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Immotamque coli dedit, et contemnere ventos. 78. Hæc placidissima Huc feror: hæc fessos tuto placidissima portu insula accipit nos

Accipit. Egressi veneramur Apollinis urbem. 79. Egressi navibus

Rex Anius, rex idem hominum Phæbique sacerdos, 80

Vittis et sacrâ redimitus tempora lauro 82. Occurrit nobis Occurrit, veterem Anchisen agnoscit amicum.

Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus. 85. Et sic dixi: 0 Templa Dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto; Thymbræe Apollo, da Da propriam, Thymbræe, domum, da menia fessis, 85 nobis fessis propriam do- Et genus, et mansuram urbem : serva altera Trojæ 88. Quòve jubes nos

Pergama, relliquias Danaûm atque immitis Achillei. ire? ubi jubes nos ponere

Quem sequimur ? quòve ire jubes ? ubi ponere sedes ? nostras sedes?

Da, pater, augurium, atque animis illabere nostris. 90. Repentè omnia Vix ea fatus eram : tremere omnia visa repentè, 90 visa sunt tremere

Liminaque, laurusque Dei : totusque moveri 91. Totusque mons Mons circùm, et mugire adytis cortina reclusis. visus est moveri 94. Eadem tellus, quæ

Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertur ad aures : tulit vos à prima stirpe Dardanidæ duri, quæ vos à stirpe parentum



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hidden before under the waves. This part blood of victims; but only honored with
of the fable some explain, by saying that prayers, and other simple rites of ancient
Apollo here gave out his oracles plain and worship.
intelligible, but in every other place, in terms

85. Thymbræe. Thymbræus was an epidark and obscure. See Ecl. iv. 10.

thet of Apollo, derived, as we are told by 77. Dedilque: and rendered it fixed to be Strabo, from Thymbra, a place near Troy, inhabited, and to condemn the winds. This where he had a famous temple. Propriam: alludes to the story of its having been a fixed, lasting. wandering island, and driven about by the winds, till fixed by Apollo for the residence

86. Genus : offspring—posterity. Ruæus of his mother. Hence it became sacred to says, familias. Mansuram : permanent, to

remain. her.

80. Idem rex hominum. It was a custom 87. Pergama : neu. plu. properly the fort among many nations to unite in the same or citadel of Troy ; often used for the whole person the offices of king and priest. Anius city. Altera Pergama. Simply, the other was both king, and priest of Apollo. Troy--the city which Æneas prayed Apollo

81. Redimitus: bound as to his temples to grant to him, and his followers, the rewith fillets, and the sacred laurel. The mains of the Greeks, and of cruel Achilles. laurel was sacred to Apollo. Hence the 89. Augurum: a sign, or omen. propriety of his priest being bound with it:

91. Laurus. Either the laurel, with which and the propriety of the epithet sacra. 83. Subimus iecta : we come under his the laurel tree, which was placed at the en

the image of the god was crowned; or rather roof--we enter his palace. But tecta here trance of the temple. It was an opinion may mean the temple mentioned below: the among the ancients that the gods gave signs word tectum properly signifying any covered of their approach, by causing the earth to building. Or tecta may be taken for the

move and shake. To this the poet here albuildings of the city in general. The mean ludes. The laurel was sacred to Apollo. ing then will be; we enter the city.

84. Structa vetusto saxo : built of ancient 92. Cortina. The covering of the tripod, stone, or rock. Macrobius informs us that, whence the priest delivered responses. Hence when the temple at Delphi, and the temples by meton, the oracle itself. Adytis. The built to Apollo in other l laces, were destroy- sanctuary, or inner part of the temple, where ed in any way whatever, his temple at Delos the Oracle was. Reclusis : in the sense of continued to stand unimpaired; and conse- apertis. Mons. This was mount Cynthus, quently retained its ancient or original stone.

on which the temple was built: whence Whatever ravages the island had suffered, Apollo was sometimes called Cynthius, and the sanctity of the temple preserved it from Diana, Cynthia. Mugire: in the sense of violation. Venerabar: I worshipped-I of- sonare. fered prayers. It is said that the altar of 94. Dardanidæ : the same as Trojani. Apollo at Delos was never stained with the Servius observes that the Trojane might

Prima tulit, tellus eadem vos ubere læto

Accipiet reduces: antiquam exquirite matrem.
Hìc domus Æneæ cunctis dominabitur oris,
Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis.

