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This book contains the annals of seven years, and is replete with geographical and his.

torical information. Nor is it wanting in fine specimens of poetry, and in interesting incidents. The joy of Æneas at finding Helenus and Andromache on the ihrone of Epirus—their happy meeting—their tender and affectionaie parting ths description of

Scylla and Charybdis, and the episode of the Cyclops, are all worthy of the poet. In this book, Virgil in a particular manner follows the Odyssey of Homer.

POSTQUAM res Asiæ Priamique evertere gentem 1. Postquam visum Immeritam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum

est Superis evertere res

Asiæ
Ilium, et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troja :
Diversa exilia, et desertas quærere terras,
Auguriis agimur Divûm : classemque sub ipsa

5
Antandro, et Phrygiæ molimur montibus Idæ :
Incerti quò fata ferant, ubi sistere detur ;

7. Ferart' nos, ubi deContrahimusque viros. Vix prima inceperat æstas,

tur nobis sistere pedem Et pater Anchises dare fatis vela jubebat.

NOTES.

1. Res Asiæ : the power of Asia. tor-by the lambent flame on the head of

2. Immeritam : undeserving such a cala- Ascanius—and by the interview which he mity. The ruin of their country was owing had with the ghost of Creusa. Ominibus to the crimes of Paris and Laomedon. See Deorum, says Ruæus. Geor. i. 502, and Æn. i. Visum Superis : it 6. Antandro. Antandros was a city of pleased, or seemed good to the gods. This the lesser Phrygia, at the foot of mount Ida, was a common mode of expression, when and a convenient place to build and equip a events were not prosperous. The verb est

fleet. Molimur: in the sense of fabricamus. is to be supplied with visum. 3. Neptunia. Troy is here called Nep- surprised to hear Æneas express any doubt

7. Incerti quò. We may be somewhat tunean, because Neptune, with Apollo, it is

as to his course and intended settlement. said, built its walls in the reign of Laomedon. Homer and Virgil ascribe the build. He had been distinctly informed by the ing of the walls to Neptune alone. Ruæus destined for him in the counsels of the gods:

ghost of his wife, that Italy was the place takes llium to mean the citadel of Troy, he could not therefore have given full creand distinguishes it from the whole town, dence to the account; or the dangers and which is here expressed by, omnis Troja. difficulties of the undertaking might have Homer uses Ilios, and Ovid, lion. Fumat. filled his mind with anxious and distrustful The present here is much more expressive apprehensions : or perhaps it is a passage than the past tense would have been: which the author would have corrected, if smokes to the ground.

he had lived to revise his work. 4. Diversa : in the sense of remota, or longinqua. Although the Trojans, under

8. Prima æstas. Scaliger thinks that different leaders, as Æneas, Helenus, and Troy was taken about the full moon, and Antenor, settled in different regions, yet near the end of spring, and that Æneas set diversa exilia plainly refers to Æneas and his

out the beginning of summer. But it is followers only, who were all appointed to

evident that it would require a greater go in quest of the same settlement. Doser- length of time to build a fieet, and make tas terras : unoccupied—uncultivated lands; other preparations for his long voyage. If where they might settle in peace. Or, we

he be correct in the time of the capture of may suppose Æneas to speak the language Troy, the prima æstas, with more propriety, of his heart at that time. Having the dis- will mean the beginning of the summer of mal idea of the destruction of his country the following year. This better agrees with fresh in his mind, and the uncertain prospect history. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, inof a settlement in some unknown land, (in- forms us that he collected an army and forcerti quò fata ferant, ubi sistere detur,) it tified himself on mount Ida; but not thinkwas natural for him to have uncomfortable ing it prudent to engage the enemy, he caapprehensions of the country to which he pitulated on honorable terms; one of which was going ; to call it an exile, or place of was, that he should be allowed to depar banishment, a land of solitude and deser- from Troas with his followers without mo tion. Some read diversas, for desertas.

lestation, after a certain time, which he ern5. Auguriis Divûm : by the intimations, ployed in building and equipping a fleet. or prodigies of the gods. This refers to 9. Fatis: quò fata vellent, says Ruæus the several prophetic intimations given to Propter jussa et monila Deorum, says Hex him of his future fate by the ghost of Hec. Some copies have ventis

arant

Litora tum patriæ lachrymans, portusque relinquo, 10
Et

campos, ubi Troja fuit : feror exul in altum,
Cum sociis, natoque, Penatibus, et magnis Dis.

Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis, 14. Quam Thraces Thraces arant, acri quondam regnata Lycurgo:

Hospitium antiquum Trojæ, sociique Penates, 15 15. Fuit antiquum Dum fortuna fuit. Feror huc, et litore curvo hospitium Trojæ, cujus Mænia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis : nostris, dum fortuna fuit Eneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo. nobis

Sacra Dionææ matri, Divisque ferebam 22. Quo summo erant

Auspicibus cæptorum operum : superoque nitentem 20 cornea virgulta, et myr

Cælicolùm regi mactabam in litore taurum. tus horrida densis Fortè fuit juxtà tumulus, quo cornea summo

NOTES. 10. Lachrymans. The shedding of tears There had been a long and friendly alliis an indication of compassion and humani ance between the two countries, by virtue of ty. It is not inconsistent with true fortitude which the Thracians gave a hospitable reand greatness of mind, and no way unbe ception to all strangers from Troy; and the coining a hero. But there is no necessity Trojans, in turn, repaid the kindness by of understanding it here, and in various civilities to the Thracians. This hospitaliother passages where it occurs, as if Æneas ty was sometimes between whole nations, actually shed tears. Ruæus takes it in the between one city and another, and somesense of lugens, grieving at the idea of times between particular families. Polymleaving his native country, and at the pros- nestor, king of Thrace, married Ilione, the pect of the dangers which were before him. daughter of Priam. By these means the

12. Magnis Dîs. The great gods were two nations became related in their respecJupiter, Juno, Mars, Pallas, Mercury, and tive heads: and their gods might be said to Apollo; sometimes called the Dii majorum be allied, confederate, and friends, in consegentium. The Penates were domestic gods, quence of it. without any particular name. The images

17. Prima mania: I place my first walls. of all these gods Æneas took with him into The city which Æneas first founded, we Italy, and introduced their worship, as we are told, he called Ænos. It was not far are told, into Latium, after he was settled from the mouth of the Hebrus, on the shore in that kingdom. Some take the Magnis of the Ægean sea. The tomb of PolydoDis to be the same with the Penatibus. rus was near this place. Ingressus : having See Geor. ii. 505. and Æn. ii. 717.

entered upon the business with fates unkind 13. Mavortia terra : a martial land.— -against the will and purposes of the gods, Thrace is so called, because said to be the who directed him to the land of Dardanus. birthplace of Mars. This was a very exten 18. Fingo Æneadas: I call the inhabi. sive country, bounded on the east by the tants Æntada, a name derived from my Euxine sea, south by the Propontis, Helles

Fingo : in the sense of voco. pont, and Ægean sea, and on the West by 19. Dionææ : an adj. from Dione, the moMacedonia. Colitur : in the sense of habis ther of Venus. Matri: to his mother, Venus.

Procul. This word sometimes sig. Sacra: in the sense of sacrificia. And ferenifies near, in view, as if pro oculis, as in bam: in the sense of offerebam. Ecl. vi. 16. In this sense it may be taken 20. Auspicibus : the favorers or patrons here; for Thrace was only a short distance of our work begun. It is put in apposition from the port where Æneas set sail. But it with Divis. may have reference to Carthage, the place 21. Mactabam: I was sacrificing a shining where he then was ; and then it may be bull to the high king of the gods. taken in its usual acceptation.

Servius tells us that a bull was one of 14. Acri Lycurgo: warlike Lycurgus. He those animals forbidden to be offered in sawas the son of Dryas. Being offended at crifice to Jove; and thinks Virgil, designBacchus, it is said, he banished him and his edly, makes Æneas offer here an unlawful votaries from his kingdom; and ordered all sacrifice, in order to introduce the inanspithe vines to be destroyed in his dominions. cious omen that followed. But La Cerda For which impiety the god deprived him of assures us, upon the best authority, that it his sight. Regnata, refers to terra: govern was usual to sacrifice bulls to Jupiter, as ed, or ruled.

well as to the other gods. Nitentem. Ruæus 15. Hospitium : an ancient retreat of says, pinguem: and Heyne, candidum. Troy, and its gods were our friends, while 22. Tumulus : a rising ground, or hillock. fortune was with us.

