means a bull's hide. Virgil followed the re

After the death of his father, Pygmalion ceived opinion. See Æn. i. 367. It has been ascended the throne. He was an avaricious the general opinion that Virgil, in making prince, and stopped at nothing by which he Æneas and Dido cotemporary, is guilty of could increase his riches. He conceived the an anachronism. Bochart is positive of this, plan of murdering Acerbas, or Sicharbas, the and says that all the ancient chronologers beloved husband of his sister. Virgil calls of any credit, place the destruction of Troy, him Sichæus, softening the name to make at least 60 years before the reign of Saul, it flow more easily into his verse. Sichaus king of Israel ; and the time of Dido's buildwas the richest of all the Tyrians. Pyg- ing Byrsa, the fortress of Carthage, at least malion coveted his treasures ; but there was 200 years after it, making 260 years to inno way to possess them while he was living. tervene between the destruction of Troy, He therefore formed the purpose of taking and the building of Byrsa. In this case, the away his life. He came upon him unex destruction of Troy will be 1160 years bepectedly, and slew him while he was per- fore the Christian era. Sir Isaac Newton, forining his devotions before the altar. This however, in his chronology, has brought it atrocious deed, the base prince had the ad- down nearly 300 years ; and thus makes dress to conceal, for some time, from his Æneas and Dido cotemporary. However sister. At length the whole matter was laid the case may be, it was undoubtedly a reopen to Dido by the ghost of her deceased ceived opinion among the Romans, that they husband, and she was admonished to flee

were cotemporary, and this was sufficient her country. Having collected what trea- for the poet; and even if he knew otherwise, sure she could on so sudden an emergency, he acted prudently in following the general and seizing some vessels that were then opinion, since it contributed so much to the ready for sea, she set sail, accompanied by embellishment of his

poem. many of her countrymen: and, after a long and tedious voyage, she arrived in Africa. plains it by nimiùm, or vehementiùs. Though:

Jamdudum: a long while. Servius exIt appears to have been her purpose to join it were only a short time since Æneas came her countrymen, who, many years before, to Carthage, yet, with respect to Dido's. under Xorus and Carchedon, had formed a settleinent, to which they gave the name of passion, and the impatience of her love, it

Cura : Utica, about 15 miles from the place where might be said to be a long time.

Ruæus

says, solicitudine. Tunis now stands. This place was afterward rendered famous by the death of the

2. Alii vulnus: she nourishes a wound in second Cato, who was hence called Cato, her veins, and is consumed by the secret fire Uticensis. Dido met with a welcome recep

of love. This is said in allusion to Cupid's tion, and was desired to build a city on the arrow and torch ; the former to' wound, and spot where she landed. For this purpose, the latter to inflame. Cæco iyni. Valpy she purchased a tract of country of the na says, a conccaled passion." tives, many of whom joined her, together 3. Multa viri virtus : the many virtues of with some from Utica. She called her, city the hero, and the many honors of his race, Cutharda or Carthage, which, in the Phæni recur to her mind. By his father, Æneas cian and Hebrew languages, signifies a new descended from the royal family of Troy ; city. It stood about 700 years, and was and, by Venus his mother, from Jove him. destroyed by the Romans under Scipio, in self. the year of Rome 603, and before Christ 6. Phæbeâ Lampade : with the lamp of 145. See Rollin's An. His. lib. ii. ch. 1. Phebus, that is, with the sun. By Tapino

There are some who say that Dido, on sis. Polo: in the sense of cælo.

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8. Malè sana regina Cùm sic unanimem alloquitur malè sana sororem alloquitur

Anna soror, quæ me suspensam insomnia terrent! 10. Quis novus hospes Quis novus hic nostris successit sedibus hospes ! hic successit

Quem sese ore ferens! quàm forti pectore et armis ! 12. Eum esse genus Credo equidem, nec vana fides, genus esse Deorum. Deorum

Degeneres animos timor arguit. Heu, quibus ille
Jactatus fatis! quæ bella exhausta canebat !

