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Ipse ; sed horrificis juxtà tonat Ætna ruinis :
Interdumque atram prorumpit ad æthera nubem,
Turbine fumantem piceo et candente favillâ :
Attollitque globos flammarum, et sidera lambit.
Interdum scopulos avulsaque viscera montis

575
Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exæstuat imo.
Fama est, Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus

Urgeri mole hâc, ingentemque insuper Ætnam 580. Impositam insu- Impositam, ruptis flammam expirare caminis: 580 per eum

Et, fessum quoties mutat latus, intremere omnem

Murmure Trinacriam, et cælum subtexere fumo.
583. Nos tecti in syl- Noctem illam tecti sylvis immania monstra
vis perferimus

Perferimus : nec, quæ sonitum det causa, videmus.
Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nec lucidus æthra
Siderea polus ; obscuro sed nubila cælo,

586 Et Lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat.

Postera jamque dies primo surgebat Eoo, 590. Nova forma viri

Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram ; ignoti nobis, confecta Cùm subitò è sylvis, macie confecta suprema, 500 supremâ macie, mise- Ignoti nova forma viri, miserandaque cultu, randaque cultu, proce- Procedit, supplexque manus ad litora tendit. dit è sylvis,

Respicimus. Dira illuvies, immissaque barba, 593. Dira illuvies erat Consertum tegmen spinis: at cætera Graius, ei 594. At quoad cætera Et quondam patriis ad Trojam missus in armis. 595

Isque ubi Dardanios habitus et Troïa vidit

erat

NOTES.

572. Prorumpit : in the sense of emittit. to them the appearances were new ana

573. Candenle favillâ : with hot, or burn- unexpected. Hence they may be called ing embers.

with propriety, immania monstra. 574. Lambit: in the sense of tangit. 585. Ignes : lights of the stars. Polus

576. Erucians : in the sense of evomens. lucidus : nor the heaven bright in the starry Avulsa : torn loose.

firmament. Polus, by synec. put for the 577. Glomerat: and whirls about melted whole heaven. rocks into the air.

587. Inlempesta nox : profound darkness. 578. Fama est : there is a report, that the It properly signifies the darkest time of body of Enceladus, half consumed by light- night-midnight. Here it denotes the quaning, is pressed under this mass of matter; lity of that night in particular, when one and that ponderous Ætna being placed upon face of thick darkness prevailed through the hiin, casts up flames froin its burst furnaces; whole night, like that which prevailed at the and as often as he, &c.

midnight hour. Nimbo: in the sense of neVirgil here gives us the fabulous account buloso aëre. of the origin of this burning mountain, and 588. Primo Eoo: with the first dawn. the cause of its eruptions. Enceladus was Eous, the star Venus. When it rises before the chief of the Giants, and the son of Ti- the sun, it is called Lueifer ; when setting tan and Terra. In the war of the Giants after him, Hesperus: here put for the dawn against the gods, he was struck with the of day. Aurora. See Geor. i. 249. thunderbolt of Jupiter, and placed under 590. Confecta supremâ : wasted away mount Ætna, by way of punishment: and, with extreme leanness. Confecta agrees as often as he turns his weary side, an with forma. eruption follows.

Ovid places Typhæus, 59i. Nova forma viri ignoti : simply, a another of the Giants, under the same man unknown to us. mountain. Insuper : in the sense of super. 594. Tegmen consertum: his covering

580. Expirare: in the sense of emittere. sewed, or fastened together with thorns. It

583. Immania monstra : in the sense of probably consisted of the leaves of trees. infanda prodigia. Illam noctem : in the Ruæus says, veslis contexta spinis. At cuesense of per illam noctem.

tera : but as to other things—his stature, 584. Perferimus : we endure or suffer. gait, language, &c. he was a Greek. The cause of this eruption was unknown 596. Habitus ; in the sense of vestes.

