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Contrà, jussa monent Heleni Scyllam atque Charybdim :
690. Relegens retrorMissus adest : vivo prætervehor ostia saxo
sùm litora errata jam Pantagiæ, Megarosque sinus, Tapsumque jacentem.
antè à se Talia monstrabat relegens errata retrorsùm
694. Fama est AlpheLitora Achemenides, comes infelicis Ulyssei.
um amnem Elidis egis
se sibi occultas vias huc Sicanio prætenta sinu jacet insula contra
subter mare; qui amnis Plemmyrium undosum : nomen dixere priores
exiens è tuo ore, 0 AreOrtygiain. Alpheum fama est huc, Elidis amnem, thusa, nunc
NOTES. any direction, so as to escape the hands of closed on each side with a steep rock. The the Cyclops. Heyne says, explicare, inten- prep. è, vel ex, is understood before vivo dere, evolvere rudentes. See 267. supra. saxo. Megaros Sinus : the bay of Megara.
684. Contrà jussa Heleni: on the other This bay lies between the river Terias and hand, the commands of Helenus warn (my Syracuse. In this bay was Tapsus, a penincompanions) of Scylla and Charybdis. That sula, which lay low, and almost level with they may not hold their course in either the sea. way, in so great danger (small a distance) 690. Monstrabat: Achemenides pointed of death, it is determined to sail backward. out to us these things, as he was sailing That we may not pass near Scylla and Cha- back along the shores, along which he had rybdis, nor near the monster Polyphemus, wandered before. and his associates; in either
we should Virgil here follows the opinions of those be in imminent danger of death, we deter- who make Ulysses to have sailed from the mine to spread our sails backward. The country of the Lolophagi in Africa, to the usual explication of this passage refers southern part of Sicily; and turning the utramque viam, to Scylla and Charybdis : promontory of Pachynum, sailed along the implying that the passage between the rock eastern shore, and visited Ætna, and the Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis was country of the Cyclops. The course of dangerous, and parùm à morte distare. The Æneas being to the south, was the reverse explanation, referring utramque viam both of that of Ulysses. Achemenides, therefore, to the straits of Messina, and the Cyclops, might be said to sail back again, with the appears the easiest. In order to shun the greatest propriety. Dr. Wharton observes, dangers of each, they deterınined to sail that Virgil is an exact observer of probabiliback into the open sea, or from whence they ty. If it should be objected by any one,
The wind probably at that moment that Æneas was a perfect stranger to this blew from the south, and prevented them coast, and could not be supposed acquainted from pursuing their direct course. But with the several places, which he passed; shifting to the north, they changed their an answer is at hand: Achemenides, who purpose, and sailed down the eastern shore had lately passed along the same shores, of Sivily. This, and the two following lines, pointed them out to him. Heyne conjectures are an interpolation.
691. Infelicis: unfortunate. 685. Discrimine : in the sense of spatio, refer in general to the disasters he suffered vel distantia: also, of periculo.
in his return from Troy; and particularly 686. Ni: in the sense of ne. Lintea : the loss of a part of his feet in the straits of in the sense of vela.
Messina. The return of Ulysses from Troy, 687. Pelori. Pelorus is the northern pro- is the subject of the Odyssey. montory of Sicily, forming, with Italy, the straits of Messina, so called from a city of front of the Sicilian bay, over against bois
692. Insula prætenta : an island lies in that name on the Sicilian shore. These
terous Plemmyrium. This was a promonstraits are about one mile and a half wide. The wind blowing from them, was fair for tory near Syracuse, against which the waves him to sail down the eastern shore of Sicily, from the sea beat. Hence the epithet undo
Between this promontory and Syraaccording to the direction of Helenus. It is here called Boreas, because it came from
cuse lay the island of Orlygia. the north. Æneas speaks of this wind as a
693. Priores: in the sense of majores. person sent, or commissioned by Heaven to 694. Alpheum. Alpheus, a celebrated river aid and assist him : Missus adest. Angusta of the Peloponnesus, rising from the mounsede. Ruæus says: angusto frelc.
tain Stymphalus, running in a westerly di 689. Pantagic ostia. Pantagia was a rection, passing through a part of Arcadia small river, whose mouth (ostia) was on. and Elis, falls into the Sinus Cyparissæus.
Occultas egisse vias subter mare; qui nunc
695 Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis. 697. Ül eramus jussi Jussi numina magna loci veneramur: et inde Heleno, veneramur
Exsupero præpingue solum stagnantis Helori.
