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Armatumque auro circumspicit Oriona.
Postquàm cuncta videt cælo constare sereno,
Dat clarum è puppi signum; nos castra movemus,
Tentam que viam, et velorum pandiinus alas. 520

Jamque rubescebat stellis Aurora fugatis;
Cùm procul obscuros colles, humilemque videmus
Italiam. Italiam primus conclamat Achates ;
Italiam læto socii clamore salutant.
Tum pater Anchises magnum cratera corona 525
Induit, implevitque mero, Divosque vocavit,
Stans celsâ in puppi:
Dî, maris ct terræ tempestatumque potentes,

528. O Di, inquit, po

tentos maris Ferte viam vento facilem, et spirate secundi.

Crebrescunt optatæ. auræ, portusque patescit 530
Jam proprior, templumque apparet in arce Minervæ.
Vela legunt socii, et proras ad litora torquent.
Portus ab Eoo fluctu curvatur in arcum ;
Objectæ salså spumant aspergine cautes :
Ipse latet : gemino demittunt brachia muro

535 535. Portus pse later Turriti scopuli, refugitque à litore templum.

NOTES.

who, grieving immoderately for the death there are no mountains, because the highof their brother Hyas, who had been killed est parts appear low when seen at a disby a wild boar, pined away, and died. They tance-or because the sea every where apwere five in number. After their death they pears higher than the land. He interprets were transferred to the heavens, and made it by planam. stars near the constellation Taurus. The 525. Induit magnum: he crowned a large ancients supposed their rising and setting bowl with a garland. Coronare poculum, to be always attended rith much rain. sometimes, signifies no more than simply to Their name is derived from a Greek word fill it up to the brim. But, in the present signifying to rain. Triones : the greater case, it is taken literally, to adorn the bowl and lesser bear, two constellations near the with flowers : otherwise what follows will be north pole.

mere tautology. Mero. Merum, nere, is 517. Oriona: a Greek acc. Orion is a taken for wine in general; the species for constellation near the feet of the bull. It the genus. Induit : in the sense of cinxit. rises about the first of March, and rains and 528. Potentes: in the sense of præsidesstorms were supposed to attend it. Hence vel reciores. Minelius beautifully illustrates Virgil gave it the epithets nimbosus, and the design of this libation : Maris, quod naaquosus. Æn. i. 535. and iv. 52.

Orion vigo; terræ, quam peto; tempestatum, quas was a celebrated hunter, and companion of timemus. Diana. Being bit by a serpent, he lost his 529. Ferte: in the sense of date. Spirale life. The gods, taking pity on him, trans- secundi: and blow propitious upon us. lated him to the heavens. His constellation

531. Templum Minerva. Strabo mentions is very lucid, consisting of many very bright a temple of Minerva, on the promontory of stars, particularly in his belt or girdle, in Täpygium, which is the one most p-obably which his sword hangs. He is here said to meant. Legunt: in the sense of colligunt. be armed with gold, on account of his many Arce : for monte. jucid stars.

533. Portus curvatur: the port is curved 518. Videt cuncta constare : he sees all into the form of) a bow by the eastern things to indicate fair weather-all the signs waves, and the cliffs opposite each other to agree in indicating fair weather. Post- foam with salt spray, occasioned by the quam videt cælum habere omnia, quæ signifi- dashing of the waves against them. These canl serenitatem, says Sc=vius.

two projecting cliffs formed the mouth of 519. Movemus castra. This was a mili- the harbor. Ēoö: the adj. Eoüs is derived tary expression, denoting the commence- from a Greek word signifying the mornment of march, from the place of encamp- ing—also, the East. This part of Italy is ment.

washed on the east by the Ionian sea. Heyne 520. Tentamus: in the sense of incipimus. reads Euroo, from the sub. Eurus.