Hæc Phæbus : mixtoque ingens exorta tumultu 99. Ingensque lætitia Lætitia ; et cuncti, quæ sint ea mænia, quærunt, 100 exorta est cum mixto

101. Nos errantes Quò Phæbus vocet errantes, jubeatque reverti. Tum genitor, veterum volvens monumenta virorum, Audite, ô proceres, ait, et spes discite vestras.

105. Ubi est Idæus Creta Jovis magni medio jacet insula ponto,

mons Mons Idæus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostræ.


106. Incolæ habitant

centum Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna.

107. Unde Teucrus Maximus unde pater, si ritè audita recordor,

noster maximus pater Teucrus Rhæteas primùm est advectus in oras,


NOTES. have understood from this declaration of tings, but paintings, columns, tombs, and the Oracle, that Italy was designed them, statues. Ruæus says, historias. Volvens : in whence Dardanus came; and not Crete, the sense of recogitans, vel revolvens in which was the birthplace of Teucer. Stirpe : mente. in the sense of origine.

104. Creta. A large island in the Mediter 95. Læto ubere : in its joyous bosom: or ranean, lying between the Archipelago on perhaps, in its fertile soil. Uber : signifies the north, and the Lybian sea on the south : the richness or fertility of the soil. Ruæus Hodie, Candia. It was called Creta, from says, ferlili sinu.

Cres, who is said to have reigned there 96. Reduces: brought back, or returning after Jupiter. It is sometimes called in safety. Matrem. It is supposed that the Crete. Teucer, from whom the Trojans poet had in view the circumstance of Brutus, were sometimes called Teucri, and Troy, and the Tarquins, who went to Delphi to Teucria, was a native of this island. He consult the Oracle of Apollo, concerning was the son of Scamander; and, in the the succession to the kingdom. They re time of a famine, led a colony to Troas, ceived for answer, that the empire should and settled at Rheteum, a promontory on be his, who first kissed his great mother. the shore of the Hellespont. He was most Brutus, on leaving the ship, feigned a fall, probably the founder of the Trojans : and kissed the ground, which he considered whence Anchises calls him Maximus pater. as the great parent of all. He received the They were, however, very fond of deriving government, after the expulsion of the Tar their descent_from Dardanus, who fled quins, being chosen Consul. He was slain from Italy to Troas, and became the son-inby Aruns, one of the Tarquins, soon after law to Teucer. By marrying his daughter, he entered upon his office.

he obtained a share in the kingdom, and at 97. Domus Æneæ: here the family of his death succeeded him in the government. Æneas shall bear rule over all lands, &c. Crete is here called the island of great These two lines are taken from the Iliad. Jove; because it was the place of his birth Lib. 20. 306. It is there said, however, and education. See Georg. 1. 121. ihat Æneas should reign over the Trojans. 105. Cunabula : neu. plur. the cradle or Hence some have inferred that he remained nursing place of your race. in Troas, and that the whole account of the origo. Idæus: an adj. from Ida, a mountain origin of the Romans is a mere fiction, a in Crete. compliment only to Augustus. But Diony 106. Habitant: in the sense of occupant. sjus of Halicarnassus understands it of his Uberrima regna: most fertile realms. This reigning over the Trojans in Italy. And in answers to læto ubero, mentioned, 95, supra, this he is followed by Eustathius in his and tended to mislead Anchises. commentary upon this passage of the Iliad. 107. Audita : reports--iraqitions. It may be observed that Virgil does not say, 108. Rhæteas oras : the coast of Rheteum. Trojanis dominabitur, which answers to the Rholeum was a promontory of Troas, Greek of Honer ; but cunctis dominabitur where Teucer landed with his colony from oris. This circumstance hath led some to Crete. He introduced the wo alter the Greek text so as to conform to the bele, the mother of the gods, and gave to Roman.

the mountains of Phrygia the name of Ida, 101. Reverti : in the sense of procedere. from mount /da in Crete. He also changed Quò: in the sengo of ad que loca.

the name of Xanthus into that of Scam102. Monumenta : records, or inemorials. ander, after the name of his father. Hence These wero of various kinds; not only wric Homer says that the river was called X»

Ruæus says,

of Cy


Optavitque locum regno: nondum Ilium et arces

Pergameæ steterant; habitabant vallibus imis. 111. Hinc venit mater Hinc mater cultrix Cybele, Corybantiaque æra, Cybele

Idæumque nemus: hinc fida silentia sacris, 112, Hinc venerunt Et juncti currum dominæ subiere leones. fida silentia

Ergò agite, et, Divûm ducunt quà jussa, sequamur.

