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Ut gregibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis; 34. Sic tu eras omne Tu decus omne tuis : postquam te fata tulerunt, decus tuis Ipsa Pales agros, atque ipse reliquit Apollo.

35 36. In sulcis, quibus Grandia sæpe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis, mandavimus grandia Infelix lolium, et steriles nascuntur avenæ. hordea, sæpe

Pro molli viola, pro purpureo narcisso,
Carduus et spinis surgit paliurus acutis.
Spargite humum foliis ; inducite fontibus umbras, 40
Pastores: mandat fieri sibi talia Daphnis.

Et tumulum facite, et tumulo superaddite carmen:
43. Ego Daphnis ja- Daphnis ego in sylvis, hinc usque ad sidera notus ;
cio hic in sylvis, notus Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse.
Me. Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poëta,

Quale sopor sessis in gramine; quale per æstum
Dulcis aquæ saliente sitim restinguere rivo.
Nec calamis solùm æquiparas, sed voce magistrum.

Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo : 50. Tamen nos dice- Nos tamen hæc quocunque modo tibi nostra vicissim 50 mus hæc nostra carmina Dicemus; Daphninque tuum tollemus ad astra;

Daphnin ad astra feremus : amavit

nos quoque Daphnis



Mo. An quicquam nobis tali sit munere majus ?
Et puer ipse fuit cantari dignus, et ista
Jampridem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis.

ME. Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi,

Sub pedibusque videt nubes et sidera Daphnis. 58. Ergo alacris vo- Ergò alacris sylvas et cætera rura voluptas, luptas tenet sylvas

Panaque, pastoresque tenet, Dryadasque puellas.


34. Tu omne decus tuis : so thou wast all 49. Alter ab illo : the next from him—the the ornament to thy friends. Tuis: to thy next in fame after him. fellow swains. Virgil represents Daphnis, 50. Quocunque modo : in some manner or whoever he be, as a swain and shepherd. other-as well as I can.

35. Pales. See Geor. iii. 1. Apollo. He 52. Daphnis, &c. As we are to underis considered here under the character of stand Virgil under the character of Menalthe god of shepherds. See Ecl. iv. 10. cas, it is urged that Daphnis cannot be Ju

36. Hordea : barley, here put for any kind lius Cæsar, because Virgil was little known of grain; the species for the genus.

in his time. But Ruæus explains it of the 37. Infelix lolium: the hurtful cockle. Mantuans in general, who, with the other

38. Narcisso : the flower Narcissus, of inhabitants of Cis-alpine Gaul, were chewhich there are two kinds, the white and rished and protected by Cæsar. the purple. See Ecl. ii. 46.

53. An quicquam sit: can there be any 39. Carduus : the thistle. Paliurus : a thing more acceptable (majus) to me than species of thorn. It abounds in Italy. such an employment?

42. Carmen: an epitaph, or inscription. 54. Puer ipse. Servius infers from this

45. Tale tuum carmen. The elegance that Daphnis cannot be Julius Cæsar, since and sweetness of this and the two following he was 56 years old when he was killed. lines are not to be equalled, unless by the Ruæus understands it of his being lately answer, which Mopsus returns in verse 82, enrolled among the gods. But this is an et sequens. Est is to be supplied.

unnecessary refinement, and the objection 47. Restinguere, &c. To allay thirst in of Servius will be of no weight, when it is a purling rivulet of sweet water in the sum- considered that Virgil speaks of Daphnis mer heat. This is a most beautiful com- under the character of a shepherd, or swain. parison. Nothing could give a livelier idea See 43 and 44, supra; and puer is the word of the charms of his music, and the melody generally used to denote either.

56. Candidus: white-clothed in white. 48. Magistrum : the master. It appears This is an emblem of divinity; wbite being from this, that Mopsus had been a pupil of the color assigned to the celestial gods, as Menalcas, and much esteemed by him. black is to the infernal gods. Ini yetum : a

of his song

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part. of insuesco, unaccustomed, referring to acknowledge his divinity, and forbade his his being but lately deified. Lymen Olympi : subjects to pay adoration to him; and even the threshold of heaven. There were se- ordered Bacchus himself to be seized and veral mountains by the name of Olympus. cast into prison. But the doors opened The most distinguished, however, was one of their own accord, as if refusing to conin Thessaly, near the confines of Macedo- tain him a prisoner. Whereupon the king nia; the top of which arose above the clouds. became enraged, and ordered the whole Hence the poets feigned it to be heaven, the band of Bacchanals to be destroyed. But seat of the gods.

