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Et geminas, causam lachrymis, sacraverat aras. 305
Ut me conspexit venientem, et 'Troïa circùm
Arma amens vidit; magnis exterrita monstris,
Diriguit visu in medio : calor ossa reliquit :
Labitur; et longo vix tandem tempore fatur:

309. Et tandem vix Verane te facies, verus mihi nuntius affers,

310 fatur longo tempore pòst Nate Deâ ? vivisne ? aut, si lux alma recessit,

311. Recessit à te Hector ubi est ? Dixit: lachrymasque effudit, et omnem Implevit clamore locum. Vix pauca furenti Subjicio, et raris turbatus vocibus hisco : Vivo equidem, vitamque extrema per omnia duco. 315 Ne dubita, nam vera vides. Heu! quis te casus dejectam conjuge tanto

319. O Andromache,

quondam uxor Hectoris, Excipit ? aut quæ digna satìs fortuna revisit ?

servas-ne connubia PyrHectoris Andromache, Pyrrhin' connubia servas ? rhi?

NOTES.

honorary merely, and erected to persons 314. Subjicio : in the sense of respondeo. buried in another place; or to those who Hisco: I open my mouth in broken, disreceived no burial, and whose relics could connected words. They were few in numnot be found. The same religious regard ber, and interrupted by sighs and tears. was paid to these tolmuli inanes el honorarii, 315. Per omnia extrema: through all peas to real tombs. Viridi cespite : she made rils and distress. Extrema, here, is a sub. (consecrated) this tomb of green turf. Ruæus says, per omnes miserias.

305. Geminas aras. Some will have it, 316. Vera : true things-realities. that one altar was for Hector, and the other 317. Quis casus : what event hath be. for Astyanax, her son, whom the Greeks fallen thee, deprived of so great a husband ? threw headlong from the tower of Troy. Conjuge, here, plainly means Hector, her Others, however, think she erected (conse- former husband. Ruæus interprets excipit crated) both to Hector, it being customary te, by, successit tibi ; and dejectam, by prito erect two altars to the Manes, especially vatam. of Heroes, who were considered inferior 319. Serras connubia, &c. These words deities. See verse 63, supra. Causam: the of Æneas would carry with tnem a severe cause, or incentive to her tears. They reproach, if Andromache had been the misbrought more forcibly to her mind the re- tress of her own fortune. Catrou observes, collection of her husband, and renewed her that this slavery rendered her connexion former grief.

with Pyrrhus excusable; yet she is confused 307. Amens : amazed. It agrees with upon the occasion, casts her eyes upon the illa understood. Exterrita monstris : asto- ground, and replies with a low voice, nished at the mighty prodigy, she fainted in not answering his question directly, but the midst of the sight.

breaking out into a passionate exclamaAny thing that happens, or is contrary to tion: O felir, &c. The sense which Ruæus the ordinary course of things, may be called gives to the passage is plainly incorrect. He monstrum. The sight of her countrymen interprets the words thus : 0 Andromache, was so unexpected, so improbable, and so tenes-ne conjugem Hecloris, an Pyrrhi? far from the ordinary course of events, that which will be : Andromache, are you wedit might well enough be called magnum ded to Hector, or to Pyrrhus? which is mamonstrum.

nifestly absurd, especially after what Æneas 308. Diriguit : in the sense of defecit. had said just before ; dejectam tanto conjuge, 309. Labitur : she falls.

meaning that she was brought low by being 310. Vera-ne facies : do you, a real form, deprived of so great a husband. The cona true messenger, present yourself to me? struction is as in the ordo: is Hector's An—are you really Æneas, or are you his dromache wedded to Pyrrhus? which is not image only?—are the things which I be- so much a question, as an exclamation of hold true and real, or are they mere phan. surprise. That Hectoris Andromache is to toms? Lur : in the sense of vita.

be construed in this way, appears froir. Jus313. Furenti : to her grieving, or sorrow- , tin, who gives them the same honorable deing. Furens properly signifies, being trans- signation, Lib. xvii. cap. 3. He there says, ported with any inordinate passion or af- that Pyrrhus gave the kingdom of Epirus to fection, as love, sorrow, anger, &c.-griev. Helenus, the son of Priaın; and also gave ing immoderately. Ruæus says, morenti. him (Andromachen Hectoris) Hector's An

321. O Priameïa vir- Dejecit vultum, et demissâ voce locuta est

320 go, una felix, ante alias o felix una ante alias Priameïa virgo, virgines, jussa mori ad hostilem

