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799. Illi convenere 800 undique, parati animia
opibusque sequi me
Undique convenere, animis opibusque parati,
Jamque jugis summæ surgebat Lucifer Idæ,
them over the sea. Pubem : in the sense of city being completely in the possession of juventutem.
the Greeks. 801. Jugis summæ Ide. Mount Ida lay 804. Cessi: I yielded to my fate. Dr. to the east of Troy, and, consequently, Trapp renders it, I retired; but it is much Lucifer, Venus or the Morning Star, as it is better to understand it as an expression of called when going before the sun, appeared the piety and resignation of Æneas, espeto those at Troy to rise from the top (jugis) cially if we consider what immediately preof that mountain. Summæ : in the sense of cedes : nec spes opis ulla dabatur. Genitore alta.
sublato. This instance of filial piety is highly 803. Opis. Ruæus interprets this by aux- pleasing. A modern coinmander would ilii; but it may mean wealth-property: never have subinitted to the task of bearing and by the expression we may understand, such a load; but would have assigned it to that there was now no hope of obtaining a servant, or imposed it upon a soldier. any more of their wealth or property, the Ruæus says, ferens patrem.
QUESTIONS. What is the subject of this book ?
What office did Sinon perform upon this What is its character, when compared occasion? with the rest?
Did the Grecian troops return from TeHow long did the siege of Troy continue? nedos, and join their friends? How was it taken at the last ?
How were they received into the city ? To whom was this horse designed as a In what state were the Trojans at this present?
time ? In return for what?
Were they aware of any such treachery? What was the Palladium ?
Finding the city in the hands of the enemy, By whom was it taken from the temple of what course did Æneas pursue? Minerva ?
What were some of his actions ? After building the horse, what did the Where were his last efforts made to avenge Greeks do?
his country? How far was Tenedos from Troas ?
What became of Priam? Did they pretend that they were about to What were the last actions of the aged return home, and relinquish the siege? monarch?
Did this obtain belief among the Trojans ? What particularly roused his indignation
What was the real object of the Greeks against Pyrrhus ? in building this horse?
By whom was Priam slain? Who acted a very distinguished part in What was the manner of it? this business?
What were the circumstances of it? What is the character of Sinon?
Where was Æneas during these transacWho opposed the adınission of this horse tions? within the walls?
What did he do, after he beheld the death What prodigy happened just at this time, of Priam ? which overcame all doubts in the minds of Under whose conduct did he pass in safety the Trojans ?
through his enemies ? Who was Laocoon?
Did Æneas receive direction to leave the To what office had he been appointed by city, and to seek his safety in flight? lot?
How did he receive it! From whom? What was the design of offering sacrifice What was the determination of his father to Neptune at this time?
Anchises ? What did this horse contain?
What effect had his refusal upon the mind How did it enter into the city?
of Æneas ? Where was it placed ?
What did his wife Creusa do upon this How many names has the poet invented' occasion? for this engine of destruction?
How was the determination of Anchises, What time was the assault made upon the not to survive the capture of the city,
What were the prodigies that effected that What effect had her loss upon him at the change?
first? To what place did he retire?
How was his mind quieted ? How did he convey his father?
What directions did her apparition give How his son Ascanius?
him? What direction did he give his wife After his return to the place of rendez Creüsa?
vous, did he find great numbers there colDid he arrive in safety to the place ap- lected? pointed ?
Did they consider him their leader and What became of his wife?
king? What did he do in consequence of her Were they prepared and willing to underloss ?
take any enterprise, he might think proper ?
