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Visus adesse pedum sonitus: genitorque per umbram 733. Hostes propin- Prospiciens, Nate, exclamat, fuge, nate : propinquant' quant

Ardentes clypeos atque æra micantia cerno. 735. Hic malè ami Hìc mihi nescio quod trepido malè numen amicum cum numen, necio quod Confusam eripuit mentem. Namque avia cursu 736 numen, eripuit mihi tre- Dum sequor, et notâ excedo regione viarum : pido 733. Conjux Creüşa

Heu! misero conjux fatone erepta Creüsa substitit; incertum est, Substitit, erravitne viâ, seu lassa resedit, erepta-ne misero fato, Incertum : nec pòst qulis est reddita nostris.

1740 erravit-ne viâ, seu Nec priùs amissam respexi, animumve reflexi,

741. Nec respexi, reflexive aniinum, eam esse

Quàm tumulum antiquæ Cereris, sedemque sacratam amissam, priùsquàm ve

Venimus : hìc demum, collectis omnibus, una nimus ad

Defuit ; et comites, natumque, virumque fefellit. 743. Ucor una defuit Quem non incusavi amens hominumque Deorumque ? Aut quid in eversâ vidi crudelius urbe ?

46 Ascanium, Anchisenque patrem, Teucrosque Penates 748. Recondo eos, in Commendo sociis, et curvâ valle recondo. 750. Stat sententia re

Ipse urbem repeto, et cingor fulgentibus armis.

Stat casus renovare omnes, omnemque reverti 750 755. Ubique est hor. Per Trojam, et rursus caput objectare periclis. ror; simul ipsa silentia Principio, muros, obscuraque limina portæ, noctis terrent

animos. Quà gressum extuleram, repeto: et vestigia retrò Inde refero me domum, Observata sequor per noctem, et lumine lustro. ul viderem, si fortè, si fortè Creüsa tulisset pe

Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent. 755 dem huc.

Inde domum, si fortè pedem, si fortè tulisset,

novare omnes

NOTES.

732. Umbram: in the sense of tenebras. mind-reflected. Heyne reads ve. The

734. Cerno: I see their glittering shields common reading is que. and gleaming brass. Æra : brazen armour. 742. Tumulum. The hill, or eminence, on

735. Malè: in the sense of non. Malè which the temple of Ceres was situated. amicum : in the sense of inimicum vel in- See 714. supra. festum.

745. Quem hominumque : whom both of 736. Confusam mentem. His mind was men and gods did I not blame?

Amens : confused, and in a state of perturbation, for distracted in mind-deprived of my reason : fear that something might befall him in his of a, privativum, and mens. retreat. He had retained his presence of 747. Teucros : in the sense of Trojanos. mind so far as to make good his escape in 750. Stat. Sententia, or some word of the best possible manner. Now, on a sud- the like import, is understood: my purpose den, he loses all recollection ; he forgets is fixed: I am resolved. While the mind is in himself; he knows not what he does: he is doubt and uncertainty, it reels to and fro deprived of that presence of mind which he from one thing to another, fluctuat, vacillat : had hitherto retained, by some unfriendly but when it is determined and resolved, then deity. In consequence of this he left the it stands still; it is at rest. Casus : in the plain rozd, laking the by-paths: nor did he sense of pericula. Reverli: in the sense of recollect to look back to see if his wife was 1 edire. following him.

752. Limina: threshold-entrance. Avia : an adj. agreeing with loca under 753. Extuleram gressum: where I had stood; out of the way: from the ordinary come out. A phrase. or common way. Of a, privativum, and via. 754. Lumine. Lumen properly signifies

737. Nota regione viarum : simply, from light: it also signifies an eye. In this last the known or beaten way.

sense, Ruæus takes it, and interprets it by 738. Misero fato. Some render misero, with oculis. It is perhaps better to understand it mihi understood. But miser signifies that of the light occasioned by the conflagration which makes iniserable, as well as simply, of Troy. In this case, sequor, &c. may be miserable. In this sense it may be connect- rendered : I follow back my footsteps obed with fato: distressing fate. When thus served in the darkness, and search them out construed, it hath a peculiar force. Both by the light of the flames. Davidson agrees Ruæus and Heyne say, misero mihi.

with Ruæus. 741. Reflexi animum: turned back my 756. Si fortè, si fortè : if by chance, if by

Me refero. Irruerant Danai, et tectum omne tenebant.
Ilicèt ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento
Volvitur ; exsuperant flammæ; furit æstus

ad auras. Procedo ad Priami sedes, arcemque reviso.

760
Et jam porticibus vacuis, Junonis asylo,
Custodes lecti Phænix et dirus Ulysses
Prædam asservabant : huc undique 'Trpïa gaza
Incensis erepta adytis, mensæque Deorum,
Crateresque auro solidi, captivaque vestis

765 765. Selidi ex auro Congeritur. Pueri et pavidæ longo ordine matres Stant circùm.