Hostilem ad tumulum Trojæ sub mænibus altis, 325. Nos vectæ per

Jussa mori : quæ sortitus non pertulit ullos, diversa æquora, patriâ Nec victoris heri tetigit captiva cubile! incenså, enixe servitio, Nos patriâ incensâ diversa per æquora vectæ,

325 tulimus fastus Achilleæ Stirpis Achilleæ fastus, juvenemque superbum stirpis 330. Ast Orestes, in

Servitio enixæ tulimus : qui deinde secutus flammatus magno amore Ledæam Hermionem, Lacedæmoniosque Hymenæos, conjugis erepte à se, et Me famulam famuloque Heleno transmisit habendam. agitatus furiis scelerum, Ast illum, ereptæ magno inflammatus amore

330 excipit illum, nempe, Conjugis, et scelerum furiis agitatus, Orestes Pyrrhum,

NOTES.

dromache, who had been his wife. Servas. children. In this last sense, perhaps, we This is the usual reading: but Heyne ob- are to take it here. For it is said, she bore serves that some copies have servat. This a son to Pyrrhus, called Molossus, who gave renders the passage somewhat easier : does his name to a part of Epirus. Some, howHector's Andromache preserve the marriage ever, understand it of labor and toil in geof Pyrrhus ?-Is she joined in marriage with neral : laboring in servitude. Ruæus says, Pyrrhus?

parientes in captivitate : bringing forth chil320. Demissa voce : in a low voice. dren in captivity.

321. Priameža virgo : Polyxena, the 328. Hermionem. Hermione was the daughter of Priam and Hecuba. Achilles daughter of Menelaus, king of Sparta or fell in love with her; and being invited to Lacedæmon, and Helen, the daughter of Troy by Priam for the purpose of celebra- Jupiter and Leda; hence the adj. Ledæam, ting their nuptials, while in the temple of Ledæan. She was betrothed by Tyndarus Apollo, where the marriage was to have to her cousin Orestes, in the absence of her been performed, he was killed by Paris with father, who, it seems, had promised her to an arrow. Achilles, with his last breath, Pyrrhus, while he was at Troy. After his conjured his son Pyrrhus to revenge his return, he went to Sparta, and carried off death upon Priam's family, and to immolate his spouse. This so enraged Orestes, that Polyxena at his tomb, whenever Troy he followed Pyrrhus to Delphi, where he should be taken. This accordingly he did. went to consult the oracle of Apollo con. Quinctilian quotes this passage as an in- cerning his future race, and there slew him. stance of Virgil's talent at the pathetic. In Hymencos: marriage-match: also nuptials. order, says he, to show the extremity of 329. Transmisit : in the sense of dedit, Andromache's misery, he makes her even vel tradidit. Habendam: to be had-posenvy the fate of Polyxena, who, in the eyes sessed-enjoyed. of all the world besides, was most wretched 331. Conjugis: namely, Hermione. Agiand miserable. How wretched then must

tatus furiis : hurried on by the furies of Andromache's condition have been, if, his crimes. Orestes, it is said, slew his mowhen compared to her, even Polyxena was ther Clytemnestra, for assisting Ægistus in happy! Instit. Lib. vi. cap. 3. Una: in procuring the death of his father Agamem. the sense of sola.

After which he is said to have been 323. Quæ non pertulit: who hath not haunted and tormented by the furies, (the borne any lots. _The Grecian princes, after remorse and stings of a guilty conscience,) the capture of Troy, cast lots among them- for imbruing his hands in his mother's blood. selves for the captives.

It is said he was acquitted by the court of 324. Nec captiva : nor as a captive, hath the Areopagus at Athens; and, after the touched the bed of a victorious lord. This death of Pyrrhus, he married Herniione, is the calamity from which Andromache and added the kingdom of Sparta to his declares Polyxena happy, in being delivered own hereditary dominions. by death.