this was not carried into effect. Pentheus 60. Insidias : plots. This word hath no became desirous to see the celebration of singular. Retia : neu. plu. toils—snares. the Orgies, or feasts of Bacchus. For this Meditantur : devise, or prepare.

purpose, he concealed himself on mount 61. Amat otia, &c. This expression seems Citheron, whence he could see all their ceto allude to the clemency of Cæsar toward remonies. But being discovered, the Bachis enemies, for which he is much celebrated chanals fell upon him. His mother was by Cicero and others.

the first who attacked him, and was follow62. Jactant : in the sense of emittunt. ed by her two sisters, Ino and Autone, who 63. Intonsi : uncultivated-wild. immediately tore him in pieces. See Ovid.

64. Deus ille. Divine honors were de. Met. Lib. 3. creed to Julius Cæsar by the Triumviri, in the year of Rome 712, Lepidus and Plancus Silenus, the preceptor of Bacchus; who

Midas, king of Phrygia, had entertained being consuls. From this time, Octavius desired him to ask any thing he might began to be called the son of a god.

65. Aras. Ara was an altar dedicated please, and it should be granted him.both to the gods above, and to those below. Whereupon he asked that whatever he Altare was a high altar, and dedicated to might touch should be converted into gold. the gods above exclusively. Felix : propi- vinced of his imprudent choice ; for his food

This was granted. But he was soon contious-kind. 68. Crateras : acc. plu.of crater, a large the point of perishing with hunger, when he

became gold in his mouth, and he was on cup, or bowl. This word is purely Greek. besought Bacchus to take back his gift; he Statuam : in the sense of offeram. 69. Hilarans convivia, &c. Cheering or

readily did so, and directed him to wash in

the river Pactolus, whose sands were conmaking merry the feasts with much wine.

verted into gold. Bacchus, the god of wine, was the son of Jupiter and Semele. He was educated, ac- The festivals of Bacchus, called Orgia, cording to some, in the island of Natus, Bacchanalia, or Dyonisia, were introduced one of the Cyclades, under the care of the into Greece by Danaus and his daughters, nymphs Philia, Coronis, and Clyda; and from Egypt. The panther was sacred to while asleep was carried off by some mari- him, because in his expedition to India, he ners, all of whom he changed into dolphins, was covered with the skin of that animal. except the pilot, who showed him some ten- The fir-tree, the yew-tree, the fig-tree, the derness and regard. Bacchus is celebrated ivy, and the vine, were all sacred to him. as a warrior. He marched into India at Bacchus had several names : Liber, Brothe head of a large army composed of men mius, Lyaus, Evan, Thryonæus, Iacchus, &c. and women, all inspired with a divine fury, He is represented as drawn in a chariot by a and armed with the thyrsus, cymbal, &c. tiger and a lion, accompanied by Pan, SileHis conquests were easy-the people sub- nus, and the other satyrs. Bacchus, by memitting wherever he came, without resist- ton. as frequently put for wine, as in the

Pentheus, king of Thebes, refused to present case.



71. Arvisia vina quæ Vina novum fundam calathis Arvisia nectar. sunt

Cantabunt mihi Damætas, et Lyctius Ægon : 79. Ut Agricolæ fa- Saltantes Satyros imitabitur Alphesibæus. cient vota quotannis Hæc tibi semper erunt ; et cùm solennia vota Baccho Cererique, sic Reddemus Nymphis, et cùm lustrabimus agros.

75 facient ea tibi

Dum juga montis aper, fluvios dum piscis amabit, 81. Quæ, quæ dona reddam

Dumque thymo pascentur apes, dum rore cicadæ, 82. Nam neque sibi. Semper honos, nomenque tuum, laudesque manebunt. lus venientis Austri ju- Ut Baccho Cererique, tibi sic vota quotannis vat me tantùm ; nec litora Agricolæ facient : damnabis tu quoque votis.

80 percussa Auctu tam ju- Mo. Quæ tibi, quæ tali reddam pro carmine dona? vant me; nec flumina decurrunt inter

Nam quæ

neque me tantům venientis sibilus Austri, saxosas valles, tam ju- Nec percussa juvant fluctu tam litora, nec quæ

Saxosas inter decurrunt flumina valles.

pant mc.