Ausus quinetiam voces jactare per umbram
Implevi clamore vias : mestusque Creüsam
Nequicquam ingeminans, iterumque iterumque vocavi.-
Quærenti, et tectis urbis sinè fine furenti,

771

771. Infelix simula

crum,atque umbra CreüInfelix simulacrum, atque ipsius umbra Creüsæ

sæ ipsius, et imago maVisa mihi ante oculos, et notâ major imago.

jor notâ visa est mihr Obstupui, steteruntque comæ, et vox faucibus hæsit. ante oculos, quærenti Tum sic affari, et curas his demere dictis :

775 eam, et furenti Quid tantùm insano juvat indulgere dolori,

775. Tum illa cæpit

sic affari me O dulcis conjux ? non hæc sinè numine Divûm

778. Nec fas est, aut Eveniunt : nec te comitem asportare Creusam

ille regnator superi

NOTES.

chance, she had returned thither. Tulisset friends in their expedition. It shows the pedem : had returned, or gone thither. The judgment of the poet. repetition of the si fortè, is emphatical. 773. Imago major notâ : her image larger

760. Procedo. Creüsa was the daughter than life--than when alive. Spectres and of Priam, by Hecuba; which, perhaps, is apparitions are usually represented of a the reason of his going to his palace in large size; fear having a tendency to ensearch of her.

large objects that are presented to the ima761. Asylo : in the sense of templo. Por- gination. The darkness of the night has a ticibus : in the passages or aisles.

tendency to enlarge the appearance of ob763. Gasa. This word signifies all kinds jects seen obscurely and imperfectly. of rich furniture-wealth-property. It is This episode of Creüsa's death is introof Persian origin. Erepta, is connected duced, not merely for the importance of the with it.

event, but because it answered several im764. Mense Deorum. These were the portant purposes of the poet. It gave him tripods of the gods, which served for deli an opportunity of more fully illustrating the vering the oracles, or for bearing the sacred piety of Æneas, by showing him once inore vessels. Adytis : in the sense of lemplis. exposed to all the dangers of the war in

763. Undique. This word may imply, that search of his wife; and, in consequence of the things here mentioned were collected that, loads us back with his hero to visit from all parts of the town, and thrown in Troy smoking in its ruins, and makes us this place (huc,) or that they were piled up acquainted with several affecting circumhere all around--in every part of the building. stances, without which the narration would

770. Ingeminans : repeating her name in not have been complete. And then it makes vain-in vain, Lecause she did not answer way for the appearance of her ghost, that hiin. Mestus, agrees with ego, understood. affords comfort to Æneas in his distress, by Furenti : for currenti.

predicting his future felicity; and relieves 772. Inju!ic simulacrum : the unhappy the inird of the reader from the horrors of apparition—unhappy, not on her own ac war and desolation, by turning him to the count, for she was blessed and at rest; but prospect of that peace and tranquillity which because she was the source of sorrow and Æneas was to enjoy in Italy; and of that unhappiness to her husband. Umbra. The undisturbed rest, and happy liberty, of which introduction of Creüsa's ghost is extremely herself was now possessed in the other well timed. No other expedient could be world. found to stop the further search of Æneas 776. Insano dolori : immoderate grief for his wife, and permit him to return to his Numine: in the sense of voluntate.

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Olympi sinit te aspor- Fas, aut ille sinit superi regnator Olympi.
tare hinc Creusam, co- Longa tibi exilia, et vastum maris æquor arandum. 780
mitem tibi
780. Longa exilia fu- Ad terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva

Inter opima virûm leni fluit agmine Tybris.

Illic res lætæ, regnumque, et regia conjux 784. Parta sunt tibi Parta tibi : lachrymas dilectæ pelle Creüsæ.

Non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumve superbas 785

Aspiciam, aut Graiis servitum matribus ibo, 787. Ego quæ sum Dar- Dardanis, et Divæ Veneris nurus. danis, et

Sed me magna Deùm genitrix his detinet oris. 790. Deseruit me la- Jamque vale, et nati serva communis amorem. chrymantem, et volen- Hæc ubi dicta dedit, lachrymantem et multa volentem tem dicere Dicere deseruit, tenuesque recessit in auras.

791
792. Ibi conatus sum Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circùm :
ter circumdare

Ter frustrà comprensa manus effugit imago,
Par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno.

Sic demum socios, consumptâ nocte, reviso. 795
Atque hìc ingentem comitum affluxisse novorum
Invenio admirans numerum; matresque, virosque,
Collectam exilio pubem, miserabile vulgus.

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NOTES.

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can.

