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135 tore

Sic fatus, meritos aris mactavit honores :
Taurum Neptuno; taurum titi, pulcher Apollo ; 119 119. Mactavit taurum
Nigram Hyemi pecudern, Ze; hyris felicibus albam.

Neptuno; taurum tibi, Fama volat, pulsum regnis cessisse paternis

O pulcher

121. Fama volat duIdomenea ducem, desertaque litora Cretæ,

cem Idomenea, pulsum Hoste vacare domos, sedesque adstare relictas.

cessisse paternis regnis, Linquimus Ortygiæ portus, pelagoque volamus: litoraque Cretæ esse deBacchatamque jugis Naxon, viridemque Donysam, 125 serta, et domos vacare

nostro hoste Olearon, niveamque Paron, sparsasque per æquor

125. Legimusque NaxCycladas, et crebris legimus freta consita terris.

on bacchatam jugis, viNauticus exoritur vario certamine clamor.

ridemque Donysam Hortantur socii, Cretam proavosque petamus. Prosequitur surgens à puppi ventus euntes :

130 130. Nos euntes Et tandem antiquis Curetum allabimur oris. Ergò avidus muros optatæ molior urbis,

133. Vocoque urbem Pergameamque voco: et lætam cognomine gentem


135. Puppes subductes Hortor amare focos, arcemque attollere tectis.

sunt è mari in sicco liJamque ferè sicco subductæ litore puppes :

NOTES. 118. Mactavit : he offered-sacrificed. in that form around Delos. Freta consta : Honores : in the sense of victimas. And the straits set with many islands—the straits meritos : in the sense of dignos.

and narrow passes formed by the nume120. Hyemi. By hyemi we are here to rous islands, which diversified the sea. understand the stormy winds. They were 127. Legimus: we coast along the shore considered as a kind of divinities, and were we sail near. accordingly worshipped in order to avert 128. Certamine: in the sense of æmulatheir fury. Pecudem: in the sense of ovem. tione. Nauticus clamor: a shout of the sailors. Felicibus : in the sense of propitiis.

130. Surgens à puppi. This wind blew 122. Idomenea: an acc. of Greek ending. from the north : their course lay to the Idomeneus was the son Deucalion, and southward, and consequently it would be at grand-son of Minos, king of Crete. He their stern. was one of the leaders in the war against 131. Allabimur: we arrive at the ancient Troy. On his return, being overtaken in shores of the Curetes. These were the mia storm, he made a vow to the gods to nisters of Cybele, and thought by some to sacrifice to them whatsoever he should first be the same with the Corybantes and Ideer meet, if they would save him. This hap- Dactyli. Of ad and labor. See 111, supra. pened to be his own son. The father, how. The Curetes are said to have been the ori. ever, perforined his vow. A plague soon ginal inhabitants of Crete ; froin whom the arising in his country, and his subjects con island probably took its name. sidering him to have been the cause of it by 132. Molior: in the sense of extruo. this inhuman deed, rose against him, and 133. Pergamea:n. Pliny mentions Perexpelled him from his kingdom. Litora de- gamus, ainong the cities of Crete. Homer serla: the shores to be deserted—left with- calls it, the hundred-city island. It is said out a guard, or defence.

to have had a hundred cities. Gentem 123. Sedes relictas adstare: that the coun tam : my people delighted with the name. try being abandoned, lies open to us. Sedes: Gentem, in the sense of populum, vel socios. in the sense of regiones.

134. Amare focos: to love their homes 124. Ortygia. The ancient name of De- to keep close at home, and not wander los was Ortygia, from a Greek word signi- abroad, until they should discover the disfying a quail : those fowls having abounded position or the inhabitants towards them. in that island.

This agrees with the following injunction : 125. Bacchatam: frequer ted in its moun attollere arcem tectis, to raise a tower on tains by the priests of Bacchus-whose their houses in case of an attack, the better mountains resounded with the tumultuous to defend themselves.

tings of the Bacchanals. Viridem Do Servius thinks Æneas here intends to nysam. This island was famous for its recommend to his people to cultivate the green marble, as Paros was for its pure white study of religion. It is an unneressary remarble. See 75. supra.

finement. Focos : properly the fire-places, 127. Cycladas sparsas.