The furies were three in number, Alecto, 325. Nos vectæ: in the sense of ego vecta. Tisiphone, and Megæra. After they ceased

326. Fastus : acc. plu. pride-haughti- to torment Orestes, they received the name ness. Stirpis Achilleæ : Pyrrhus, the off- of Eumenides, which implies benevolence spring of Achilles. Some read fastunt. and compassion. He built a temple to them,

327. Eniza: a part. of the verb enitor, and offered them sacrifices. They were agreeing with nos vectæ, above. li signifies represented as holding a burning torch in to labor and toil with our hands in gene- one hand, and a whip in the other. The ral; also the pain and labor of bearing stings and remorses of conscience were the

non.

om

Excipit incautum patriasque obtruncat ad aras.
Morte Neoptolemi, regnorum reddita cessit
Pars Heleno ; qui Chaonios cognomine campos,

334. Pars regnorum Chaoniamque omnem Trojano à Chaone dixi: : 335 reddita cessit Heleno: Perganiaque, Iliacamque jugis hanc addidit arcem.

qui dixit campos Chao

nios cognomine, Sed tibi qui cursum venti, quæ fata, dedêre ?

nemque illam regionem Aut quis te ignarurn nostris Deus appulit oris ?

Chaoniam
Quid puer Ascanius ? superatne, et vescitur aura ? 339. Quid puer Asca-
Quem tibi jam Troja-

340 nius agit?
Ecqua jam puero est amissæ cura parentis ?
Ecquid in antiquam virtutem animosque viriles,
Et pater Æneas, et avunculus excitat Hector ?

345. Cùm heros HeT'alia fundebat lachrymans, longosque ciebat

lenus Priamides affert Incassùm fletus; cùm sese à mænibus heros 345 sese à menibus, multis Priamides multis Helenus comitantibus affert,

coinitantibus euni Agnoscitque suos, lætusque ad limina ducit ;

349. Et agnosco parEt multùm lachrymas verba inter singula fundit.

vam Trojam, Pergama

que parva simulata Procedo, et parvam Trojam, simulataque magnis

magnis Pergama, et arentem Xanthi cognomine rivum, 350

350. Dictum cognoAgnosco: Scææque amplector limina portæ.

mine Xanthi

NOTES. furies of Orestes, which the poet calls the mante Creüsa. But at the time of the sack Furiæ scelerum, the furies of his crimes. It of Troy, Ascanius was several years old, and is probable that he pictured to his imagina- able to accompany his father. Æn. ii. 724. tion this notion of his being haunted by the Others have added : obsessâ est enixa Creüsa: furies, armed with all those terrors, with whom Creusa bore you, Troy already being which they were represented by the poets. besieged-during the siege of Troy. This Suetonius says of Nero : Sæpe confessus ex- probably, is the sense, but it has not the agitari se maternå specie, verberibus furia- poetic spirit of Virgil. run, ac tædis ardentibus.

341. Cura: in the sense of dolor, vel soli332. Excipit : surprised caught. Ad citudo. patrias aras : at his country's altars. The

342. Ecquid. This word is used hero temple of Apollo at Delphi was the centre of Greece, the country of Pyrr- merely as an interrogative, in the sense of hus. In this sense Ruæus and Turrebus

an, vel num. understand the expression." Others take the

Dr. Trapp, in his translation of the words to mean : at his father's altars; be- Æneid, makes a number of excellent recause Achilles was slain at the altar of marks upon this interesting interview beThrymbrean Apollo, at Troy; and he, at the

tween Æneas and Andromache. He con. altar of Apollo at Delphi.

cludes by saying:

6 That inan surely can 333. Reddita : in the sense of data, Cessit: have no idea of friendship, nor of human fell to Helenus.

nature itself, who is not sensibly touched 335. Dixit : in the sense of vocavit, vel with this whole passage ; which to me is the nominavit. Chaone. Chaon was the son of most affecting in all the Æneid.” Animos : Priam, and consequently the brother of He- courage. Antiquam virtutem : in the sense lenus, who slew him, while hunting, acci- of virtutem mujorum. Excital is to be condentally: and in memory of him, he called nected with each nominative case. Eum, his kingdom Chaonia.

vel illum, is understood after the verb. 336. Jugis : in the sense of monte. Ad- 344. Fundebat : in the sense of dicebat. didit : in the sense of condidit.

Ciebat : in the sense of excit, hat, vel move338. Appulit : in the sense of duxit, vel bat. Longos: in the sense of multos. Heindirexit. Ignarum : Rueus says, inscium. sius reads largos.