Quo summo : on whose top. Cornea: an

name.

tatur.

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Virgulta, et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus.
Accessi, viridemque ab humo convellere sylvam
Conatus, ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras :
Horrendum et dictu video mirabile monstrum.
Nam, quæ prima solo, ruptis radicibus, arbos
Vellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttæ,
Et terram tabo maculant. Mihi frigidus horror
Membra quatit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis.
Rursus et alterius lentum convellere vimen
Insequor, et causas penitùs tentare latentes :

Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis.
Multa movens animo, Nymphas venerabar agrestes,
Gradivumque patrem, Geticis qui præsidet arvis,
Ritè secundarent visus, omenque levarent.
Tertia sed postquam majore hastilia nixu
Aggredior, genibusque adversæ obluctor arenæ :
Eloquar, an sileam ? gemitus lachrymabilis imo
Auditur tumulo, et vox reddita fertur ad aures :
Quid miserum, Ænea, laceras ? jam parce sepulto,
Parce pias scelerare manus: (non me tibi Troja
Externum tulit): haud cruor hic de stipite manat.

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NOTES.

adj. of the corneil tree. Densis hastilibus. in time of peace. Its derivation is uncertain. The long and tapering branches of a tree Geticis : an adj. from Getæ, a people bormay not improperly be called hastilia, spears. dering upon the Ister, or Danube; here put There is a peculiar propriety in the use of for Thracian, on account of the vicinity of the word here, as being the spears with the two countries: or, because Thrace was which the body of Polydorus had been trans- thought to extend, indefinitely, to the North. fixed ; and had sprung up into a thick 36. Secundarent. Two omens were rebody of trees or shrubs. Horrida : awful. quired for confirmation: if the first happened Ruæus says, aspera,

to be unlucky, and the second prosperous, 24. Sylvam : in the sense, here, of ramos

the latter destroyed the former, and was vel ramum.

termed omen secundum; and hence secundo, 26. Monstrum: in the sense of prodigiun. to prosper. Æneas, therefore, wished to

27. Arbos: a shrub, bush, or small tree. have the omen repeated, that the bad or unSolo: from the earth.

lucky import of it might be removed, or 28. Huic : in the sense of ex hâc. Liqu- taken away. Visus : vision, acc. plu. Leuntur : in the sense of defluunt. Atro san varent : in the sense of averterent. guine: in the sense of atri sanguinis. The

37. Tertia hastilia : a third shrub or tree. prep. e or ex is understood.

29. Horror: in the sense of tremor. Mihi: Nicu: in the sense of vi. in the sense of mea.

38. Aggredior: I attempt, or try to pull 30. Sanguis gelidus : my blood, chilled up, &c. He exerted himself to eradicate through fear, collects together-ceases to it, with his knees upon the ground, that he

might have the greater purchase, or power. flow in its regular course.

32. Insequor : I proceed to tear up. Vi- Adverse : opposite, right against his knees, men lentum : a limber, or pliant shoot or

40. Reddila : in the sense of emissa ex eo. shrub.

42. Parce scelerare : forbear to pollute 34. Venerabar Nymphas. These rustic your pious hands. It was the law of the nymphs, to whom Æneas here prays, were Twelve Tables, and, indeed, it is the voice of probably the Hamadryades, whose destiny humanity, that no injury be done to the was connected with that of some particular dead: defuncti injuriâ ne aficiantur. The trees, with which they lived and died. ghost of Polydorus, therefore, calls out to Æneas might consider thi

horrid omen, as

Æneas : purce jam sepulto: let me alone : an indication of their displeasure, for his leave me, at least, to my rest in the grave. offering to violate those pledges of their 43. Externum non. Polydorus was the existence. Movens : in the sense of volvens. son of Priam, and the brother of Creüsa, the 35. Gradivum patrem : Mars.