Placemus ventos, et Gnossia regna petamus. 116. Ila distant longo Nec longo distant cursu: modò Jupiter adsit,

Tertia lux classem Cretæis sister in oris.



NOTES. thus by the gods, but Scamander by men priests of Cybele, derived from the Greek. the former being its original, and more ho. During her worship, they made a confused norable name.

noise with timbrels, pipes, and cymbals. 109. Optavit : in the sense of elegit. Stra- They danced, tossed their heads, and struck bo agrees with Virgil in making Teucer the their foreheads against each other, appearfirst who reigned in Troy. Dardanus ar. ing like mad men. rived not long after, married his daughter They were sometimes called Cureles, Batea, and succeeded him in the govern- from a Greek word which signifies a virgin, ment.

because they wore a long robe like young 110. Pergameæ : in the sense of Trojana. virgins. They were also called Dactyli,

111. Cybele. The same with Rhea or Ops, from a Greek word signifying a finger, beand wife of Saturn. She is so called pro cause they were ten in number, there being bably from Cybelus, a mountain in Phrygia, so many fingers on both hands. The epiwhere she was worshipped. She is taken thet Idæi is here added, because they chiefly sometimes for the earth; and in that sense resided on mount Ida. is the common parent of all its inhabitants. Cybele is represented sitting on a car Her priests were called Corybantes, Curetes, with a robe of divers colors, and holding a and Idæi Dactyli. Among other things in key in her hand, to denote that she unlocks her worship, they used to beat brazen cym- and distributes in summer those treasures, bals together. The origin of this practice that the winter had hid and concealed. She was to prevent the cries of the child Jupiter wears a turreted crown on her head, and is from being heard by his father. Cybele is drawn by a pair of harnessed lions. The here called Cultrix, most probably because box and the pine tree were sacred to her: she was worshipped in a mountain of the former, because pipes were made of that Phrygia; whence might be said that she wood, and used in her worship; the latter inhabited it, and, as it were, became the for the sake of the boy Atys, whom she protectress of that country. This is the loved, and made president of her rites, or sense Ruæus gives. He says, protectrix loci. ceremonies : but afterwards changed him Æra: brazen cymbals. Any thing made of into the pine tree. Her sacrifices were perbrass may be called æs, or æru.

formed in private, and men were excluded Heyne reads Cybelæ, he gen. of Cybela, from participation. Silence was especially sometimes written Cybelus, the naine of a enjoined in her mysteries. This will exmountain in Phrygia. Mater Deûm, says plain fida silentia sacris, in the following he, qure colit, inhabilat Cybelen, moniem line. Phrygiæ : taking cultrix in the sense of quæ 112. Hinc fida: hence the faithful secrecy colit vel inhabitat. After the arrival of in her sacred rites. The mysteries of Cy. Teucer from Crete, he probably changed the bele, as we'l as those of Ceres, were carenanie of the mountain Cybela or Cybelus, fully concealed from the common people. calling it Ida, after the Cretan Ida.

Her chariot was drawn by harnessed lions, This goddess had several names: Cybele, juncti leones, to denote that maternal affecfrom the mountain already named, where it tion, figured by Cybele, or the earth, the is said she was first worshipped by sacrifi common parent of all, triumphs over the ces: Ops, from a word implying help, be most ferocious and savage natures. Subie. cause she brings help or assistance to every re: in the sense of traxerunt. Dominæ. production of nature: Rhea, from a Greek This is an epithet of Cybele, as being the word signifying to flow, because her benefits mother of the gods. flow without ceasing: Dindymene, from the 115. Gnossia : an adj. from Gnossus, the mountain Dindymus in Phrygia : Berecun principal city of Crete, put by synec. for the Ihza, from Berecynthus, a Castle in the same whole island. country. See Æn. vi. 784. She was also 116. Nec distant : nor are the realms of called Bona Dea, and Mater Deorum. Sce Creto a long way distant Modò: providea Ecl. iv. 6. and Geor. i. 121.

that in case that. Corybantia : an adj. from Corybantes, the 117. Lux: in the sense of dies

135 tore

Sic fatus, meritos aris mactavit honores :
Taurum Neptuno; taurum titi, pulcher Apollo ; 119 119. Mactavit taurum
Nigram Hyemi pecudern, Ze; hyris felicibus albam.