Æneas, having finished the sack of Troy, proceeds to relate to Dido the particulars of his
voyage. Having built a fleet of twenty ships near Antandros, he set sail in the spring, probably, of the year following the capture of Troy. He landed on the shores of Thrace, and there commenced the building of a city, which he called, after his own name, Ænos, and the inhabitants, Æneade. He was, however, soon interrupted in the prosecution of his work, by the shade of Polydorus, the son of Priam. He had been barbarously put to death by Polymnestor, king of Thrace, his brother-in-law, and buried in this place. It directed him to leave the polluted land, and to seek another clime for
his intended city. Having performed the funeral rites to Polydorus, he set sail, directing his course to the
south; and soon arrived on the coast of Delos, one of the Cyclades. Here he was hospitably received by Anius, king of the island, and priest of Apollo. He was directed by the oracle to seek the land of his ancestors; there he should found a city, which should bear rule over all nations. This information was joyfully received. Whereupon, they concluded that Crete, the birth-place of Teucer, was the land to which the oracle
directed them. Leaving Delos, in a short time they arrive on the shores of Crete. They hail it with
joy as the termination of their wanderings. Here Æneas lays the foundation of a city which he called Pergama, and was preparing to enter upon the business of agriculture, when a sudden plague arose, which put an end to his prospects, and carried off many of his companions. In this juncture, it was agreed that he should go back to Delos, to obtain further instructions. In the mean time, in a vision, he was informed that Crete was not the land destined to hiin, and that the oracle of Apollo intended he should seek Italy, the land of Dardanus. This quieted his mind; and Anchises acknowledged that both Teucer and Dardanus were the founders of their race, and that he had been mis
taken in reckoning their descent in the line of Teucer. Æneas, without delay, leaves Crete; and in a few days arrived on the coast of the Stro
phades, in the Ionian sea, on the west of the Peloponnesus. Here he landed with his feet, and found these islands in the possession of the Harpies. Celæno, one of them, informed him, that, before he should found a city, they should be reduced to the necessity of consuming their tables. This was the first intimation which he had received of want
and suffering, in the land destined to him. It sunk deep into his mind. Leaving these islands, he directed his course westward, and soon arrived on the coast of
Epirus. He landed at Actium, ana celebrated the Trojan games. From Actium, he proceeded to that part of Epirus called Chaonia. On his entering the
harbor, he heard that Helenus, the son of Priam, sat upon the throne of Pyrrhus, and that Andromache had become his wife. Desirous of hearing the truth of this report, he proceeds direct to Buthrotus, the seat of government. Here, to his great joy, he finds his friends, and remained with them for some time. Helenus, at their departure, loads them with presents. Andromache gives to Ascanius alone, who was the exact
picture of her son Astyanax. From Epirus, Æneas passes over the Ionian sea, and arrives at the promontory läpygium.
Thence he sails down the coast of Magna Græcia, and the eastern shore of Sicily, to tha promontory Pachynum ; thence along the southern shore to the port of Drepanum, whøse be lost his father Anchises; which concludes the book.
This book contains the annals of seven years, and is replete with geographical and his.
torical information. Nor is it wanting in fine specimens of poetry, and in interesting incidents. The joy of Æneas at finding Helenus and Andromache on the ihrone of Epirus—their happy meeting—their tender and affectionaie parting ths description of
Scylla and Charybdis, and the episode of the Cyclops, are all worthy of the poet. In this book, Virgil in a particular manner follows the Odyssey of Homer.
POSTQUAM res Asiæ Priamique evertere gentem 1. Postquam visum Immeritam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum
est Superis evertere res
7. Ferart' nos, ubi deContrahimusque viros. Vix prima inceperat æstas,
tur nobis sistere pedem Et pater Anchises dare fatis vela jubebat.
1. Res Asiæ : the power of Asia. tor-by the lambent flame on the head of
2. Immeritam : undeserving such a cala- Ascanius—and by the interview which he mity. The ruin of their country was owing had with the ghost of Creusa. Ominibus to the crimes of Paris and Laomedon. See Deorum, says Ruæus. Geor. i. 502, and Æn. i. Visum Superis : it 6. Antandro. Antandros was a city of pleased, or seemed good to the gods. This the lesser Phrygia, at the foot of mount Ida, was a common mode of expression, when and a convenient place to build and equip a events were not prosperous. The verb est
fleet. Molimur: in the sense of fabricamus. is to be supplied with visum. 3. Neptunia. Troy is here called Nep- surprised to hear Æneas express any doubt
7. Incerti quò. We may be somewhat tunean, because Neptune, with Apollo, it is
as to his course and intended settlement. said, built its walls in the reign of Laomedon. Homer and Virgil ascribe the build. He had been distinctly informed by the ing of the walls to Neptune alone. Ruæus destined for him in the counsels of the gods:
ghost of his wife, that Italy was the place takes llium to mean the citadel of Troy, he could not therefore have given full creand distinguishes it from the whole town, dence to the account; or the dangers and which is here expressed by, omnis Troja. difficulties of the undertaking might have Homer uses Ilios, and Ovid, lion. Fumat. filled his mind with anxious and distrustful The present here is much more expressive apprehensions : or perhaps it is a passage than the past tense would have been: which the author would have corrected, if smokes to the ground.