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet,
16. Ne vellem sociare Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare jugali,
me cui in jugali vinclo, Postquàm primus amor deceptam morte fefellit;
postquàm meus primus Si non pertæsum thalami tædæque fuisset ;
amor fefellit me

24. Sed optem vel Hric uni forsan potui succumbere culpæ. ima tellus dehiscat mihi, Anna, fatebor enim, miseri post fata Sichæi vel pater omnipotens adi- Conjugis, et sparsos fraternâ cæde penates, gat me fulmine ad um- Solus hic inflexit sensus, animumque labantem bras, ; allentes umbras Erebi, profundamque Impulit: agnosco veteris vestigia flammæ. noctem, priùsquàm, o

Sed mihi vel tellus optem priùs ima dehiscat, pudor, ego violo te Vel pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras,

20

25

NOTES.

8. Malè sana : the love-sick queen address- tum signifies, sometimes, as in this place ed her concordant sister. Unanimem, here, distress-misfortunes--calamities. is very emphatical. It implies that there 14. Canebat : in the sense of narrabat. was such a harmony and agreement sub 15. Sederet : in the sense of maneret. sisting between them, that they both seemed 16. Sociare: to connect myself in marto be animated with the same soul: (of riage with any one. unus and animus.) Malè sana : Malè, here, 17. Primus amor : after my first love dehas the force of non. The queen was so in ceived ine, disappointed by the death of love with Æneas, that she disregarded the my husband. She had pictured to herself sober dictates of reason, and her better an uninterrupted course of conjugal felicity, judgment. Valpy says, “ with disturbed of which she was disappointed by the death mind.” Insomnia : dreams. Suspensam : in of her husband. This led her to enter into the sense of solicitam.

the resolution of never forming a second 11. Quem sese ferens ore : what an illus- connexion. trious person, showing himself (to be) by his countenance ! of how great fortitude and been weary (displeased) with the marriage

18. Si non perlæsum fuisset : if I had not prowess! The Quàm forti pectore et armis, is an

bed, and nuptial torch, perhaps, &c. Tædæ. elliptical expression. It is thus filled : Quàm It was a custom among the Ronans to carry

a torch before the newly married wife, when forti pectore est ille ; et quàm fortibus armis. The preposition è, or ex, being still under- she was conducted to the house of her husstood, governing the ablative cases.

By the

band. Hence it is often put for the nuptials

themselves. forti pectore, we are to understand his fortitude in undergoing hardships, and support

19. Potui : I might yield to this one fault. ing misfortunes : and by the armis, his cou

Potui : in the sense of potuissem. rage and prowess in arms.

Second marriages were considered disre13. Timor arguit: fear shows a base and putable among the Roman women, as show. ignoble mind. As fear argues a base and ing a want of respect for the memory of the ignoble mind, so courage and valor bespeak deceased, and as conveying a suspicion of a noble and divine original. The poet has incontinency. filled the speech of Dido with these abrupt But culpa is sometimes taken simply for half sentences, and made her speak incohe- the indulgence of the passion of love, howrently, on purpose to show the confusion ever innocent. and perturbation of her mind.

21. Fruternâ cæde. Sichæus was murder 14. Exhausta : drawn out-endured to ed, by her brother, at the altar. Hence the the last. Not only begun, but accomplished, murder is called fraternal. Fata: in the and with resolution brought to an end. Here sense of mortem. See note 1. supra. is plainly an allusion to the draining of some 22. Inflexit sensus : he alone hath changed bitter cup to the very last dregs. A parti- my inclinations, and made an impression ciple from exhaurio. Fatis. The word fa- upon my wavering mind.

Pallentes umbras Erebi, noctemque profundam,
Antè, pudor, quàm te violo, aut tua jura resolvo.
Ne meos, primus qui me sibi junxit, amores
Abstulit ; ille habeat secum, servetque sepulchro.
Sic effata, sinum lachrymis implevit obortis.