Neptuno; taurum tibi, Fama volat, pulsum regnis cessisse paternis

O pulcher

121. Fama volat duIdomenea ducem, desertaque litora Cretæ,

cem Idomenea, pulsum Hoste vacare domos, sedesque adstare relictas.

cessisse paternis regnis, Linquimus Ortygiæ portus, pelagoque volamus: litoraque Cretæ esse deBacchatamque jugis Naxon, viridemque Donysam, 125 serta, et domos vacare

nostro hoste Olearon, niveamque Paron, sparsasque per æquor

125. Legimusque NaxCycladas, et crebris legimus freta consita terris.

on bacchatam jugis, viNauticus exoritur vario certamine clamor.

ridemque Donysam Hortantur socii, Cretam proavosque petamus. Prosequitur surgens à puppi ventus euntes :

130 130. Nos euntes Et tandem antiquis Curetum allabimur oris. Ergò avidus muros optatæ molior urbis,

133. Vocoque urbem Pergameamque voco: et lætam cognomine gentem


135. Puppes subductes Hortor amare focos, arcemque attollere tectis.

sunt è mari in sicco liJamque ferè sicco subductæ litore puppes :

NOTES. 118. Mactavit : he offered-sacrificed. in that form around Delos. Freta consta : Honores : in the sense of victimas. And the straits set with many islands—the straits meritos : in the sense of dignos.

and narrow passes formed by the nume120. Hyemi. By hyemi we are here to rous islands, which diversified the sea. understand the stormy winds. They were 127. Legimus: we coast along the shore considered as a kind of divinities, and were we sail near. accordingly worshipped in order to avert 128. Certamine: in the sense of æmulatheir fury. Pecudem: in the sense of ovem. tione. Nauticus clamor: a shout of the sailors. Felicibus : in the sense of propitiis.

130. Surgens à puppi. This wind blew 122. Idomenea: an acc. of Greek ending. from the north : their course lay to the Idomeneus was the son Deucalion, and southward, and consequently it would be at grand-son of Minos, king of Crete. He their stern. was one of the leaders in the war against 131. Allabimur: we arrive at the ancient Troy. On his return, being overtaken in shores of the Curetes. These were the mia storm, he made a vow to the gods to nisters of Cybele, and thought by some to sacrifice to them whatsoever he should first be the same with the Corybantes and Ideer meet, if they would save him. This hap- Dactyli. Of ad and labor. See 111, supra. pened to be his own son. The father, how. The Curetes are said to have been the ori. ever, perforined his vow. A plague soon ginal inhabitants of Crete ; froin whom the arising in his country, and his subjects con island probably took its name. sidering him to have been the cause of it by 132. Molior: in the sense of extruo. this inhuman deed, rose against him, and 133. Pergamea:n. Pliny mentions Perexpelled him from his kingdom. Litora de- gamus, ainong the cities of Crete. Homer serla: the shores to be deserted—left with- calls it, the hundred-city island. It is said out a guard, or defence.

to have had a hundred cities. Gentem 123. Sedes relictas adstare: that the coun tam : my people delighted with the name. try being abandoned, lies open to us. Sedes: Gentem, in the sense of populum, vel socios. in the sense of regiones.

134. Amare focos: to love their homes 124. Ortygia. The ancient name of De- to keep close at home, and not wander los was Ortygia, from a Greek word signi- abroad, until they should discover the disfying a quail : those fowls having abounded position or the inhabitants towards them. in that island.

This agrees with the following injunction : 125. Bacchatam: frequer ted in its moun attollere arcem tectis, to raise a tower on tains by the priests of Bacchus-whose their houses in case of an attack, the better mountains resounded with the tumultuous to defend themselves.

tings of the Bacchanals. Viridem Do Servius thinks Æneas here intends to nysam. This island was famous for its recommend to his people to cultivate the green marble, as Paros was for its pure white study of religion. It is an unneressary remarble. See 75. supra.

finement. Focos : properly the fire-places, 127. Cycladas sparsas.

These were a or hearth, by synec. put for the whole house, number of Islands, so called from a Greek in this place: also sometimes for the fire on word sgnifying a circle, because they lay the hearth, by meton.