71. Arvisia vina : Chian wine. Arvisia : ration of her darling child. He endeavored an adj. from Arvisus, a promontory of the to reconcile her to Pluto as a son-in-law ; island Chios, in the Archipelago, famous for but to no purpose. At length he consented its good wine. Novum nectar : nectar was that she should be restored, provided she properly any kind of pleasant wine, or had eaten nothing in the dominions of the other liquor. Hence the poets feigned it to ravisher. Ceres repaired immediately to be the drink of the gods. Novum : good— the infernal regions, and found she had excellent. The wine here offered was to eaten the seeds of a pomegranate, found in be as good as nectar-good or excellent the Elysian fields. Iler return, therefore, nectar. See Ecl. iii. 66.

was impossible : but Jupiter consented that 72. Lyctus : an adj. from Lyctus, a city she might pass six months of the year with of Crete,

her mother on earth, and the reinainder 73. Sultantes Satyros: leaping or wonton

with Pluto. satyrs. The Satyri were demi-gods of the During all this time, the cultivation of the

ountry, the origin of whom is not well earth had been neglected. To repair the known. They were of a hideous form, loss which mankind sustained by her aband generally distinguished themselves by sence, Ceres went to Attica and instructed their riotous and wanton demeanor in the Triptolemus, the son of Celeus, in all that orgies of Bacchus, which they generally at- pertained to agriculture. tended. The Romans called them indis

Ceres is supposed to be the same as the criminately Fauni, Panes, and Szivani. Egyptian Isis, and her worship to have been Alphesibæus. See Écl. 8.

brought into Greece by Erechtheus about 75. Lustrabimus. Lustro may here be 1426 years before Christ. She is supposed taken in the sense of circumeo, to go around to be the same as Tellus, Cybele, Berecynthia, or encompass; or of purgo, to cleanse or &c. The Romans paid her great veneration, purify by sacrifice ; or it may comprehend and her festivals were generally celebrated both. For it is agreed by all, that the poet for eight days in the month of April. Ceres, hinch a reference to what is called the sacri- by meton. is often put for bread grain, &c. eficium ambervale, spoken of Geor. i. 345, which see. Circumimus campos cum hostia,

80. Damnabis tu, &c. Thou shalt also -says Ruæus. Reddemus : 'in the sense of bind them to their vows-thou shalt grant solvemus.

the requests of those, who ask. The pro79. Cereri. Ceres was the goddess of priety of this mode of expression will aphusbandry, the daughter of Saturn and Ops, who' asked any thing of a God, viriually,

when it is considered that the person

pear, and mother of Proserpine by Jupiter, whom if not directly, promised or vowed somePluto carried off while she was gathering thing in return ; and if his requests were flowers in the plains of Enna, in Sicily: granted, then he became condemned, and The loss was grievous to Ceres, who sought judicially bound to the performance of his her both day and night; when at length

promise or vow. And the god, when he she found her veil near the fountain of Cyane. She could obtain no information granted any petition or request, was said

to condemn, or bind the promiser to pay his of her daughter, till the nymph Arethusa told her that she was carried off by Pluto. Upon this, she immediately ascended to 82. Sibilus: the whistling of the rising

ven, and demanded of Jupiter the resto- south wind.


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docuit nos,

ME. Hâc te nos fragili donabimus antè cicutâ. 85 86. Hæc eadem cicuta
Hæc nos, Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexim :
Hæc eadem docuit, Cujum pecus ? an Melibæi?

83. Sume podum forMo. At tu sume pedum, quod, me cùm sæpe rogaret,

mosum paribus nodis Non tulit Antigenes (et erat tum dignus amori)

atque ære, quod Anti

gines non tulit, cùm Formosum paribus nodis atque ære, Menalca. 90

sæpe rogaret me, et


85. Nos donabimus: I will present thee pecus? i. e. with this same pipe I sang the with this, &c. Cicula : properly a pipe third Eclogue. made of the stalk of the hemlock. See Ecl. I. 10.

88. Sume pedum : take this crook, as a 86. Hæc eadem docuit : this same pipe

testimony of any regard. taught me: formosum Corydon, &c. i. e. with 90. Formosum: beautified with equal knobs this same pipe I sang the second Eclogue. and brass—with knobs at equal distances : Hæc docuit : this same taught me : Cujum or uniform, in regard to size.