779. Superi Olympi : of high heaven. 784. Dilectæ Creüsæ : for, or on account

780. Exilia : in the sense of itinera. It of your beloved Creüsa. implies that Æneas should be for a long 786. Servitum: to serve in the capacity of time destitute of any country, or fixed habi a servant. The sup, in um, of the verb sertation. Æquor: properly any level surface, vio, put after ibo. whether land or water. It is often used in 787. Dardanis. Creusa was the daughthe sense of mare. Arandum : in the sense ter of Priam, and consequently descended of narigandum.

in a direct line from Dardanus, the founder 781. Ad: Heyne reads et. Some copies of the Trojan race: at least one of the have ut : that you may arrive or come, &c. founders of it. See Æn. i. 1. Nurus: the In this case there must not be a full point daughter-in-law. Æneas was the son of after arandum. The usual reading is ad. Venus and Anchises, which made Creüsa

782. Lydius Tybris : the Tuscan Tyber the daughter-in-law to Venus. flows, with its gentle stream, between lands 788. Genitrix: Cybele. She is said to rich in heroes.

have been the mother of all the gods. The Tyber is here called Lydian, or Tus 789. Serva: retain, or keep. Nati: As

It separated Tuscany from Latium. canius, who was the son of Creüsą and The foriner having been settled by a colony Æneas. of Lydians under Tyrrhenus, the son of 792. Circumdare. The parts of the verb Atys, king of Lydia, in Asia Minor. He are separated, for the sake of the verse, by called the inhabitants Tyrrheni, after his own Tmesis. name. Agmine : in the sense of cursu vel 793. Comprensa: a part. agreeing with flumine. Virûm. Vir, properly signifies a imago. Manus: acc. plu. Her image, seizman, as opposed to a woman-a hero. Also, ed in vain three times, escaped his hands. the male of any kind or species of animals. 794. Par: in the sense of similis. SomArva: properly cultivated lands, from the no: a dream, verb aro.

796. Hic admirans invenio, &c. The poet, 783. Res lætæ : prosperity. The same as by this circumstance, signifies how greatly res secunde. Æneas, after his arrival in Æneas was beloved by the Trojans, and the Italy, and the death of Turnus, marrie i La- weight and importance of his character. It vinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of appears that this multitude, by resorting to Latium, and succeeded him in his kingdom. Æneas, and putting themselves under his

Æneas, in relating this prophecy to Dido, protection, chose him their king; which applainly informs her that he was destined by pellation is given him throughout the Æneid. fate for Lavinia; and, by so doing, pleads 4ffluxisse : in the sense of advenisse. the necessity of his leaving Carthage. Dido, 797. Miserabile vulgus: a pitiable multitherefore, betrays herself by an indiscreet tude. They assembled, from all quarters, passion, and is not betrayed by any perfidy prepared in mind and fortune to follow me, of Æneas. See lib. iv. passim.

to whatsoever countries I might wish to lead

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799. Illi convenere 800 undique, parati animia

opibusque sequi me

Undique convenere, animis opibusque parati,
In quascunque velim pelago deducere terras.

Jamque jugis summæ surgebat Lucifer Idæ,
Ducebatque diem : Danaique obsessa tenebant
Limina portarum : nec spes opis ulla dabatur.
Cessi, et sublato montem genitore petivi.

NOTES.

them over the sea. Pubem : in the sense of city being completely in the possession of juventutem.

the Greeks. 801. Jugis summæ Ide. Mount Ida lay 804. Cessi: I yielded to my fate. Dr. to the east of Troy, and, consequently, Trapp renders it, I retired; but it is much Lucifer, Venus or the Morning Star, as it is better to understand it as an expression of called when going before the sun, appeared the piety and resignation of Æneas, espeto those at Troy to rise from the top (jugis) cially if we consider what immediately preof that mountain. Summæ : in the sense of cedes : nec spes opis ulla dabatur. Genitore alta.

sublato. This instance of filial piety is highly 803. Opis. Ruæus interprets this by aux- pleasing. A modern coinmander would ilii; but it may mean wealth-property: never have subinitted to the task of bearing and by the expression we may understand, such a load; but would have assigned it to that there was now no hope of obtaining a servant, or imposed it upon a soldier. any more of their wealth or property, the Ruæus says, ferens patrem.

QUESTIONS. What is the subject of this book ?

What office did Sinon perform upon this What is its character, when compared occasion? with the rest?

Did the Grecian troops return from TeHow long did the siege of Troy continue? nedos, and join their friends? How was it taken at the last ?

How were they received into the city ? To whom was this horse designed as a In what state were the Trojans at this present?

time ? In return for what?

Were they aware of any such treachery? What was the Palladium ?

Finding the city in the hands of the enemy, By whom was it taken from the temple of what course did Æneas pursue? Minerva ?

What were some of his actions ? After building the horse, what did the Where were his last efforts made to avenge Greeks do?

his country? How far was Tenedos from Troas ?