These were a or hearth, by synec. put for the whole house, number of Islands, so called from a Greek in this place: also sometimes for the fire on word sgnifying a circle, because they lay the hearth, by meton.



136. Juventus operata Connubiis arvisque novis operata juventus : est connubiis

Jura domosque dabam: subitò cùm tabida membris, 137. Tabida, miserandaque lues, tractu cæli Corrupto cæli tractu, miserandaque venit corrupto, venit eorum Arboribusque satisque lues, et letifer annus. membris, arboribusque Linquebant dulces animas, aut ægra trahebant 140 satisque, et est Corpora : tum steriles exurere Sirius agros. letifer

Arebant herbæ, et victum seges ægra negabat. 141. Sirius cæpit exu

Rursus ad orâclum Ortygiæ Phæbumque remenso 143. Pater hortatur Hortatur pater ire mari, veniamque precari: me ire rursus ad oracu- Quem fessis finem rebus ferat; unde laborum 145 lum

Tentare auxilium jubeat ; quò vertere cursus. 145. Et quærere quem Nox erat, et terris animalia somnus habebat. finem

Effigies sacræ Divûm, Phrygiique Penates, 150. Visi sunt adstare Quos mecum à Trojâ mediisque ex ignibus urbis ante oculos mei jacentis Extuleram, visi ante oculos adstare jacentis

150 insomnis

Insomnis, multo manifesti lumine: quà se 153. Tum sic visi sunt Plena per insertas fundebat Luna fenestras. affari me, et

Tum sic affari, et curas his demere dictis : 154. Apollo canit hic idem. quod dicturus est Quod tibi delato Ortygiam dicturus Apollo est, tibi delato ad

Hìc canit: et tua nos en ultrò ad limina mittit. 155 156. Nos secuti sumus Nos te, Dardaniâ incensâ, tuaque arma secuti; te, tuaque

Nos tumidum sub te permensi classibus æquor; 158. Nos iidem tolle

lidem venturos tollemus in astra nepotes, 159. Imperium orbis Imperiumque urbi dabimus. Tu mænia magnis tuce urbi


Magna para, longuinque fugæ ne linque laborem. 160



136. Juventus operata : the youth had when the heat of the sun is most intense. sacrificed for their nuptials, and new lands. It is sometimes called canicula. They were prepared for contracting mar 142. Ægra seges: the diseased, or sickly riages, and for commencing the business of crop-C agriculture.

144. Precari veniam : to supplicate his It was a custom among the Romans to favor, or assistance. offer sacrifices before they entered upon 145. Fessis rebus : to our afflicted state, marriage, or any important business of life. or condition. Ferat: in the sense of ponat. To this, the poet alludes. Sacrificabant pro Laborum : distress-sufferings. Tentare : felici successu conjugiorum, et agrorum.

in the sense of quærere. 137. Dabam: in the sense of distribuebam. 146. Auxilium laborum : relief in our Jura : justice among my people. Domos: sufferings. either the houses that had been abandoned 148. Efigies : forms, or figures. Ruæus by the inhabitants; or the places where says statuæ. Penates. See Æn. ii. 717. they should build houses for themselves. 151. Insomnis: awake; an adj. agreeing

139. Tabidu miserandnque: a wasting and with mei jacentis. Most editors separate pitiable disease came upon their limbs, &c. the word into in and somnis, in my sleep. This disease, or plague, was occasioned by This is evidently incorrect : for if he had the infection of the air. Cæli: in the sense been asleep, the light of the moon would of aëris Tractu : a space, tract, or region, have been unnecessary. Besides, verse 173 Satis. Satn, properly, crops—any thing infra, he declares it was no delusion of the planted and growing; from the verb sero. fancy in sleep. Manifesti : in the sense of Here, in the serise of segetes.

conspicui. 140. Animas : lives. .Anima properly 152. Insertas fenestras : windows inserted, signifies the animal life; animus, the soul. or made in the side of the house. Fenestras, Dr. Trapp thinks the expression an odd one, quæ sunt in pariete, says Heyne. Fundebat and propeses to change linquebant to red se: in the sense of mittebat se; simply, debant. Ruæus says, amittebant. The dif- shone. ficulty is removed by rendering dulces ani 154. Delato : carried back, or returned mas, sweet, or dear lives.