he had lived to revise his work. 4. Diversa : in the sense of remota, or longinqua. Although the Trojans, under
8. Prima æstas. Scaliger thinks that different leaders, as Æneas, Helenus, and Troy was taken about the full moon, and Antenor, settled in different regions, yet near the end of spring, and that Æneas set diversa exilia plainly refers to Æneas and his
out the beginning of summer. But it is followers only, who were all appointed to
evident that it would require a greater go in quest of the same settlement. Doser- length of time to build a fieet, and make tas terras : unoccupied—uncultivated lands; other preparations for his long voyage. If where they might settle in peace. Or, we
he be correct in the time of the capture of may suppose Æneas to speak the language Troy, the prima æstas, with more propriety, of his heart at that time. Having the dis- will mean the beginning of the summer of mal idea of the destruction of his country the following year. This better agrees with fresh in his mind, and the uncertain prospect history. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, inof a settlement in some unknown land, (in- forms us that he collected an army and forcerti quò fata ferant, ubi sistere detur,) it tified himself on mount Ida; but not thinkwas natural for him to have uncomfortable ing it prudent to engage the enemy, he caapprehensions of the country to which he pitulated on honorable terms; one of which was going ; to call it an exile, or place of was, that he should be allowed to depar banishment, a land of solitude and deser- from Troas with his followers without mo tion. Some read diversas, for desertas.
lestation, after a certain time, which he ern5. Auguriis Divûm : by the intimations, ployed in building and equipping a fleet. or prodigies of the gods. This refers to 9. Fatis: quò fata vellent, says Ruæus the several prophetic intimations given to Propter jussa et monila Deorum, says Hex him of his future fate by the ghost of Hec. Some copies have ventis
Litora tum patriæ lachrymans, portusque relinquo, 10
Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis, 14. Quam Thraces Thraces arant, acri quondam regnata Lycurgo: Hospitium antiquum Trojæ, sociique Penates,
15 15. Fuit antiquum Dum fortuna fuit. Feror huc, et litore curvo hospitium Troja, cujus Mænia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis : nostris, dum fortuna fuit Æneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo. nobis
Sacra Dionææ matri, Divisque ferebam 22. Quo summo erant Auspicibus cæptorum operum : superoque nitentem 20 cornea virgulta, et myr
Cælicolûm regi mactabam in litore taurum. tus horrida densis Fortè fuit juxtà tumulus, quo cornea summo
NOTES. 10. Lachrymans. The shedding of tears There had been a long and friendly alliis an indication of compassion and humani- ance between the two countries, by virtue of ty. It is not inconsistent with true fortitudo which the Thracians gave a hospitable reand greatness of mind, and no way unbe- ception to all strangers from Troy; and the coining a hero. But there is no necessity Trojans, in turn, repaid the kindness by of understanding it here, and in various civilities to the Thracians. This hospitaliother passages where it occurs, as if Æneas ty was sometimes between whole nations, actually shed tears. Rueus takes it in the between one city and another, and somesense of lugens, grieving at the idea of times between particular families. Polymleaving his native country, and at the pros- nestor, king of Thrace, married Ilione, the pect of the dangers which were before him. daughter of Priam. By these means the
12. Magnis Dîs. The great gods were two nations became related in their respecJupiter, Juno, Mars, Pallas, Mercury, and tive heads: and their gods might be said to Apollo; sometimes called the Dii majorum be allied, confederate, and friends, in consegentium. The Penates were domestic gods, quence of it. without any particular name. The images
17. Prima mania: I place my first walls. of all these gods Æneas took with him into The city which Æneas first founded, we Italy, and introduced their worship, as we are told, he called Ænos. It was not far are told, into Latium, after he was settled from the mouth of the Hebrus, on the shore in that kingdom. Some take the Magnis of the Ægean sea. The tomb of PolydoDis to be the same with the Penatibus. rus was near this place. Ingressus: having See Geor. ii. 505. and Æn. ii. 717.
entered upon the business with fates unkind 13. Mavortia terra : a martial land.— -—against the will and purposes of the gods, Thrace is so called, because said to be the who directed him to the land of Dardanus. birthplace of Mars. This was a very exten- 18. Fingo Æneadas: I call the inhabi. sive country, bounded on the east by the tants Æneada, a name derived from my Euxine sea, south by the Propontis, Helles- name. Fingo : in the sense of voco. pont, and Ægean sea, and on the West by 19. Dionææ : an adj. from Dione, the moMacedonia. Colitur : in the sense of habi- ther of Venus. Matri: to his mother, Venus. tatur. Procul. This word sometimes sig- Sacra : in the sense of sacrificia. And ferenifies near, in view, as if pro oculis, as in bam: in the sense of offerebam. Ecl. vi. 16. In this sense it may be taken 20. Auspicibus : the favorers or patrons here; for Thrace was only a short distance of our work begun. It is put in apposition from the port where Æneas set sail. But it with Divis. may have reference to Carthage, the place 21. Mactubam: I was sacrificing a shining where he then was ; and then it may be bull to the high king of the gods. taken in its usual acceptation.