522. Humilem. Ruæus thinks Italy is 536. Scopuli. Scopulus is properly a high here called low, either because in that part, sharp rock. Those here mentioned resem

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537. Hic vidi in gra- Quatuor hic, primum omen, equos in gramine vidi mine primum omen, Tondentes campum latè, candore nivali. nempe, quatuor equos è aivali candore, tonden

Et pater Anchises : Bellum, ô terra hospita, portas:

Bello armantur equì : bellum hæc armenta min tir 539. Et pater Anchi. Sed tamen îdem olim curru succedere sueti

501 ses inquit

Quadrupedes, et fræna jugo concordia ferre :
Spes est pacis, ait. Tum numina sancta precamur

Palladis armisonæ, quæ prima accepit ovantes :
545. Et velamur quoad Et capita ante aras Phrygio velamur amictu ; 545
capita Phrygio ainictu Præceptisque Heleni, dederat quæ maxima, ritè
ante ejus aras; exque Junoni Argivæ jussos adolemus honores.
præceptis Heleni,
548 Haud mora est

Haud mora : continuò, perfectis ordine votis,
Cornua velatarum obvertimus antennarum,
Grajugenûmque domos, suspectaque linquimus arva. 550

Hinc sinus Herculei, si vera est fama, Tarenti
Cernitur. Attollit se Diva Lacinia contrà,
Caulonisque arces, et navifragum Scylacæum.
Tum procul è fluctu Trinacria cernitur Ætna :

NOTES.

tes.

bled towers, and stretched forth on both 549. Velatarum antennarum. The anten. sides in the form of arms, making a double na were spars or yards which crossed the wall. Refugit. Wbile they were at a dis- mast, to which the sails were fastened and tance, the temple appeared near the shore; suspended. The extremities of them were but, as they approached, the distance be-, called cornua. By shisting or turning his tween it and the port seemed to increase. sails, he would naturally alter his course. It receded, or fled, from the shore.

He now sails south ward; and, as he passes 537. Hic vidi : here I saw the first omen. along, he gives us a very particular descripIt was a custom among the ancients care tion of the country. He takes his deparfully to observe the first objects which pre ture from the promontory of Täpygium. sented at landing in a country where they 551. Tarenti. Tarentum was a famous designed to form settlements: and hence to city and port at the northern extremity of draw prognostics of their future good or bad the Sinus Tarentinus, founded by Taras, the fortune. Tondentes : in the sense of carpen son of Neptune, according to Straba. The

Gramine : in the sense of pratis. same author informs us that Hercules had 539. Hospita. This Ruæus interprets by here a colossus of brass, made by Lysippus, kospitalis; but that illy agrees with portus which Fabius Maximus carried to Rome. bellum. Mr. Davidson renders it, foreign: Not only the city, but also the adjacent to which we are strangers.

country, was famous for the actions of that 541. Curru : for currui, the dat. See hero. Hence the poet gives it the epithet, Ecl. v. 29. Concordia fræna : the gentle Herculean. seins. This implies perfect submission to 552. Contrà : on the other side (of the the will of the driver. Jugo. Jugum pro- bay) the goddess Jacinia raises herself. perly signifies the yoke which passes over Dira Lacinia is here put for the temple of the necks of the horses, and holds up the the goddess, by meton. Lacinia as an epitongue or pole of the carriage. Here, per- thet of Juno, taken from the promontory haps, the harness in general. Olim: in the Lacinium, on which the temple stood. sense of diu.

553. Arces Coulonis : the towers of Can 543. Numina: in the sense of divinilatem. lon, or Caulonia. Caulon was a city far.

544. Armisone : sounding in arms. This ther south, at first called Aulonia, from a is an epithet of Pallas, or Minerva, as god- valley, which was in sight. It was founded dess of war. Ovantes: in the sense of lætos. by the Greeks. Scylacæum. This was a city Nos is understood.

situated near the southern extremity of a 547. Adolemus jussos honores. Ruæus in- bay of that name, founded by a colony of terprets these words by, offerimus præscripta Athenians, according to Strabo. The nasacrificia. Jussos: ordered, or appointed vigation on this coast was dangerous.by Helenus. See 435. supra, et sequens.