Anna refert : 0.luce magis dilecta sorori,
Solane perpetuâ merens carpère juventâ ?
Nec dulces natos, Veneris nec præmia nôris ?
Id cinerem, aut Manes credis curare sepultos ?
Esto : ægram nulli quondam fexere mariti,
Non Libyæ, non antè Tyro : despectus Iarbas,
Ductoresque alii, quos Africa terra triumphis
Dives alit: placitone etiam pugnabis amori ?
Nec venit in mentem, quorum consederis arvis ?
Hinc Getulæ urbes, genus insuperabile bello,
Et Numidæ infræni cingunt, et inhospita Syrtis :
Hinc deserta siti regio, latèque furentes

28. Ille Sichæus abstu. lit meos amores, qui 30

31. O tu, magìs dilecta sorori lucê, sola-ne merens carpêre in perpetuâ juventâ ?

34. Credis cinerem 35 Sichæi, aut sepultos

36. Esto: larbas despectus est, aliique ductores

40

NOTES.

26. Erebi : the place of the dead—the in- undertake the business ; upon this the queen fernal regions.

rebuked them, and declared that if the safety 27. Antè. The antè here is plainly ex of his country required it, any one should pletive. Priùs goes before it, and is to be be willing to give up even his life. They connected with quàm. Some copies have then opened the whole matter, saying, the riolem and resolvam. Pudor: in the sense very thing she had enjoined on others, she of pudicitia.

had to perform herself, if she would consult 30. Implevit sinum: she filled her bosom the good of the city. Being taken by this with flowing tears. Servius and Turnebus device, after much lamentations, and many take sinum, here, for the cavity of the eye. invocations of her husband, she declared But the common import of the word is much that she would obey the call of her country. more.expressive, as it shows her tears to be Having passed three months in this manner, much more copious, and paints her passion she caused a funeral pile to be erected in as more violent. Refert : in the sense of one part of the city, as if to appease the respondet. Luce : in the sense of vita. Manes of her departed husband, and to offer

32. Sola-ne curpêre : will you fade and sacrifices for him before her nuptials. She wither away, mourning alone as a widow ascended the pile, and taking a sword in her through all your youth, &c. Ruæus says, hand, said to her people, that she would go an sola consumeris dolens per totam juventu- to her husband as they required, and, with Cem. But carpêre may be used in the sense her own hand, put an end to her existence, of the Greek middle voice. The meaning While Carthage remained, she was worshipis obvious.

ped as a goddess. 35. Nulli mariti : no suitors moved you 37. Terra dives triumphis. It appears from sorrowing—while your loss was fresh in Servius, that the Africans were the inventory your memory, and your grief unabated. of triumphal shows. Some say they never Mariti : in the sense of proci. Ægram: in triumphed. But Justin tells us that Asdruthe sense of dolentem. Te is understood. bal, in particular, was honored with four

36. Iarbas. Among the many who made triumphs. Placito: in the sense of grato. suit to Dido, was Iarbas, a rich and power- Ne is interrogative. ful prince of Africa, and reputed son of 40. Getulæ urbes. The Getuli were a Jupiter Ammon. But Justin gives a very brave and warlike people, to the south of different account of the matter from the one Carthage. Hinc, when it has its corresgiven here by the poet. He says, Iarbas, pondent hinc, the former is rendered, on the having gotten ten of the principal Cartha one side ; and the latter, on the other side. ginians, demanded of them Dido in mar 41. Numidæ. The Namidians, again, were riage; and, in case of a refusal, he threaten a people fierce and uncivilized, lying to the ed to declare war against them. Fearing westward. Inhospita Syrtis. Both the to deliver the message to the queen, they greater and the less Syrtis lay in the Sinus said the king demanded a person who might Libycus, to the north and east of Carthage, teach him and his people the arts of civilized and rendered the navigation dangerous.

but that no one could be found who was 42. Deserta siti: rendered desert b willing to leave his relations and friends to drought.

life;

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