We are

wife of Æneas. He was therefore not a told that Gradivus was an epithet, or name, stranger or foreigner, in the truest sense of of Mars in time of war, as Quirinus was the word, to Æneas. Cicero makes himn the

rat

cum

Heu ! fuge crudeles terras, fuge litus avarum 45. Ferrea seges te. Nam Polydorus ego : hìc confixum ferrea texit 45 lorum texit me confixum Telorum seges, et jaculis increvit acutis. hic 47. Pressus quoad

Tum verò ancipiti mentem formidine pressus mentem ancipiti

Obstupui, steteruntque comæ, et vox faucibus hæsit. 49. Quondam infelix Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno Priamus furtim mandâ- Infelix Priamus furtim mandârat alendum

50 hunc Polydorum Threïcio regi ; cùm jam diffideret armis Threïcio regi alendum,

Dardaniæ, cingique urbem obsidione videret. magno pondere auri

Ille, ut opes fractæ Teucrûm, et fortuna recessit, 53. Ille, nempe Polym- Res Agamemnonias victriciaquearma secutus, nestor, ut opes Teucrúm Fas omne abrumpit, Polydorum obtruncat, et auro 55 fractæ sunt

Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis,
Auri sacra fames! Postquam pavor ossa reliquit,

Delectos populi ad proceres, primùmque parentem, 59. Quæ sit eorum Monstra Deùm refero; et, quæ sit sententia, posco. sententia de iis.

Omnibus idem animus, sceleratâ excedere terrâ, 60 60. Est idem animus omnibus excedere

Linquere pollutum hospitium, et dare classibus Austros.
Ergò instauramus Polydoro funus, et ingens
Aggeritur tumulo tellus: stant manibus aræ,
Cæruleis meestæ vittis atrâque cupresso:

NOTES.

son of lione, the daughter of Priam, and gold, what dost thou not force the hearts of wife of Polymnestor, king of Thrace. Tulit: men to perpetrate! The word sacer signiproduced, or bore. Stipite: the body, or fies, usually, sacred, holy: here, accursed, trunk.

execrable. The word facere or perpetrare, 45. Ferrea seges. To understand this pas- is to be supplied. Heyne says, ad quid: to sage, we may suppose that these darts were what, &c. thrown in upon the body of Polydorus as he 59. Monstra Deûm : the prodigies of the lay in the grave; which they pierced : and, gods. Primùm: in the sense of præcipuè. taking root in that place, sprang up, and Heyne says, primo loco grew in the form of sharp pointed javelins, 61. Hospilium: in the sense of locum forming a shade over the tomb. Heyne Dare austros classibus: to give the winds to says: excreverunt in arbores unde jacula pe- the fleet. In the sense of dare vela ventis, tuntur.

Auster, is here taken for the wind in gene46. Increvit aculis : grew up into sharp ral: the species for the genus. The south javelins : into trees like sharp javelins. wind would have been against him, going

47. Pressus : in the sense of percussus. from Thrace to Delos. Ancipiti : dubia, says Ruæus.

62. Instauramus funus : we perform the 50. Mandârat : in the sense of miserat. funeral rites to Polydorus. He had not 51. Diffideret : in the sense of desperaret. been buried with the usual solemnities, a Dardaniæ : in the sense of Troja. See Æn. matter which the ancients considered of i. 1.

great moment. These rites were called 53. Opes Teucrûm : the power of the justa. Without them, they thought the soul Trojans was broken. Ut: in the sense of wandered 100 years without any rest. Virquando.

gil here gives a full account of the funeral 54. Res Agamemnonias : embracing (se- rites performed by the Romans, at the cutus) the Grecian cause, and their victo- interment of the dead. rious arms, he breaks every sacred obliga 63. Ingens tellus : a huge pile of earth is tion. Agamemnon was captain general of thrown up for the tomb. Aræ stant manithe Grecian forces in the expedition against bus. It appears that two altars were conTroy. His interest, therefore, is the general secrated to the Manes. See 305, infra, interest of the Greeks. Fas: properly a also, Ecl. v. 66. By manibus here, we are divine, or sacred law. By the murder of to understand the soul or spirit of Polydorus. Polydorus, he broke through the ties of 64. Mæstæ: mournful dressed in mournconsanguinity, hospitality, and friendship; ing. These fillets were of a deep purple or which are considered of a sacred nature. violet color a color between blue and black.

57. Sacra fames auri: O cursed desire of Rueus says, tristes.

Et circùm Iliades crinem de more solutæ.