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Arma procul, paulùm aspectu conterritus hæsit,
Continuitque gradum : mox sese ad litora præceps
Cum fletu precibusque tulit: Per sidera testor,
Per Superos, atque hoc cæli spirabile lumen, 600 600. O Teucri, inquit,
Tollite me, Teucri ; quascunque abducite terras :

testor vos per sidera, ser Hoc sat erit. Scio me Danais è classibus unum,

Superos

602. Scio
Et bello Iliacos fateor petiise Penates.
Pro quo, si sceleris tanta est injuria nostri,
Spargite me in fluctus, vastoque immergite ponto. 605
Si pereo, manibus hominum periise juvabit.
Dixerat: et genua amplexus, genibusque volutans
Hærebat. Qui sit, fari, quo sanguine cretus,

608. Hortamur Hortamur; quæ deinde agitet fortuna, fateri. fari, qui sit, et ex quo Ipse pater dextram Anchises, haud multa moratus,

610 sanguine cretus est; de

inde fateri, quæ Dat juveni, atque animum præsenti pignore firmat. Ille hæc, depositâ tandem formidine, fatur:

614. Achemenides est Sum patriâ ex Ithacâ, comes infelicis Ulyssei,

nomen mihi : profectus Nomen Achemenides : 'Trojam, genitore Adamasto

sum Trojam

615 Paupere, mansissetque utinam fortuna ! profectus.

616. Hic socii imme

mores mei deseruêre ine Hìc me, dum trepidi crudelia limina linquunt,

in vasto antro Cyclopis, Immemores socii vasto Cyclopis in antro

dum

eum

NOTES.

aura.

597. Hæsit : hesitated-paused.

into a vessel, he gives them the dreadful 599. Testor : in the sense of precor.

narration of Polyphemus, informs them that 600. Hoc spirabile lumenby this vital this was the island of the Cyclops, begs light of heaven-by this light (air) of hea- them to leave it instantly, and concludes ven, which we breathe, and by which we most pathetically, that if he must die, it live. Lumen: in the sense of aër, vel would be some comfort to him to perish by

the hands of men, and not by monsters. 603. lliacos Penates. The Penates pro- 607. Amplexus : embracing our knees, perly were the household gods—the gods of and falling upon his own knees, he clung one's cuuntry. Hence the word came to to us. Servius observes, that the several signify, one's house and country, and what- members of the body were consecrated to ever a person held most dear, by meton. particular deities: the ear, to memory ; the See Æn. ii. 717.

knees, to mercy; the right hand, to faith. 604. Pro quo: for which—for his being a Suppliants were accustoined to throw, or Greek, and having taken part in the war cast themselves upon their knees, and emagainst Troy. Sceleris injuria. Ruæus says, brace those of the person of whom they iniquitas criminis. Si scelus meum tantum asked or begged any thing. est, says Heyne.

603. Cretus : in the sense of ortus. 605. Spargite: in the sense of projicite : 610. Haud multa moratus : delayed not tear me in pieces, and cast me into the sea. a moment.

606. Si pereo, &c. Dr. Wharton makes 611. Præsenti pignore. The right hand the following reflections upon this passage. among all nations is considered a pledge of Nothing, says he, can more forcibly strike the friendship. Præsens here signifies, readyimagination, than these circumstances of propitious. So adsum, I am present, signithe wandering Trojans, sheltered in a wood, fies also, to favor—to be propitious. upon an unknown coast, and hearing strange 613. Ithacâ: an island in the Ionian sea. and terrible noises during a dark and moon- It formed a part of the dominion of Ulysless night ; and not knowing whence the ses. Hodie, Isola del Compare. dreadful sounds proceeded, or by what they 614. Adamasto: Adamastus my father bemight be occasioned. At daybreak, how ing a poor man. He mentions his poverty as sudden and great the surprise, to see the an excuse for his going to the war; it was ghastly figure of a man, who first runs to- not his choice. Sinon pleads the same exwards them with great precipitation, as if cuso. See Æn. ii. 87. Utinam: I wish the to beg soine assistance; but suddenly starts same state of poverty had remained to me! sack at the sight of Trojan habits and arms. 617. Cyclopis. Polyphemus is here meant. At last, recovering himself a little, he re- It is said he was the son of Neptune and solves to fling himself into their hands, what- Thoosa, the daughter of Phorcys. It is erer might be the consequence. Received said that Ulysses, on his return from Troy,

620

625

618. Ejus domus in- Deseruere. Domus sanie dapibusque cruentis, tus est opaca, ingens, et Intus opaca, ingens : ipse arduus, altaque pulsat plena sanie

Sidera ; Di, talem terris avertite pestem!
Nec visu facilis, nec dictu affabilis ulli.