What became of Priam? Did they pretend that they were about to What were the last actions of the aged return home, and relinquish the siege? monarch?

Did this obtain belief among the Trojans ? What particularly roused his indignation

What was the real object of the Greeks against Pyrrhus ? in building this horse?

By whom was Priam slain? Who acted a very distinguished part in What was the manner of it? this business?

What were the circumstances of it? What is the character of Sinon?

Where was Æneas during these transacWho opposed the adınission of this horse tions? within the walls?

What did he do, after he beheld the death What prodigy happened just at this time, of Priam ? which overcame all doubts in the minds of Under whose conduct did he pass in safety the Trojans ?

through his enemies ? Who was Laocoon?

Did Æneas receive direction to leave the To what office had he been appointed by city, and to seek his safety in flight? lot?

How did he receive it! From whom? What was the design of offering sacrifice What was the determination of his father to Neptune at this time?

Anchises ? What did this horse contain?

What effect had his refusal upon the mind How did it enter into the city?

of Æneas ? Where was it placed ?

What did his wife Creusa do upon this How many names has the poet invented' occasion? for this engine of destruction?

How was the determination of Anchises, What time was the assault made upon the not to survive the capture of the city,

changed?

city?

What were the prodigies that effected that What effect had her loss upon him at the change?

first? To what place did he retire?

How was his mind quieted ? How did he convey his father?

What directions did her apparition give How his son Ascanius?

him? What direction did he give his wife After his return to the place of rendez Creüsa?

vous, did he find great numbers there colDid he arrive in safety to the place ap- lected? pointed ?

Did they consider him their leader and What became of his wife?

king? What did he do in consequence of her Were they prepared and willing to underloss ?

take any enterprise, he might think proper ?

LIBER TERTIUS.

Æneas, having finished the sack of Troy, proceeds to relate to Dido the particulars of his

voyage. Having built a fleet of twenty ships near Antandros, he set sail in the spring, probably, of the year following the capture of Troy. He landed on the shores of Thrace, and there commenced the building of a city, which he called, after his own name, Ænos, and the inhabitants, Æneade. He was, however, soon interrupted in the prosecution of his work, by the shade of Polydorus, the son of Priam. He had been barbarously put to death by Polymnestor, king of Thrace, his brother-in-law, and buried in this place. It directed him to leave the polluted land, and to seek another clime for

his intended city. Having performed the funeral rites to Polydorus, he set sail, directing his course to the

south; and soon arrived on the coast of Delos, one of the Cyclades. Here he was hospitably received by Anius, king of the island, and priest of Apollo. He was directed by the oracle to seek the land of his ancestors; there he should found a city, which should bear rule over all nations. This information was joyfully received. Whereupon, they concluded that Crete, the birth-place of Teucer, was the land to which the oracle

directed them. Leaving Delos, in a short time they arrive on the shores of Crete. They hail it with

joy as the termination of their wanderings. Here Æneas lays the foundation of a city which he called Pergama, and was preparing to enter upon the business of agriculture, when a sudden plague arose, which put an end to his prospects, and carried off many of his companions. In this juncture, it was agreed that he should go back to Delos, to obtain further instructions. In the mean time, in a vision, he was informed that Crete was not the land destined to hiin, and that the oracle of Apollo intended he should seek Italy, the land of Dardanus. This quieted his mind; and Anchises acknowledged that both Teucer and Dardanus were the founders of their race, and that he had been mis

taken in reckoning their descent in the line of Teucer. Æneas, without delay, leaves Crete; and in a few days arrived on the coast of the Stro

phades, in the Ionian sea, on the west of the Peloponnesus. Here he landed with his feet, and found these islands in the possession of the Harpies. Celæno, one of them, informed him, that, before he should found a city, they should be reduced to the necessity of consuming their tables. This was the first intimation which he had received of want

and suffering, in the land destined to him. It sunk deep into his mind. Leaving these islands, he directed his course westward, and soon arrived on the coast of

Epirus. He landed at Actium, ana celebrated the Trojan games. From Actium, he proceeded to that part of Epirus called Chaonia. On his entering the

harbor, he heard that Helenus, the son of Priam, sat upon the throne of Pyrrhus, and that Andromache had become his wife. Desirous of hearing the truth of this report, he proceeds direct to Buthrotus, the seat of government. Here, to his great joy, he finds his friends, and remained with them for some time. Helenus, at their departure, loads them with presents. Andromache gives to Ascanius alone, who was the exact

picture of her son Astyanax. From Epirus, Æneas passes over the Ionian sea, and arrives at the promontory läpygium.

Thence he sails down the coast of Magna Græcia, and the eastern shore of Sicily, to tha promontory Pachynum ; thence along the southern shore to the port of Drepanum, whøse be lost his father Anchises; which concludes the book.

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