to Delos. Canit : declares, or reveals. 141. Sirius: the dog-star; a pestilential 160. Para magna : prepare a great city, constellation, rising about the end of July, Populis, or some word of the like import, is

Mutandæ sedes : non hæc tibi litora suasit
Delius, aut Cretæ jussit considere, Apollo.
Eet locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt;
'Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebæ.
Enotrii coluere viri : nunc fama, minores

165 165. Nunc rama est Italiam dixisse, ducis de nomine, gentem.

minores dixisse gentem Hæ nobis propriæ sedes : hinc Dardanus ortus,

167. Hinc lasius orlasiusque, pater; genus à quo principe nostrum.

tus est, paterque Darda

nus, à quo principe nosSurge, age, et hæc lætus longævo dicta parenti

trum genus deductun. Haud dubitanda refer. Corytum, terrasque require 170 est. Ausonias. Dictaa negat tibi Jupiter arva. Talibus attonitus visis ac voce Deorum,

173. Sed videbar mıhz (Nec sopor illud erat; sed coràm agnoscere vultus,

agnoscere vultus coram Velatasque comas, præsentiaque ora videbar:

me, velatasque



to be understood, with which magnis is to ritania in Africa; who married Coritus, agree: for your powerful people. Magnis king of Tuscany. It is said, however, that nepotibus, says Heyne. Ruæus nobis Jove had an amour with her, and begat magnis : for us the great gods. Longum Dardanus. Upon the death of their father laborem fugæ : the same as laborem longe Coritus, a quarrel arose between the two fuge: the labor, or fatigue of the long voyage. brothers, which ended in ihe death of läsius.

161. Sedes: in the sense of regio. The Upon which Dardanus fled first to Samoverb sunt is to be supplied. Non suasit hæc: thracia, and afterwards to Phrygia, where Delian Apollo does not advise, or recom he married the daughter of Teucer, and, in mend these shores to thee.

connexion with him, founded the Trojan 162. Cretæ : at Crete. The place where is. put in the gen. The same with, in Creta. 170. Corytum : a city and mountain in Delius : a name, and epithet of Apollo; Tuscany, so called from Corytus, the supfrorn Delos, the place of his birth.

posed father of Dardanus, and king of that 163. Est locus. This passage had been country. The name is derived from a Greek recited to Dido by Ilioneus, Æn. i. 530. As word which signifies a helmet. Both the they were the words of the oracle, it would city and mountain are now called Cortona. have been disrespectful and improper to Require. Heinsius, and after him Heyne, alter them in the least: besides, Dido would reads requirat. But require is the conimon be more confirmed in the truth of Æneas' reading, and is the easier. relation, when she found two witnesses de 171. Ausonias : an adj. from Ausonia, & livering their testimony in the same words. name of Italy; from Auson, or Ausonius, Locus : in the sense of regio.

as Servius informs us. Diitæa arva: the 165. Enotrii : an adj. from (Enotria, a Cretan territory, or lands. Crete is called name given to that part of Italy, afterwards Diclæan, from Dicte, a mountain on that called Lucania. It took its name from island, where Jupiter was educated; put, by Enotrus, the son of Lycaon, who settled synec. for the whole island. here with a colony of Arcadians. The 172. Talibus visis : at such a vision, or Enotrians spread so widely, that all Italy sight. was sometimes called @notria. Enotrii 173. Nec sopor erat, &c. Dr. Trapp, and viri: simply, the Enotrians.

some other commentators, imagine a diffi167. Propriæ nobis : destined, or allotted culty occurs here. To solve it, they make a to us by the gods. The verb sunt is to be difference between sopor and somnus. But supplied. Mr. Davidson takes propriæ in this difficulty arises entirely from their taking the sense of perpetuæ.