Visceribus miserorum, et sanguine vescitur atro.
623 Egomet vidi, cùm Vidi egomet, duo de numero cùm corpora nostro,
ille resupinus in medio Prensa manu magnâ, medio resupinus in antro,
intro frangeret duo cor-
pora de nostro numero,

Frangeret ad saxum, sanieque aspersa natarent drensa magnâ manù, ad Limina: vidi, atro cùm membra fuentia tabo

Manderet, et tepidi tremerent sub dentibus artus.
628. Fecit id quidem Haud impunè quidem: nec talia passus Ulysses,
haud impunè: nec Ulys- Oblitusve sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto.
ses passus est talia

Nam simul expletus dapibus, vinoque sepultus
Cervicem inflexam posuit, jacuitque per antrum
Immensus, saniem eructans ac frustra cruento
Per soinnum commixta mero; nos, magna precati
Numina, sortitique vices, unà undique circùm
Fundimur, et telo lumen terebramus acuto
Ingens, quod torvå solum sub fronte latebat,

saxum

630

635

NOTES.

visited Sicily, and the straits of Messina. 632. Immensus. Some read immensum, He lost a part of his fleet in the whirlpool to agree with antrum.

But immensus is preof Charybdis. This was a dangerous place ferahle, referring to the dimensions of Poto all who attempted to pass the straits. It lyphemus. Frusta commixta : pieces (of gave rise to this proverb: Incidit in Scyllam, human bodies) mingled with bloody wine. qui vult vitare Charybdim, implying that in Per somnum is to be connected with erucavoiding one evil, we frequently fall into lans. a greater. But no whirlpool is now to be 634. Sortiti vices : haying drawn by lot found, sufficiently large to answer to the our parts to act, all at once, we surround description given by the poets and other an- him from all quarters, and dig out, &c. cient writers. It is probable some change Donatus thinks it should be tenebramus, inqas been effected in this part of the sea in stead of terebrcmus: we darken, or extinThe course of time.

guish the light of his eye : which would 621. Nec facilis visu: nor is he easy to express, as he thinks, the quickness and be looked upon, nor easy to be spoken to celerity of their action. But Homer, by any one. His terrific aspect fills you whom Virgil here follows, expressly men. with dread, and deprives you of the power tions the circumstance of the boring out of of speech. Servius says: Cujus possit etiam the monster's eye; and compares the acaspectus ferre formidinem ; and Stephens : tion of Ulysses and his companions to a Cujus ne aspectum quidem facile quis sus- carpenter boring a piece of timber. Cir. tineat.

cùmfundimur, is probably here used in the 625.

Limen properly sense of the middle voice of the Greeks. signifies the threshold of the door; also the 636. Latebat : lay concealed ; because door itself, by meton. If it be taken in this his eye was shut in sleep. Quod solum, sense here, then limina aspersa sanie natareni &c. The Cyclops are represented as havmay mean : the door being bespattered ing only one eye, and that one in their with the

blood, trickled or ran down. Ruæus forehead. This is doubtless a fiction. No says, porta. It may be taken either way. such people ever existed. Eustathius er

627. Manderet : in the sense of devoraret. plains the fable thus : that in violent pas.

629. Ithacus : a name of Ulysses, from sion, men see only one single object, as that Ithaca, his native island. Tunto discrimine: passion directs; in other words, see with in so important a crisismin so great dan- one eye only: and further, that passion ger.

transports men into savages, and renders 631. Inflexam : bent, or reclined. Per- them brutal and sanguinary, like Polyphesons in a complete state of intoxication are mus; and he, who by reason cxtinguishes unable to hold their heads erect. They re- that passion, may be said to put out that cline them either upon their shoulders or eye, Others explain it by alleging that breast. This was the case with Polyphe- Polyphemus was a man of uncommon wis

His head was reclined before he lay dom and penetration, who is therefore re down to sleep.

presented as having only one eye, and thar

Limina aspera.

mus.