Heu! genitorem, omnis curæ casûsque levamen, 710. Hic, O optime Amitto Anchisen : hìc me, pater optime, fessum 710" pater, doseris mo fessum Deseris, heu! tantis nequicquam erepte perîclis.
NOTES. 696. Arethusa. This was a fountain on of Gelas, or Gela, a river not far from Cathe west side of the island of Ortygia. The marina, near the mouth of which stood Gepoets feigned that Alpheus, the river-god, la, once a large (immanis) and respectable being in love with the nymph Arethusa, city, founded by the Rhodians and Cretans. rolled his stream from Elis under ground, It was destroyed by the Agrigentini. pasing through the sea, without intermin- 702. Dicta cognomine : called after the gling with it, and arose up in this fountain, name of the river. Iningling his waters with those of the nymph. 703. Agragas : a city situated at the mouth What makes this fable the more absurd, is, of a river of the same name. It was built that the distance between the Peloponnesus on the summit of a hill, or mountain: hence and Sicily is not less than 450 miles. Egisse: called arduus, high. It was one of the largest in the sense of fecisse. Ore: in the sense cities of Sicily. Its horses were celebrated of fonte. Undis: in the sense of aquis. for their performance ai the Olympic games.
698. Exsupero: in the sense of prætereo. Hence, quondam, &c. once the breeder of It is sometimes written, exupero. Helori. generous horses. Helorus, or Elorus, was a river falling into 705. Selinus : a city whose plains aboundthe sea, a little to the north of the promon- ed in palm-trees. Hence the epithet palmotory Pachynum. It overflowed its banks Datis : in the sense of faventibus. like the Nile of Egypt, and rendered the 706. Lilybeža : an adj. from Lilybeum, country fertile, through which it passed. the western promontory of Sicily. The Hence the epithet stagnans, overflowing water here is said to be shoal to the distance stagnating.
of three miles from the land, and the bottom 699. Pachyni. The southern promonto- rocky. Hence lego: I coast along the Liry of Sicily was called Pachynum. Hodie, lybeian shallows, dangerous (dura) with Capo Passaro.
latent rocks. Ruæus interprets dura by as701. Camarina. The name of a lake at pera. In this sense it will allude to the ine southern part of Sicily, near a city of roughness of the sea, occasioned by the the same name,
built by the people of Syra- rocks lying on the bottom. In the time of a plague, which the 707. Portus Drepani. Drepanum (hodie, inhabitants imagined originated from its Trepani) a city and harbor a few miles to the stagnant waters, they consulted the oracle of north of the promontory just mentioned Apollo concerning the expediency of drain- Here Æneas lost his father. He therefore ing it. The oracle advised them to let it calls it illælabilis ora : an unjoyous coast. reinain, alleging it would be better to endure It is said the inhabitants still show his tomb. its noxious vapors, than to remove it. This 708. Actus : in the sense of jactatus. explains the words : nunquam concessa mo- 709. Juevamen: in the sense of solatium. veri fatis ; never permitted by the fates to 710. Fessum: weary-worn out with toils be removed. However, the people inade and misfortunes. the experiment, and they found the words of 711. Erepte : voc. agreeing with optime the oracle true. For the enemy entered on pater. In placing the death of Anchises the ground where the lake stood, and took here, Virgil differs from Strabo, who reprcthe city. Hodie, Lago di Camarina. Campi sents Æncas as arriving in Italy with his Gslai: the plains of Gelas. Geloi: an adj. father, and his son Ascanius.
Nec vates Helenus, cùm multa horrenda moneret,
Sic pater Æneas, intentis omnibus, unus
1713. Dira Celæno non
714. Hic fuit extremus labor
718. Fine narrationis
712. Moneret : in the sense of prædiceret. 717. Unus renarrabat": he alone related
714. Hic extremus: this line may be taken the purposes (decrees) of the gods (toward in two senses: either to mean the end of him,) and declared his wanderings. Unus : Anchises’ labor, and the termination of his in the sense of solus. long voyage, or that the death of his father 718. Quievit : he rested-he went to rest. was to Æneas the greatest of all his afflic- Segrais observes that the second and third tions, and the end of his voyage toward the books may be recited in two hours. The Italian coast. Ruæus takes it in the former story did not appear long to Dido and the sense; Mr. Davidson in the latter.
guests: for he ceased, intentis omnibus, and 715. Deus appulit: a god directed me, at midnight too, nor will they appear long departing hence (from the coast and port of to any reader of taste and judgment. Drepanum) to your shores.
How did Æneas employ his time during Who were the founders of the Trojan his residence at Antandros ?
race ? How many ships had he when he set sail? Of what country were they natives? At what time of the year did he set sail? From Crete, to what country was he diHow long probably after the capture of the rected to sail?