Ruxus says, ad insomnis to mean, in sleep, and not taking it dicire.

as an adj. See verse 151, supra. 167. Hinc: hence lasius sprang, and 174. Vebatas comaz: the heads of the father Dardanus; from which prince our images, or statues, were generally adorned ruce is derived. Principe here is a sub. a with fillets and flowers. Ora præsentia : prince-a chief-a founder. The construc- their forins present before me. We see how tion is easier and more natural by connect- much pains the poet takes to make us being pater with Dardanus. In this instance lieve that it was no dream-no mere fancy. } have ventured to depart from the common He mentions a variety of circumstances, all ordo. Täsius and Dardanus were sons of of which go to show that Æneas was awake, Electra, the daughter of Atlas, king of Mau- and not in sleep.

esse novo

Tum gelidus toto manabat corpore sudor)

175 Corripio è stratis corpus, tendoque supinas Ad cælum cum voce manus, et munera libo

Intemerata focis. Perfecto lætus honore 179. Certum de his Anchisen facio certum, remque ordine pando. rebus

Agnovit prolem ambiguam, geminosque parentes, 180 181. Seque deceptum Seque novo veterum deceptum errore locorum.

Tum memorat: Nate, Niacis exercite fatis,

Sola mihi tales casus Cassandra canebat. 184. Nunc repeto eam Nunc repeto hæc generi portendere debita nostro, portendere hæc loca de

Et sæpe Hesperiam, sæpe Itala bita esse nostro generi;


regna vocare. et eam sæpe vocare

Sed quis ad Hesperia venturos litora Teucros

Crederet ? aut quem tum vates Cassandra moveret :
188. Moniti nos sequa- Cedamus Phæbo, et moniti meliora sequamur.
mur meliora consilia.

Sic ait : et cuncti dictis paremus ovantes.
Hanc quoque deserimus sedem, paucisque relictis 190
Vela damus, vastumque cavâ trabe currimus æquor.

Postquam altum tenuere rates, nec jam ampliùs ullæ 193. Sed undique cæ- Apparent terræ, cælum undique, et undique pontus; lum apparet, et Tum mihi cæruleus supra caput adstitit imber,

Noctem hyememque ferens ; et inhorruit unda tenebris.

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176. Corripio: I snatch my body from their descent from Dardanus. See verse my bed. Supinas: palm upward; agreeing 94, et seq. with manus.

182. Exercile : exercised, or tried, in the 177. Libo intemerata : 1 pour pure offer- disasters of Troy. ings on the fire. This private offering con

183. Canebat : in the sense of prædicabat. sisted of pure wine and incense, and was usually poured upon the fire in honor of the by Apollo with the gift of prophecy; but

Cassandra. The daughter of Priam, endued Lares. 178. Honore perfecto : the offering being

no body believed her predictions. See Æn.

ii. 246. made, or completed. 179. Rem: in the sense of prodigium.

184. Repeto: I remember-I call to mind. 180. Geminos parentes: the double foun. Portendere : in the sense of prædicere. Vo

care: mentioned-spake of by name. ders. The Trojans reckoned both Teucer and Dardanus the founders of their race;

188. Monili meliora : being advised, let the former from Crete, the latter from Italy. of Ruæus and Dr. Trapp. Mr. Davidson

us follow better counsels. This is the sense This ambiguam prolem, ambiguous, or double descent, led Anchises to mistake the renders them : being better advised, let us oracle of Apollo. Agnovit : he owned follow (the gods); taking meliora as a Gre

cism. Cedamus : in the sense of obediamus. acknowledged. 181. Novo errore. It is not easy, perhaps,

189. Ovantes : in the sense of læti. to fix the meaning of this line. Pierius in- 190. Sedem : in the sense of terram. Deforms us that some copies have parentum serimus : in the sense of relinquimus. instead of locorum, which mends it much : 191. Cava trabe: in the sense of caris nathrough the recent mistake of our ancient vibus. Currimus: we sail upon the vast founders. If locorum be read, it will be: Trabe, by synec. put for the whole through the recent mistake of the places of ship. their birth.

192. Allum: properly, the deep, or open Apollo had directed them to seek the land Rates : in the sense of naves. of their ancestors, promising that it should 194. Imber: properly, a shower of rair; receive them in its fertile bosom. This An- by meto... the cloud containing, or bearing chises had interpreted of the land of Crete, along the rain, as in the present instance. the birth-place of Teucer. It appears, then, Cæruleus, is what we may properly call. that this mistake lay in reckoning their leaden-colored. Clouds, that threaten thun descent from him, and not from Dardanus, der and rain, are often tinged with a deep whose country had been Italy. This mis- blue, intermingled with black. This is the take in computing he calls novus, a recent, kind of cloud here meant. or new one, because they usually deduced 195. Hyemem: in the sense of tempesta