Hence it is called nuvifrngum. 548. Continuò: immediately-forthwith. 554. Ætna: a well krown mountain and Rueus considers it an adj. agreeing with volcano on the island of Sicily. It is said ordine. Perfectis : in the sense of persolutis. to be sixty miles in circumference at its

Et gemitum ingentem pelagi, pulsataque saxa 555
Audimus longè, fractasque ad litora voces ;
Exultantque vada, atque æstu miscentur arenæ.
Et pater Anchises : Nimirùm hæc illa Charybdis :
Hos Helenus scopulos, hæc saxa horrenda canebat.
Eripite, ô socii, pariterque insurgite remis.

560 560. Eripite vos hinc, Haud minùs ac jussi faciunt: primusque rudentem Ô socii

561. Illi faciunt haud Contorsit lævas proram Palinurus ad undas:

minùs ac jussi facere Lævam cuncta cohors remis ventisque petivit.

563. Lævam partem Tollimur in cælum curvato gurgite, et îdem

remis Subductâ ad Manes imos descendimus undå.

565 Ter scopuli clamorem inter cava saxa dedêre : Ter spumam elisam et rorantia vidimus astra.

568. Nos fessos eum Intereà fessos ventus cum Sole reliquit :

sole Ignarique viæ, Cyclopum allabimur oris.

570. Portus est immoPortus ab accessu ventorum immotus, et ingens 570 tus ab accessu

NOTES.

at sea.

waves.

base. Fluctu : in the sense of mari. The or besprinkled. This is an extravagant hymeaning is: while they were a great distance perbole. Catrou, and some others, would

understand this of the dewy drops, which 555. Pulsata : beaten, or lashed by the thrown up by the dashing of the waters

Voces : in the sense of sonitus. against the rocks, sparkled like stars in the Gemitum : in the sense of fremitum.

sun-beams. This appears to be the opinion 557. Vada exultant : the shallows boil, of Heyne. and the sands are. mingled with the tide. 568. Ventus cum sole. These circumThe sea breaks and foams upon the shal stances have a happy effect in preparing the lows, and the sand is tossed up by the reader for the following description of mount whirling eddies.

Ætna. The winds are hushed, that the 559. Scopulossaxa. Scopulus properly bellowings of the mountain might be inore signifies a high sharp rock; srcum, any distinctly heard ; and night is brought on rock-rocks in general. Canebat : for præ- that in the dusky sky the flames might apdicebat.

pear more conspicious. 560. Pariter : equally-all as one.

569. Cyclopum. It is said the Cyclops 561. Minùs : in the sense of aliter. Ac: were the first inhabitants of Sicily, especialin the sense of quàm.

ly about mount Ætna. They are said to 562. Palinurus primus : Palinurus first have been of gigantic stature, and of a naturned the creaking prow to the left waters. ture savage, cruel, and inhospitable. Hence Soine read rudente, for rudentem, a sub. in- the poets took occasion to represent them stead of the part. By this they would un of a monstrous form, having only one eye, derstand a rope fastened to the side of the and that in their forehead, and as being canship, by the help of which the helmsman nibals. From their vicinity to Ætna, it is turned the ship which way he pleased. Ru- said, they were employed by Vulcan in æus interprets it by stridentem: creaking as forging the thunderbolts of Jupiter. it plunged into the waves.

The port, where Æneas landed, was near 563. Cuncta cohors: in the sense of om- the place where the city Catanea now stands, nes socii.

near the foot of mount Ætna. The Cyclops 564. Gurgite: in the sense of fluctu. were supposed to be the sons of Çælus and

565. Manes. These properly were that Terra. They took their name from the part of the dead, which the ancients sup- circumstance of their having but one eye. posed to be below—the shade, or ghost. This tradition originated from their custom Sometimes it is used for the place of the of their wearing small bucklers of steel, dead, and sometimes for the infernal gods. which covered their faces. These had a The plain meaning is : that when they were small aperture in the middle, which coron the top of a surge, or wave, they were responded exactly to the eye. They were elevated very high; and when they were reckoned among the gods, and had a temple in a hollow between two waves, they de- dedicated to them at Corinth. Ætna is scended very low; in other words, the sea now called mount Gibel, and stands not far here was very rough.

from the eastern shore of Sicily. Its modern 566. Clamoreni : in the sense of sonitum. name implies, the mount of mounts. 567. Rorantia astra: the stars bedewed, 570. Ingens: in the sense of capat.