What is the subject of this pastoral ? By whom were they introduced into Who probably is meant by Daphnis ? Greece? and from what country?

Who is to be understood under the cha- What were his votaries called ? racter of Menalcas ? Who under that of What were some of the names of Bacchus? Mopsus?

How is he represented as drawn? When does Ruæus suppose it to have What is the word Bacchus frequently been written?

used for? Where is the scene laid ?

Who were the Satyri? How did they Into how many parts is the pastoral di- distinguish themselves ? vided ?

Who was Ceres ? What is said of her? Who was Alcon? and what is said of

Is she supposed to be the same with the him?

Who was Codrus ? and what is said of Egyptian Isis ? him?

By whom was her worship introduced Who was Bacchus ? What is said of him? into Greece ? and at what time? What were his festivals called?

When were her festivals celebrated?

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The subject of this fine pastoral is Silenus. He had promised the swains Chromis and

Mnasilus a song; but had put it off from time to time. Wearied with the delay, they surprised him asleep in his grotto, just recovering from his intoxication. His garlands lay at some distance from him : with these they bind him fast; and in this condition they demand of him the fulfilment of his promise. At this moment, Ægle, one of the nyniphs, joins them. Upon which he begins, and explains to them the origin of the world upon the principles of the Epicurean philosophy; and concludes with several

interesting fables by way of episode. It is generally supposed this pastoral was designed as a compliment to Syro the Epicu

rean, who taught Virgil the principles of thut philosophy. By Silenus we are to understand Syro, and by the swains Chromis and Mnasilus, his two pupils, Virgil and Varus.

PRIMA Syracosio dignata est ludere versu 2. Nostra Thalia pri- Nostra, nec erubuit sylvas habitare, Thalia. ma dignata est

Cùm canerem reges et prælia, Cynthius aurem
Velit, et admonuit: Pastorem, Tityre, pingues

Pascere oportet oves, deductuin dicere carmen. 5 6. Namque, o Vare, Nunc ego (namque super tibi erunt, qui dicere laudes, supererunt tibi alii poetæ Vare, tuas cupiant, et tristia condere bella) qui cupiant

Agrestem tenui meditabor arundine Musam.
Non injussa cano: si quis tamen hæc quoque, si quis


1. Syracosio versu : in pastoral verse. 7. Vare. It is generally thought that the - fracosio: an adj. from Syracusa, the birth poet here means Quintilius Varus, who price of Theocritus, the first pastoral poet arose to the highest honors under Augustus. of eminence; the chief city of Sicily, and He was consul in the year of Rome 741; famous for its defence against the Romans after which he was præfect of Syria eight under Marcellus.

years. Having returned home, he was sent 2. Thalia. One of the Muses. See Ecl. into Germany with three legions, which he iii. 60. Nec erubuit, &c. Nor did she blush lost, being drawn into an ambush. This to inhabit the woods. This verb here is mortified him so much, that he killed himboth expressive and beautiful; the perf. of self. This happened in the year 762. Conerubesco. Thalia was supposed to preside dere: to write--record. over comedy and pastoral poetry. Virgil was the first pastoral writer among the Ro- 9. Non injussa cano: I do not sing things mans; which explains the words, nostra forbidden by Apollo. He permits me to Thalia prima: my muse first deigned, &c. sing of pastoral subjects, but not of kings

3. Cum canerem, &c. Virgil is said to and battles. Si quis tamen, &c. The tamen have begun a work upon the affairs of Alba does not refer to the words, non injussa cano, Longa, but afterwards relinquished it, and but to the third and fourth lines, where commenced the Bucolics. Cynthius: a Apollo forbids him to write in the lofty name of Apollo. See Ecl. iv. 10. Vellit: style of heroic poetry. The meaning seems pinched my ear; a proverbial expression, to be this : though he forbid me to describe implying admonition.

your actions in heroic verse, he perrnits me 5. Deductum: a part. of deduco, humble, to do it in the humble style of pastoral. or slender. A metaphor taken from wool And if ar.y should be taken, captus amore, spun out till it is made fine or slender. with the Inve of this kind of writing, and

6. Supererunt: in the sense of erunt alii should read these pastorals, he shall here moetæ. The parts of the verb are separated find them. Hæc: these things—these my Tmesis.

Bucolics. Quoque: in the sense of etiam.

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