Continud venti volvunt mare, magnaque surgunt

196 Æquora : dispersi jactamur gurgite vasto. Involvêre diem nimbi, et nox humida cælum

198 Abstulit cælum Abstulit : ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes.

à nobis Excutimur cursu, et cæcis erramus in undis. 200 Ipse diem noctemque negat discernere cælo,

201. Negat se posse disNec meminisse viæ mediâ Palinurus in undâ. Tres adeò incertos cæcâ caligine soles Erramus pelago, totidem sinè sidere noctes. Quarto terra die primùm se attollere tandem 205

205. Terra visa est

tandem attollere se, et Visa, aperire procul montes, ac volvere fumum. Vela cadunt; remis insurgimus : haud mora, nautæ

207. Haud mora est Adnixi torquent spumas, et cærula verrunt.

208. Verrunt cærula Servatum ex undis Strophadum me litora primùm

maria Accipiunt. Strophades Graio stant nomine dictæ 210 210. Insulæ, dicte Insulæ Ionio in magno : quas dira Celæno,

Strophades Graio 20

mine, stant in Harpyiæque colunt aliæ : Phinesa postquam





tem, vel procellam. Unda : in the sense of exerting themselves-laboring with all their

Inhorruit : looked terrific with the strength, they tuss the foam, and sweep the darkness.

azure deep. 197. Æquora : in the sense of fluctus. 209. Litora Strophadum : the shores of the

198. Involvêre: wrapped up the day-ob- Strophades. These were two small islands, scured. Nimbi : in the sense of nubes. So lying on the west of the Peloponnesus, near also imber, in verse 194, supra. So imper- the Sinus Cyparissæus. Here Æneas with vious was this cloud to the rays of the sun, his fleet landed. that it became dark as night-it converted 211. Magno Ionio. That part of the the day into night. Darkness, or night, be- Mediterranean, lying between Greece on ing the absence or want of the light of the the east, and Sicily and Italy on the west,

Humida: in the sense of imbrifera. was called the Ionian sea. Mari is to be Cælum : for lucem.

supplied. 199. Ignes : lightnings, in quick succes 212. Harpyiæ aliæ. The Harpies were sion, flash froin the broken clouds. Some commonly reckoned three in number: Iris, copies have abrupti, agreeing with ignes; Aëllo, and Ocypela. Virgil here calls one which would be preferable, if it could be of them Celæno. They are said to have supported by sufficient authority.

been the daughters of Neptune and Terra, 200. Excutimur: in the sense of dejici- (according to Hesiod, of Thaumus and Cæcis : dark-unknown sea.

Electra,) and are therefore supposed to in. 201. Palinurus ipse : Palinurus himself habit the islands principally. They had the denies that he can distinguish the day and faces of women, but the bodies of vultures. night, (the day from the night, on account Their feet and fingers were armed with of the darkness,) in the heavens. Memi- claws. They emitted an infectious sinell, nisse : in the sense of cognoscere. He was and poisoned whatever they touched. They the pilot of Æneas' ship, and represented as were called Harryiæ, from the circumstance the most skilful mariner in the fleet.

of their rapacity and voracious nature. Ser203. Adeò erramus : thus we wander over vius thinks they were called Harpyia on the sea for three doubtful days in thick earth, Furiæ in hell, and Diræ in heaven. darkness. Or, incertos may mean, uncer. Phineza : an adj. from Phineus, a king of tain-undistinguished; because they could Arcadia or Thrace, who put out the eyes of be scarcely distinguished from night, on his two sons, at the instigation of his wife, account of the thick darkness. This is the their step-mother. For this unnatural consense put upon the words by Ruæus and duct, Jove deprived him of sight, and sent others. Ambiguas propter tenebras obscuras, the Harpyiæ to torinent them; which they says that commentator. Soles : in the sense did, till Calais and Zetes, the sons of Boof dies.

reas and Orithyia, expelled them from his 206. Volvere : in the sense of emittere, or kingdom, in return for the favors which erigere.

they had received of him on their way to 207. Insurgimus remis : we rise upon our Colchis, after the golden fleece. They pur oars—we ply them briskly.

sued these monsters as far as these islands ; 208. Adnici: part. of the verb adnitor: when, being admonished by Jove to pursue

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