Ipse ; sed horrificis juxtà tonat Ætna ruinis :
Interdumque atram prorumpit ad æthera nubem,
Turbine fumantem piceo et candente favillâ :
Attollitque globos flammarum, et sidera lambit.
Interdum scopulos avulsaque viscera montis

575
Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exæstuat imo.
Fama est, Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus

Urgeri mole hâc, ingentemque insuper Ætnam 580. Impositam insu- Impositam, ruptis flammam expirare caminis: 580 per eum

Et, fessum quoties mutat latus, intremere omnem

Murmure Trinacriam, et cælum subtexere fumo.
583. Nos tecti in syl- Noctem illam tecti sylvis immania monstra
vis perferimus

Perferimus : nec, quæ sonitum det causa, videmus.
Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nec lucidus æthra
Siderea polus ; obscuro sed nubila cælo,

586 Et Lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat.

Postera jamque dies primo surgebat Eoo, 590. Nova forma viri

Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram ; ignoti nobis, confecta Cùm subitò è sylvis, macie confecta suprema, 500 supremå macie, mise- Ignoti nova forma viri, miserandaque cultu, randaque cultu, proce- Procedit, supplexque manus ad litora tendit. dit è sylvis, 593. Dira illuvies erat Consertum tegmen spinis: at cætera Graius,

Respicimus. Dira illuvies, immissaque barba, ei 594. At quoad cætera Et quondam patriis ad Trojam missus in armis. 595

Isque ubi Dardanios habitus et Troïa vidit

erat

NOTES.

572. Prorumpit : in the sense of emittit. to them the appearances were new ana

573. Candenle favillâ : with hot, or burn- unexpected. Hence they may be called ing embers.

with propriety, immania monstra. 574. Lambit: in the sense of tangit. 585. Ignes : lights of the stars. Polus

576. Erucians : in the sense of evomens. lucidus : nor the heaven bright in the starry Avulsa : torn loose.

firmament. Polus, by synec. put for the 577. Glomerat: and whirls about melted whole heaven. rocks into the air.

587. Inlempesta nox : profound darkness. 578. Fama est : there is a report, that the It properly signifies the darkest time of body of Enceladus, half consumed by light- night-midnight. Here it denotes the quaning, is pressed under this mass of matter; lity of that night in particular, when one and that ponderous Ætna being placed upon face of thick darkness prevailed through the hiin, casts up flames froin its burst furnaces; whole night, like that which prevailed at the and as often as he, &c.

midnight hour. Nimbo: in the sense of neVirgil here gives us the fabulous account buloso aëre. of the origin of this burning mountain, and 588. Primo Eoo: with the first dawn. the cause of its eruptions. Enceladus was Eous, the star Venus. When it rises before the chief of the Giants, and the son of Ti- the sun, it is called Lueifer ; when setting tan and Terra. In the war of the Giants after him, Hesperus: here put for the dawn against the gods, he was struck with the of day. Aurora. See Geor. i. 249. thunderbolt of Jupiter, and placed under 590. Confecta supremâ : wasted away mount Ætna, by way of punishment: and, with extreme leanness. Confecta agrees as often as he turns his weary side, an with forma. eruption follows.

Ovid places Typhæus, 59i. Nova forma viri ignoti : simply, a another of the Giants, under the same man unknown to us. mountain. Insuper : in the sense of super. 594. Tegmen consertum: his covering

580. Expirare: in the sense of emittere. sewed, or fastened together with thorns. It

583. Immania monstra : in the sense of probably consisted of the leaves of trees. infanda prodigia. Illam noctem : in the Ruæus says, veslis contexta spinis. At cuesense of per illam noctem.

tera : but as to other things—his stature, 584. Perferimus : we endure or suffer. gait, language, &c. he was a Greek. The cause of this eruption was unknown 596. Habitus ; in the sense of vestes.