How did he receive this instruction ? To what place did he direct his course ? What befel him soon after he set sail ? What city did he found in Thrace?
What land did he first make ? What did he call the name of it?
In what sea are the Strophades? What did he call his followers from this By whom were these islands inhabited ? circumstance?
Who was the chief of the Harpies ? Did he soon abandon the idea of remain- Did she give to Æncas any intiination of ing in Thrace?
suffering and want, before he should find a Why did he thus abandon it?
permanent settlement? Who was Polydorus ?
How was this prediction accomplished ? How came he by his death?
From these islands, which way did he diFrom Thrace, to what place did Æneas rect his course? direct his course ?
At what places did he land? Where is Delos situated ?
What games did he celebrate ? Of what cluster of islands is it one?
For what was this coast celebrated ? How was he here received ?
Between whom was the battle fought ? Who was at that time king of the island ? From Actium, to what part of Epirus did For what is this island famous ?
he proceed ? What is the fable or story respecting it? What surprising news did he hear on en
From what Greek word is the name de- tering the port ? rived ?
Was the meeting of his friends very inWhat is the signification of that word ? teresting as well as unexpected ?
Did he consult the oracle of Apollo at What does Dr. Trapp observe of it? this place concerning the land destined to How was Andromache employed at that him?
time? What answer did he receive?
What effect had the sight of Æneas and How did his father Anchises interpret the Trojans upon her ? that answer?
Leaving Epirus, what sea did he first pass From Delos, to what place did he sail ? over?
What prevented him irom making a set- How many miles is Italy from Epirus in ulement in Crete?
that place? What did he call the city, which he there What was the name of the promoutory, founded ?
where he landed ? Vhy did Æneas go to Crete?
What course did he then take?
Why did he not pass through the strait of Messina:
Where does this strait lie ?
What is the navigation of it-safe or dangerous ?
What renders it dangerous ?
Why is Sicily sometimes called Trinacria?
What are the names of its three promontories ?
Where did Æneas first land on this island ?
What is the fabulous account of the cause of an eruption ?
Is this very far from the true cause ?
Who were the inhabitants of that part of Sicily?
Who was at that time their king?
From what circumstance were they called Cyclops ?
How large was their eye said to be ?
What was their employment according to the poets ?
Who had been upon this coast a short time before the arrival of Æneas ?
To what place was Ulysses bound ?
What misfortune befel him in the stı ait of
What did he do to Polyphemus ?
Froin whom did Æneas receive this ac. count of the Cyclops ?
How many of these giants were there then on the island ?
Who was Achemenides?
On what part of Sicily did Æneas afterward land?
What is the name of the port !
Does this close the account, which Æneas gave to Dido at her request ?
When does the poein open?
This book opens with the love of Dido for Æneas, and her conference with her sister
Anna upon the subject. Juno perceiving her passion, conceived the plan of forming a connexion between them. To effect this the easier, she endeavors to draw Venus over to her views. In the mean time, Æneas and Dido prepare to go on a party of hunting; and while in the chase, Juno raises a violent tempest. The thunder rends the skies, and torrents of rain fall. The party seek shelter wherever they can. Through a device of Juno, Æneas and Dido repair to the same cave, where the goddess consecrates their nuptials. Fame immediately spread the news abroad; and it reached the ears of larbas, king of the Getuli, the reputed son of Jupiter Ammon. He had formerly proposed a match with Dido, who rejected his offers. As soon as he heard that she was married to a stranger, he was transported to rage, mingled with grief. In this state of mind he made complaint to his father, who, taking pity on him, sends Mercury to dissolve the match, and to order Æneas to prepare to leave Carthage for Italy. In obedience to his commands, he privately makes the necessary preparations for setting sail. Dido perceiving his movements, endeavors to dissuade hin from his purpose, in the tenderest and most affectionate strain; but it had no influence over him. Being warned a second time, he weighs anchor in haste, and the love-sick Queen beholds him leaving her coast. The sight wrung her soul, and drew from her llips the most severe reproofs and bitter imprecations. She enjoins it upon her people to revenge the injury done to her, and to pursue his descendants with irreconcilable hatred. Having ordered a funeral pile to be erected, she ascends it, and with her own hand puts an end to her existence. The nature of the subject renders this book highly interesting; and it is considered one of the finest in the Æneid.