339. Superat : in the sense of superest. 348. Multùm : an adv. in the sense of coVescitur : in the sense of spirat.

piosè, vel abundè; or rather in the sense of 340. Quem libi, &c. This, and some multas, agreeing with lachrymas. other imperfect lines in the Æneid, is a proof 349. Simulata : resembling looking like. that Virgil did not put the finishing stroke 350. Arentem : in the sense of parvum. to this part of his works. It was his inten- It was small, and perhaps, at some seasons tion, if he had lived, to revise it. To com- of the year, dry. plete the sense of the line, something inust 351. Amplector, &c. It was a custom, be supplied. Some have added : peperit fu- when persons were going from home, or re

as nearly in

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Necnon et Teucri sociâ simul urbe fruuntur.
Illos porticibus rex accipiebat in amplis.
Aulai in medio libabant pocula Bacchi,

Impositis auro dapibus, paterasque tenebant. 366
356. Jamque unus Jamque dies, alterque dies processit; et auræ
dies, alterque

Vela vocant, tumidoque inflatur carbasus Austro.

His vatem aggredior dictis, ac talia quæso :
360. Qui sentis numi- Trojugena, interpres Divûm, qui numina Phæbi,
na Phæbi, qui' sentis tri- Qui tripodas, Clarii lauros, qui sidera sentis, 360
podas, et lauros Clarii Et volucrum linguas, et præpetis omina pennæ,
Apollinis, qui sentis

Fare, age (namque omnem cursum mihi prospera dixit
Relligio ; et cuncti suaserunt numine Divi

Italiam petere, et terras tentare repôstas : 365. Harpyia Coleno Sola novum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celæno

36€ sola canit novum prodi- Prodigium canit, et tristes denuntiat iras, gium

Obscænamque famem) quæ prima pericula vito?

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NOTES.

turning, to embrace the pillars and threshold of their flight. The former was called auof their houses.

gurium; the observation of which constitu354. Aulaï : for aula. The gen. of the ted the art of the augures: the latter was cailed first declension was sometimes formed in auspicium; the observation of which conai. See Grammar. Bacchi: Bacchus, the stituted the art of the auspices. god of wine, by meton. put for wine itself.

Omina præpetis pennæ : the omens of the Libabant pocula. It was customary at enter- swift wing—widely extended wings. The tainments, after the first table or course, to

augurs were certain persons, who pretended introduce wine, with a libation to the gods; to foretell future events, principally from the which consisted in pouring a few drops upon noise of certain birds. Romulus created the altar, or upon the table. Libabant: in three ; Servius Tullius added another, and the sense of bibebant.

Sylla appointed six additional ones. So that 355. Impositis auro: served up in gold- the number in his me was ten. They genein golden dishes.

rally sat upon some tower, or high place, the 357. Tumido Austro: by the rising wind. better to make their observations. Auster here is put for wind in general. Carbasus : the canyass, of which the sails were

362. Prospera relligio: favorable or propi

tious auspices and predictions have direcl. made. 358. Aggredior : I address the prophet the sense of auctoritate.

ed (dixit) my whole course. Numine : in

Some take this Helenus.

360. Qui sentis numina : who knowest for omnis relligio dixit mihi prosperum cur. the will of Phæbus. The vero sentis is to

sum : by hypallage. Here relligio is to be be supplied with each accusative following. the oracles, and the various ictimations

taken for the responses and predictions of The poet here enumerates five ways of di- which he had received : all which declared vination. First, by the immediate inspira- that he should arrive safe in Italy. Ruæus tion of the godssentis numina Phobi. Second, by sitting upon the Tripod. Third, says, ceremoniæ propitiæ. by burning laurel. Fourth, by contempla

364. Repôstas: by syn. for repositas. It ting the stars. Fifth, by the observation of may mean remote, or at a distance : also birds.

reserved, laid up in store.

In this sense 360. Tripodas. The tripod was a kind of Ruæus takes it here. In either case it will three footed scool, upon which the priestess be true, as it respects the land of Italy, wbiof Apollo sat, when she delivered the ora- ther he was going. Tentare: to search cles. Clarii. Clarius was an epithet of out—to find : in the sense of petere. Apollo, from Claros, a city of Greece, where 365. Nefas dictu: horrible to be told. he had a celebrated temple. One way of Nefas here is taken as an adj. indeclinable : divination was, to burn a branch of the the same as nefandum. laurel tree. If it made a crackl noise, it 366. Canit: in the sense of prædicit. was a good omen; but if not, it was consi- 367. Obscenam: in the sense of rabidam dered a bad one.

vel vehementem. Quæ pericula prima vito ? 361. Linguas volucrum. The omens What dangers first do I shun?--what are were taken from birds in two ways; from the first, or chief dangers, which I have to the sounds they uttered, and the manner avoid ?