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Arma procul, paulùm aspectu conterritus hæsit,
Continuitque gradum : mox sese ad litora præceps
Cum fletu precibusque tulit: Per sidera testor,
Per Superos, atque hoc cæli spirabile lumen, 600 600. O Teucri, inquit,
Tollite me, Teucri ; quascunque abducite terras :

testor vos per sidera, ser Hoc sat erit. Scio me Danais è classibus unum,

Superos

602. Scio
Et bello Iliacos fateor petiise Penates.
Pro quo, si sceleris tanta est injuria nostri,
Spargite me in fluctus, vastoque immergite ponto. 605
Si pereo, manibus hominum periise juvabit.
Dixerat: et genua amplexus, genibusque volutans
Hærebat. Qui sit, fari, quo sanguine cretus,

608. Hortamur Hortamur; quæ deinde agitet fortuna, fateri. fari, qui sit, et ex quo Ipse pater dextram Anchises, haud multa moratus,

610 sanguine cretus est; de

inde fateri, quæ Dat juveni, atque animum præsenti pignore firmat. Ille hæc, depositâ tandem formidine, fatur:

614. Achemenides est Sum patriâ ex Ithacâ, comes infelicis Ulyssei,

nomen mihi : profectus Nomen Achemenides : 'Trojam, genitore Adamasto

sum Trojam

615 Paupere, mansissetque utinam fortuna ! profectus.

616. Hic socii imme

mores mei deseruêre ine Hìc me, dum trepidi crudelia limina linquunt,

in vasto antro Cyclopis, Immemores socii vasto Cyclopis in antro

dum

eum

NOTES.

aura.

597. Hæsit : hesitated-paused.

into a vessel, he gives them the dreadful 599. Testor : in the sense of precor.

narration of Polyphemus, informs them that 600. Hoc spirabile lumenby this vital this was the island of the Cyclops, begs light of heaven-by this light (air) of hea- them to leave it instantly, and concludes ven, which we breathe, and by which we most pathetically, that if he must die, it live. Lumen: in the sense of aër, vel would be some comfort to him to perish by

the hands of men, and not by monsters. 603. lliacos Penates. The Penates pro 607. Amplexus : embracing our knees, perly were the household gods—the gods of and falling upon his own knees, he clung one's cuuntry. Hence the word came to to us. Servius observes, that the several signify, one's house and country, and what- members of the body were consecrated to ever a person held most dear, by meton. particular deities: the ear, to memory ; the See Æn. ii. 717.

knees, to mercy; the right hand, to faith. 604. Pro quo: for which—for his being a Suppliants were accustoined to throw, or Greek, and having taken part in the war cast themselves upon their knees, and emagainst Troy. Sceleris injuria. Ruæus says, brace those of the person of whom they iniquitas criminis. Si scelus meum tantum asked or begged any thing. est, says Heyne.

603. Cretus : in the sense of ortus. 605. Spargite: in the sense of projicite : 610. Haud multa moratus : delayed not tear me in pieces, and cast me into the sea. a moment.

606. Si pereo, &c. Dr. Wharton makes 611. Præsenti pignore. The right hand the following reflections upon this passage. among all nations is considered a pledge of Nothing, says he, can more forcibly strike the friendship. Præsens here signifies, readyimagination, than these circumstances of propitious. So adsum, I am present, signithe wandering Trojans, sheltered in a wood, fies also, to favor—to be propitious. upon an unknown coast, and hearing strange 613. Ithacâ: an island in the Ionian sea. and terrible noises during a dark and moon It formed a part of the dominion of Ulysless night ; and not knowing whence the ses. Hodie, Isola del Compare. dreadful sounds proceeded, or by what they 614. Adamasto: Adamastus my father bemight be occasioned. At daybreak, how ing a poor man. He mentions his poverty as sudden and great the surprise, to see the an excuse for his going to the war; it was ghastly figure of a man, who first runs to not his choice. Sinon pleads the same exwards them with great precipitation, as if cuso. See Æn. ii. 87. Utinam: I wish the to beg soine assistance; but suddenly starts same state of poverty had remained to me! sack at the sight of Trojan habits and arms. 617. Cyclopis. Polyphemus is here meant. At last, recovering himself a little, he re It is said he was the son of Neptune and solves to fling himself into their hands, what- Thoosa, the daughter of Phorcys. It is erer might be the consequence. Received said that Ulysses, on his return from Troy,

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