At regina, gravi jamdudum saucia cura,
1. Regina. Dido, sometimes called Eliza, calls him Metten. Her grandfather was was a Tyrian princess. Josephus informs Badezorus, and her great grandfather was us her father's name was Melginus. He Ithobalus, called in Scripture Ethbaal, whose obtained his information from the records of daughter Jezebel was married to Ahab, king the Tyrians: and Theophilus of Antioch of Israel. Virgil, however, makes the name
Vulnus alit venis, et cæco carpitur igni.
6. Postera Aurora Postera Phæbeâ lustrabat lampade terras,
lustrabat terras l'hebeâ Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram : lampade
NOTES. of her father to be Belus. Æn. i: 625. Marol- her arrival in Africa, found Carthage allius has given a list of the kings of Tyre, and ready built, and that she only fortified it, makes Belus an abbreviation of Iihobalus, and added a tower or citade:, which she the father of Pygmalion and Dido; but he called Byrsa. This word is evidently from follows fabulous and traditionary accounts, the Hebrew Bosra, which means a fortificawhich should always be received with cau- tion, or fortified place. The Greeks, mistion. Among other things, what renders taking the meaning, or overlooking it, suphis account doubtful, is, that he brings Dido posed, froin the similarity of the words, that upon the stage of action more than a hun- it was the same with their Byrsa, which dred years before the destruction of Troy. means a bull's hide. Virgil followed the re
After the death of his father, Pygmalion ceived opinion. See Æn. i. 367. It has been ascended the throne. He was an avaricious the general opinion that Virgil, in making prince, and stopped at nothing by which he Æneas and Dido cotemporary, is guilty of could increase his riches. He conceived the an anachronism. Bochart is positive of this, plan of murdering Acerbas, or Sicharbas, the and says that all the ancient chronologers beloved husband of his sister. Virgil calls of any credit, place the destruction of Troy, him Sichæus, softening the name to make at least 60 years before the reign of Saul, it flow more easily into his verse. Sichaus king of Israel ; and the time of Dido's buildwas the richest of all the Tyrians. Pyg- ing Byrsa, the fortress of Carthage, at least malion coveted his treasures ; but there was 200 years after it, making 260 years to inno way to possess them while he was living. tervene between the destruction of Troy, He therefore formed the purpose of taking and the building of Byrsa. In this case, the away his life. He came upon him unex- destruction of Troy will be 1160 years bepectedly, and slew him while he was per- fore the Christian era. Sir Isaac Newton, forining his devotions before the altar. This however, in his chronology, has brought it atrocious deed, the base prince had the ad- down nearly 300 years ; and thus makes dress to conceal, for some time, from his Æneas and Dido cotemporary. However sister. At length the whole matter was laid the case may be, it was undoubtedly a reopen to Dido by the ghost of her deceased ceived opinion among the Romans, that they husband, and she was admonished to flee
were cotemporary, and this was sufficient her country. Having collected what trea- for the poet; and even if he knew otherwise, sure she could on so sudden an emergency, he acted prudently in following the general and seizing some vessels that were then opinion, since it contributed so much to the ready for sea, she set sail, accompanied by embellishment of his
poem. many of her countrymen: and, after a long
Jamdudum: a long while. Servius exand tedious voyage, she arrived in Africa. plains it by nimiùm, or vehementiùs. Though: It appears to have been her purpose to join it were only a short time since Æneas came her countrymen, who, many years before, to Carthage, yet, with respect to Dido's. under Xorus and Carchedon, had formed a settleinent, to which they gave the name of passion, and the impatience of her love, it
Cura : Utica, about 15 miles from the place where might be said to be a long time.
says, solicitudine. Tunis now stands. This place was afterward rendered famous by the death of the
2. Alii vulnus: she nourishes a wound in second Cato, who was hence called Cato, her veins, and is consumed by the secret fire Uticensis. Dido met with a welcome recep
of love. This is said in allusion to Cupid's tion, and was desired to build a city on the arrow and torch ; the former to' wound, and spot where she landed. For this purpose, the latter to inflame. Cæco iyni. Valpy she purchased a tract of country of the na- says, a conccaled passion." tives, many of whom joined her, together 3. Multa viri virtus : the many virtues of with some from Utica. She called her, city the hero, and the many honors of his race, Cutharda or Carthage, which, in the Phæni- recur to her mind. By his father, Æneas cian and Hebrew languages, signifies a new descended from the royal family of Troy ; city. It stood about 700 years, and was and, by Venus his mother, from Jove him. destroyed by the Romans under Scipio, in self. the year of Rome 603, and before Christ 6. Phæbeâ Lampade : with the lamp of 145. See Rollin's An. His. lib. ii. ch. 1. Phebus, that is, with the sun. By Tapino
There are some who say that Dido, on sis. Polo: in the sense of cælo.