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Argolici clypei aut Phæbeæ lampadis instar:
Et tandem læti sociorum ulciscimur umbras.
Sed fugite, ô miseri, fugite, atque ab litore funem
Rumpite.

640
Nam, qualis quantusque cavo Polyphemus in antro
Lanigeras claudit pecudes, atque ubera pressat ;
Centum alii curva hæc habitant ad litora vulgò
Infandi Cyclopes, et altis montibus errant.
Tertia jam Lunæ se cornua lumine complent, 645
Cùm vitam in sylvis, inter deserta ferarum
Lustra domosque traho, vastosque ab rupe Cyclopas
Prospicio, sonitumque pedum vocemque tremisco.
Victum infelicem, baccas, lapidosaque corna
Dant rami, et vulsis pascunt radicibus herbæ. 650
Omnia collustrans, hanc primùm ad litora classem
Conspexi venientem : huic me, quæcunque fuisset,
Addixi : satis est gentem effugisse nefandam.

653. Satis est mihi, Vos animam hanc potiùs quocunque absumite leto. effugisse Vix ea fatus erat, summo cùm monte videmus 655

655. Cûm videmus Ipsum inter pecudes vastâ se mole moventem

summo monte, pastoPastorem Polyphemum, et litora nota petentem

rem Polyphemum ip

sum, moventem se Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen

ademptum. Trunca manuni pinus regit, et vestigia firmat. Lanigeræ comitantur oves : ea sola voluptas, 660

660. Comitantur eum

ea est sola voluptas ipsi Solamenque mali : de collo fistula pendet.

NOTES.

near his brain, to denote his superior wis- 649. Infelicem: poor-scanty. Corna : dom and sagacity ; but that Ulysses out- the fruit of the corneil tree. It is round, witted him, and was said, for that reason, and protected by a hard shell. to put out his eye.

650. Pascunt : in the sense of nutriunt. 637. Phæbec lampadis : the lamp of Phe- Dant: in the sense of præbent. bus-the orb of the Sun. The Grecian

651. Collustrans : in the sense of circumshield was large enough to cover the whole spiciens. man: and as that was of an oval form, the

652. Addixi me huic: I have surrendered comparison denotes both the figure and mag- myself to it, whatever it may be—I have nitude of this eye.

given myself up into your hands; do with 639. Miseri. He calls them miserable, or

me as you please. unfortunate, in having come to this coast, life of mine by any death, rather than leave

654. Vos potiùs absumite: take away this and being exposed to such danger. Sed fugite. This interruption in his speech is

me behind to die by the hands of these monextremely beautiful. The fear of the Cy- of perdite.

sters of rapacity. Absumite : in the sense clops, and the recollection of the dangers, which he had escaped, rush upon his mind, taken out.

658. Cui lumen : whose' eye had been

Cui: in the sense of cujus. and stop him for a moment, to give the Trojans advice to flee immediately. He

The dat. is frequently used by the poets in then resumes the subject.

the sense of the gen. Est is to be supplied

with ademptum. He informs then that there were on the

659. Trunca pinus : a cut pine guides his island a hundred other infandi Cyclopes, hand. From this we may form some idea horrid Cyclops, such, and as huge as Poly- of his stature. His staff is the trunk of a phemus.

pine. Heyne reads manu : in his hand. 645. Tertia cornua Lunæ, &c. By this wo 661. Mali : in the sense of miserice vel are to understand that it had been about doloris. Fistula pendet de collo. These three lunar months since he had been in that words are probably spurious. They are unhappy situation : cùm traho vitam, &c. left out in some editions. Heinsius, Do

647. Deserta lustra: the deserted dens, or natus, and Heyne reject them. Nor does haunts.

Homer mention any such circumstance

Postquàm altos tetigit fluctus, et ad æquora venit,
Luminis effossi fuidum lavit inde cruorem,'
Dentibus infrendens geinitu : graditurque per æquor

Jam medium, necdum fluctus latera ardua tinxit. 665 666. Nos trepidi ccepi- Nos procul inde fugam trepidi celerare, recepto mus celerare fugam pro- Supplice sic merito, tacitique incidere funem merito, recepto à nobis Verrimus et proni certantibus æquora remis.