136. Juventus operata Connubiis arvisque novis operata juventus : est connubiis

Jura domosque dabam: subitò cùm tabida membris, 137. Tabida, miserandaque lues, tractu cæli Corrupto cæli tractu, miserandaque venit corrupto, venit eorum Arboribusque satisque lues, et letifer annus. membris, arboribusque Linquebant dulces animas, aut ægra trahebant 140 satisque, et est Corpora : tum steriles exurere Sirius agros. letifer

Arebant herbæ, et victum seges ægra negabat. 141. Sirius cæpit exu

Rursus ad orâclum Ortygiæ Phæbumque remenso 143. Pater hortatur Hortatur pater ire mari, veniamque precari: me ire rursus ad oracu- Quem fessis finem rebus ferat; unde laborum 145 lum

Tentare auxilium jubeat ; quò vertere cursus. 145. Et quærere quem Nox erat, et terris animalia somnus habebat. finem

Effigies sacræ Divûm, Phrygiique Penates, 150. Visi sunt adstare Quos mecum à Trojâ mediisque ex ignibus urbis ante oculos mei jacentis Extuleram, visi ante oculos adstare jacentis

150 insomnis

Insomnis, multo manifesti lumine: quà se 153. Tum sic visi sunt Plena per insertas fundebat Luna fenestras. affari me, et

Tum sic affari, et curas his demere dictis : 154. Apollo canit hic idem. quod dicturus est Quod tibi delato Ortygiam dicturus Apollo est, tibi delato ad

Hìc canit: et tua nos en ultrò ad limina mittit. 155 156. Nos secuti sumus Nos te, Dardaniâ incensâ, tuaque arma secuti; te, tuaque

Nos tumidum sub te permensi classibus æquor; 158. Nos iidem tolle

lidem venturos tollemus in astra nepotes, 159. Imperium orbis Imperiumque urbi dabimus. Tu mænia magnis tuce urbi

Magna para, longuinque fugæ ne linque laborem. 160




136. Juventus operata : the youth had when the heat of the sun is most intense. sacrificed for their nuptials, and new lands. It is sometimes called canicula. They were prepared for contracting mar 142. Ægra seges: the diseased, or sickly riages, and for commencing the business of crop-C agriculture.

144. Precari veniam : to supplicate his It was a custom among the Romans to favor, or assistance. offer sacrifices before they entered upon 145. Fessis rebus : to our afflicted state, marriage, or any important business of life. or condition. Ferat: in the sense of ponat. To this, the poet alludes. Sacrificabant pro Laborum : distress-sufferings. Tentare : felici successu conjugiorum, et agrorum.

in the sense of quærere. 137. Dabam: in the sense of distribuebam. 146. Auxilium laborum : relief in our Jura : justice among my people. Domos: sufferings. either the houses that had been abandoned 148. Efigies : forms, or figures. Ruæus by the inhabitants; or the places where says statuæ. Penates. See Æn. ii. 717. they should build houses for themselves. 151. Insomnis: awake; an adj. agreeing

139. Tabidu miserandnque: a wasting and with mei jacentis. Most editors separate pitiable disease came upon their limbs, &c. the word into in and somnis, in my sleep. This disease, or plague, was occasioned by This is evidently incorrect : for if he had the infection of the air. Cæli: in the sense been asleep, the light of the moon would of aëris Tractu : a space, tract, or region, have been unnecessary. Besides, verse 173 Satis. Satn, properly, crops—any thing infra, he declares it was no delusion of the planted and growing; from the verb sero. fancy in sleep. Manifesti : in the sense of Here, in the serise of segetes.

conspicui. 140. Animas : lives. .Anima properly 152. Insertas fenestras : windows inserted, signifies the animal life; animus, the soul. or made in the side of the house. Fenestras, Dr. Trapp thinks the expression an odd one, quæ sunt in pariete, says Heyne. Fundebat and propeses to change linquebant to red se: in the sense of mittebat se; simply, debant. Ruæus says, amittebant. The dif- shone. ficulty is removed by rendering dulces ani 154. Delato : carried back, or returned mas, sweet, or dear lives.

to Delos. Canit : declares, or reveals. 141. Sirius: the dog-star; a pestilential 160. Para magna : prepare a great city, constellation, rising about the end of July, Populis, or some word of the like import, is

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