65 65. Iliades, solutze Inferimus tepido spumantia cymbia lacte,

quoad crinem de moro.

stant circum
Sanguinis et sacri pateras : animamque sepulchro
Condimus, et magnâ supremùm voce ciemus.
Inde ubi prima fides pelago, placataque venti

69. Prima fides est pe69

lago. Dant maria, et lenis crépitans vocat Auster in altum;

72. Recedunt à nostro Deducunt socii naves, et litora complent.

aspectu Provehimur portu, terræque urbesque recedunt.

73. Gratissima tellus Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus

sacra matri Nereïdum, Nereïdum matri et Neptuno Ægæo:

et Ægæo:

75. Quam errantem Quam pius Arcitenens oras et litora circum

75 anieà circum oras, et Errantem, Mycone celsa Gyaroque revinxit;

litora

NOTES.

65. Soluto crinem: loose as to their hair but if he should fail in the attempt, the ship -having their hair loose or dishevelled. should return with black sails. See Ecl. i. 55.

Theseus, on his return, forgot to hang out 66. Inferimus cymbia: we offer bowls the white flag, through grief for his beloved foaming with warm milk, and goblets of the Ariadne, whom Bacchus had ravished from consecrated blood. From the verb infero, him. The father, who was expecting him is formed inferiæ, sacrifices for the dead, with impatience, as soon as he, from the top which consisted in pouring into or upon the of a high rock, saw the ship in mourning, grave, milk and the blood of a victim slain, threw himself into the sea, supposing his as here mentioned.

son to have been slain. Ægeus was king of 67. Condimus animam: we place, or bury Athens. the soul in the grave. Ruæus says, claudi The islands in the southern part of this mus animam.

sea were called Sporades, from a Greek word It was a prevailing opinion among the which signifies, to scatter, or sow; because Romans and Greeks, that the soul could not they lay as if scattered or sown, without orrest without burial; for this reason, they der or regularity. The islands farther north were so anxious about funeral rites. Hence were called Cyclades, from a Greek word conditorium came to signify a burial-place. signifying a circle, because they lay around Et supremùm: and lastly, we call upon him Delos in the form of a circle. Hodie, the with a loud voice. This they did, to call Archipelago. the soul to its place of its rest, and to take Neptune is here called Ægean, because the last farewell

, by pronouncing the word he was supposed to have his residence in vale, three times. Ciemus: in the sense of the Ægean sea. conclamamus. See Æn. i. 219.

75. Arcilenens. This was an epithet of 69. Fides: confidence—security. Pla- Apollo; also a name of Apollo, as in this cata : in the sense of quieta, vel tranquilla. place; compounded of arcus and toneo. He It agrees with maria.

is here called pius, because, it is said, that 70. Auster : properly the south wind; as soon as he was born, he slew the serpent here taken for wind in general. Crepitans: Python, which Juno sent to persecute his murmuring-—rustling-blowing gently. mother Latona. Pierius would read priùs,

73. Gratissima tellus. The island Delos instead of pius, connecting it with erranter. is meant, the birth-place of Apollo and Di- He assures us that it is found in several an

Matri Nereïdum: to Doris, the wife cient copies. of Nereus, and mother of fifty sea-nymphs, Delos is a small island in the Ægean sea called Nereides. Colitur : in the sense of in lat. 37° 30' north, having Mycone on the incolitur, vel habitatur.

north-east, Gyarus and Naxus on the east 74. Ægæo. That part of the Mediter- and south, and Rhena on the west. ranean sea, lying betweer. Asia on the east, The fable is this: Juno being angry at and the Morea, Attica, and Thessaly on the her husband for loving Latona, resolved she west, was called the Ægean sea ; from should have no place to bring forth in peace. Ægeus, the father of Thescus, who threw Jupiter directed her to Delos, which was himself into it, and was drowned, expecting then a floating or wandering island, as a that son, who had undertaken to fight place of safe retreat. Apollo, after his birth, the Minotaur, was slain.

fixed and rendered it immoveable, for the The fable is this: it was agreed between residence of his mother. Its original name the father and son, that if he subdued the was Orlygia. This was changed into the monster, and returned victorious, he should name Delos, which, in the Greek, signifies hang out a white flag, or have white sails: apparent, or brought to view, it having been

ana.

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