Servius tells us that a bull was one of 14. Acri Lycurgo: warlike Lycurgus. He those animals forbidden to be offered in sawas the son of Dryas. Being offended at crifice to Jove; and thinks Virgil, designBacchus, it is said, he banished him and his edly, makes Æneas offer here an unlawful votaries from his kingdom; and ordered all sacrifice, in order to introduce the inanspithe vines to be destroyed in his dominions. cious omen that followed. But La Cerda For which impiety the god deprived him of assures us, upon the best authority, that it his sight. Regnata, refers to terra: govern- was usual to sacrifice bulls to Jupiter, as ed, or ruled.
well as to the other gods. Nitentem. Ruæus 15. Hospitium : an ancient retreat of says, pinguem : and Heyne, candidum. Troy, and its gods were our friends, while 22. Tumulus: a rising ground, or hillock. fortune was with us.
Quo summo : op whose top. Cornea: an
Virgulta, et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus.
Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis.
adj. of the corneil tree. Densis hastilibus. in time of peace. Its derivation is uncertain. The long and tapering branches of a tree Geticis : an adj. from Getæ, a people bormay not improperly be called hastilia, spears. dering upon the Ister, or Danube; here put There is a peculiar propriety in the use of for Thracian, on account of the vicinity of the word here, as being the spears with the two countries: or, because Thrace was which the body of Polydorus had been trans- thought to extend, indefinitely, to the North. fixed ; and had sprung up into a thick 36. Secundarent. Two omens were rebody of trees or shrubs. Horrida : awful. quired for confirmation: if the first happened Ruæus says, aspera,
to be unlucky, and the second prosperous, 24. Sylvam : in the sense, here, of ramos
the latter destroyed the former, and was vel ramum.
termed omen secundum; and hence secundo, 26. Monstrum: in the sense of prodigiun. to prosper. Æneas, therefore, wished to
27. Arbos: a shrub, bush, or small tree. have the omen repeated, that the bad or unSolo: from the earth.
lucky import of it might be removed, or 28. Huic : in the sense of ex hâc. Liqu- taken away. Visus : vision, acc. plu. Leuntur : in the sense of defluunt. Atro san- varent : in the sense of averterent. guine: in the sense of atri sanguinis. The
37. Tertia hastilia : a third shrub or tree. prep. e or ex is understood.
29. Horror: in the sense of tremor. Mihi: Nicu: in the sense of vi. in the sense of mea.
38. Aggredior: I attempt, or try to pull 30. Sanguis gelidus : my blood, chilled up, &c. He exerted himself to eradicate through fear, collects together-ceases to it, with his knees upon the ground, that he
might have the greater purchase, or power. flow in its regular course.
32. Insequor : I proceed to tear up. Vi- Adverse : opposite, right against his knees, men lentum : a limber, or pliant shoot or
40. Reddila : in the sense of emissa ex eo. shrub.
42. Parce scelerare : forbear to pollute 34. Venerabar Nymphas. These rustic your pious hands. It was the law of the nymphs, to whom Æneas here prays, were Twelve Tables, and, indeed, it is the voice of probably the Hamadryades, whose destiny humanity, that no injury be done to the was connected with that of some particular dead: defuncti injuriâ ne aficiantur. The trees, with which they lived and died. ghost of Polydorus, therefore, calls out to Æneas might consider thi
horrid omen, as
Æneas : purce jam sepulto: let me alone : an indication of their displeasure, for his leave me, at least, to my rest in the grave. offering to violate those pledges of their 43. Externum non. Polydorus was the existence. Movens : in the sense of volvens. son of Priam, and the brother of Creüsa, the 35. Gradivum patrem : Mars.
wife of Æneas. He was therefore not a told that Gradivus was an epithet, or name, stranger or foreigner, in the truest sense of of Mars in time of war, as Quirinus was the word, to Æneas. Cicero makes himn the