669. Polyphemus sen- Sensit, et ad sonitum vocis vestigia torsit. sit hoc, et toi sit

Verùm ubi nulla datur dextrâ affectare potestas, 670 670. Nulla potestas Nec potis lonios fluctus æquare sequendo ; datur illi affectare nos dextrâ ; nec potis est

Clamorem immensum tollit, quo pontus et omnes 673. Exterrita fuit

Intremuere undæ, penitùsque exterrita tellus penitùs

Italæ, curvisque immugiit Ætna cavernis.
At genus è sylvis Cyclopum et montibus altis 675
Excitum ruit ad portus, et litora complent.
Cernimus adstantes nequicquam lumine torvo

Ætnæos fratres, cælo capita alta ferentes,
679. Tales quales cùm Concilium horrendum : quales cùm vertice celso
aërie quercus, aut coni- Aëriæ quercus aut coniferæ cyparissi

680 fera 682. Acer metus agit

Constiterunt, sylva alta Jovis, lucusve Dianæ. socios præcipites excu

Præcipites metus acer agit quòcunque rudentes tere

Excutere, et ventis intendere vela secundis.

NOTES.

whom Virgil here imitates. Ea sola voluptas, 677. Lumine : in the sense of oculo. Neo &c. probably refers to his sheep.

quicquam : in vain; because we were out of 663. Inde : in the sense of deinde. Or, their reach. perhaps it may be considered merely ex

679. Concilium : in the sense of turbam. pletive. 665. Fluctus : in the sense of aqua.

680. Conifere cyparissi : such as when

the aërial oaks, or cone bearing cypresses 668. Certantibus : in the sense of laboran- stand together with their lofty tops, &c. tibus. 669. Sonitum vocis. This may refer to

The cypress tree bears a fruit resembling the the sound of their voices. For though it is figure of the cone; hence called conifera. said they went off silently, this can only sylva Jovis : and the cypress was sacred to

quercus was sacred to Jove; hence alta mean, they did it with as little noise as pos- Proserpina or Diana; hence lucus Dicna. sible. There must have been some,

to give the necessary orders. But more probably to

682. Præcipites : in the sense of celeres. the sound of their oars; for voc sometimes Quocunque: for quocunque modo, in any signifies any sound whatever.

direction or way whatever. 670. Afeclare dextrâ : to grasp or seize 683. Excutere rudentes.

Rudentes may with his right hand.

be taken for those ropes, which seamen call The comır.on reading is dextram, but this the sheeis. By the help of these, they draw is more difficult. Heyne reads dextra ; in the sail when they wish to go near the which is approved by Valpy, although he wind; or let it out when they sail before it, retains dextram. Davidson observes some or with a fair wind. It is usually fasten anci nt copies have dextrâ altrectare. ed to the extremity of the sail, or to the

671. Fluctus : in the sense of mare. He boom or yard which extends the sail. That could not equal the depth of the sca. it does not here mean the cables, will ap

673. Undæ intremuere. Dr. Trapp says, pear, when we consider that they had althis is a most noble hyperbole. Some there ready cut their cables, incidere funem, verse are, who think it too bold. But they not 667 supra, and were out at sea. Excutere only forget the prerogative of poetry, but the rudentes, therefore, will be, to let out, to loose real rature of fear; which always swells or extend the sheets, so as to sail before the and heightens its object. Penitůs: in the wind, This is more fully expressed by sense of intimè.

intendere vela secundis vintis, to spread the 574. Immugiit : in the sense of remugiit. sails to the favorable winds. It was not so 675. Genus : in the sense of gens. Some much the object of Æneas, in this juncture,

to proceed on his direct course, as to sail in

es read gens,

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