Quidve sequens, tantos possim superare labores ?

Hìc Helenus, cæsis primùm de more juvencis,
Exorat pacem Divům, vittasque resolvit
Sacrati capitis, meque ad tua limina, Phæbe,
Ipse manu multo suspensum numine ducit:
Atque hæc deinde canit divino ex ore sacerdos :
Nate Deâ ; nam te majoribus ire per altum
Auspiciis manifesta fides: sic fata Deùm rex
Sortitur, volvitque vices : is vertitur ordo.
Pauca tibi è multis, quò tutior hospita lustres
Æquora, et Ausonio possis considere portu,
Expediam dictis : prohibent nam cætera Parcæ

Isi 370

371. Ipseque ducit me manû ad tua limina, o Phæbe, suspensum mul. to numine

274. Manifesta fides 375 est mihi te ire

377. Expediam dictis pauca tibi, è multis, quò tu tutior lustres hospita æquora

NOTES. 368. Quid sequens: following what coun- 376. Sortitur. This alludes to the custom sel, can I surmount, &c.

of consulting the oracle, which was some370. Resolvit viltas : the priest, in per- times done by casting or drawing lots: orforming sacrifice, had his head bound about dinat, says Heyne. with fillets: now he is about to prophesy, 377. Hospita: an adj. intervening. Ruhe unbinds, and takes them from his head. æus interprets it by, quæ excipient te : which Pacem : favor-grace.

shall receive you. 372. Suspensum: in the sense of solicitum, It is plain that the seas over which ne was vel trepidantem. Multo numine : at thy aw- to pass, were those that intervened, or lay ful majesty—thy mighty power. Ruæus between Epirus, and that part of Italy to says, ob magnam reverentiam Dei.

which he was bound. These would be the Some copies have suspensus, which means Ionian sea, lying between Epirus and the that Helenus was full of anxiety, perturba- extremity of the peninsula; that part of the tion, and awe, from the power or influence Mediterranean lying to the east and south of the god. But suspensum is the better of Sicily; and the Tuscan sea, lying between reading, referring to Æneas, who had good Sicily, Italy, and the islands of Sardinia and reason to be in awful suspense and anxiety Corsica. Lustres: in the sense of naviges. about his future fortune, which the god was Valpy takes hospita, in the sense of ignota : about to declare to him by the mouth of to which he was a stranger. Helenus.

379. Parcæ prohibent: the fates forbid 373. Canit: in the sense of eloquitur. that you should know the rest. Pierius ob

374. Majoribus auspiciis: may mean, with serves, that in most of the ancient copies the greater auspices, signs, or manifestations. there is a full stop after scire; Servius apAmong the various omens or signs, which proves of it, and it appears the best. The were thought to give insight into futurity, sense is easier, and we avoid any inconsome were considered more important than sistency. If we make both the verbs, prohiothers. Of these were visions, appearances bent and vetat, refer to Helenus, there will in the heavens, ecc. which all along had ac- be an inconsistency. For, would Juno forbid companied Æneas. But auspicium signifies him to declare what he did not know himany event or fortune. If this be the mean- self? Besides, he had just said that he would ing here, which most probably is the case, only inform him of a few of the events that then majoribus auspiciis will be, for greater were to befall him; which certainly implies or more important events—for better for that he knew the rest, but was restrained by tune—for more prosperous days. This is heaven from communicating them to him. the opinion of Heyne.

Some of these events it was not proper for 375. Sic rex Deûm : thus the king of the him to know; because the accomplishment gods dispenses his decrees, and fixes (volvit, depended on his own free will. Others rolls) the series of events: this order (or Juno prevented him from revealing, that he course of things) is fixed.

might be the more perplexed with doubts It is plain the poet hath hero in view the and uncertainty; and the more surprised fabulous story of the Parca, who were and unprovided against the calamity when thought to preside over the events of human it came. Of this kind is the inierpretation life; and to order, or fix, whatever befell to of Celæno's prophecy, which Helenus apevery individual froin his birth to the close pears to have understood: for he forbids of his life. The first was represented as him to be much concerned about it, for the holding the distaff; the second as drawing gods would find a way to extricate him from out, or turning off (volvere,) and fixing the it: verse 394. infra. course of events; the third as cutting the Another particular is the death of Anthread. See Ecl. iv. 46.

chises. Æneas does not question the fore.

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