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Jussa time, neu præceptis parere recusa.
mortales visus tibi tuen Hic, ubi disjectas moles, avulsaque saxis
608. Hic, ubi vides Saxa vides, mixtoque undantem pulvere fumum ;
moles disjectas, saxa que Neptunus muros, magnoque emota tridenti
avulsa saxis, funumque Fundamenta quatit, totamque à sedibus urbem
undantem inixto pulEruit. Hic Juno Scæas sævissima portas
vere, Neptunus quatit Prima tenet, sociumque furens à navibus agmen
muros Trojæ, fundamenFerro accincta vocat.
taque emota magno tri
denti Jam summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas
624. Omne Ilium vi Tum verò omne mihi visum considere in ignes sum est mihi
NOTES. 610. Hic Neptunus quatit : here Neptune boar: they were armed with sharp and shakes the walls, &c. Neptune took an ac crooked claws. tive part against the Trojans, having become Medusa having been ravished in the temtheir enemy on account of the perfidy of ple of Minerva by Neptune, the goddess Laomedon. See Geor. i. 502. This fable gave her serpents the quality of transforming is explained by supposing that Laomedon men into stones at the sight of them. Peremployed the money which had been des seus cut off her head by the aid of Minertined for the service of that god, in building va’s buckler, which, being so finely polished, the walls of Troy. Emota : in the sense of that it reflected the image of the Gorgon's evulsa.
head, secured him from the fatal influ. 619 Hic Juno: here Juno, most fierce, ence of her eye. This head Minerva afoccupies the Scæan gate in front, &c. It is terward wore en her shield or buckler, to most probable that prima, here, has reference render her more awful and tremendous. See to the place of her standing, before, or in Lexicon, sub Ægide. front of the gate. It may, however, mean
617. Pater ipse : the father himself gives that Juno was the first, or chief, in urging on courage and successful strength to the the Greeks in the work of destruction. We Greeks. Juno and Minerva opposed the are told the gates of Troy were six in num- Trojans from selfish motives, because they ber: the gate of Antenor; the gate of Dar- had been slighted by Paris; but Jove was danus; the Ilian; the Catumbrian; the Tro an enemy to them, because their cause was jan; and the Scæan. Through this gate unjust, in detaining Helen against the laws the Trojan horse is said to have entered. of nations, when properly demanded. On which account, it is probable, the poet
620. Abero: in the sense of relinquam. placed Juno at this gate, clad in armour, and
622. Diræ facies: horrid images appearcalling upon her Greeks.
the images of desolation, death, and despair.
623. Magna numina Deúm. The Ro615. Pallcs. She is sometimes called
mans divided the gods into two classes : the Tritona: hence the adj. Tritonia. See 171. Dii majorum, and the Dii rrinorum gentium. supra.
In the first were ranked Jupiier, Neptune, 616. Efulgens nimbo: resplendent with Minerva, and Juno. The three last, in an a cloud. By nimbo, in this place, Servius especial manner, are represented as hostile understands a lucid circle, resembling a dia to Troy; and Jove, on this occasion, is opdem about the head, to distinguish the gods posed to them also. The magna numina from mortals. Gorgone: the three daugh- Deûm may simply mean the great gods; or ters of Phorcus and Ceto, Medusa, Euryale, rather, the great powers of the gods, hostile and Stenyo, were called Gorgones, Gorgons, to Troy. The overthrow of Troy is all or terrible sisters. The name is of Greek along represented to have been effected, not derivation, and signifies fierceness. It is said so much by the power of the Greeks, as by they had but one eye, which served them the power of the gods. I am now persuaded all by turns. They had great wings: their of the inutility of making any further resistheads were attired with vipers instead of ance, since it evidently appears that the hair: their teeth were tusks like those of a great powers of the gods are against us.
625. Ac veluti cùm Ilium, et ex imo verti Neptunia Troja.
625 agricolæ certatim in- Ac veluti summis antiquam in montibus ornum stant eruere antiquam Cùm ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus instant ornum in summis monti. bus, accisam ferro
Eruere agricolæ certatim ; illa usque minatur, 628. Illa usque mina- Et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat: tur ruinam, et tsemefac- Vulneribus donec paulatim evicta, supremùm
630 ta quoad comam
Congemuit, traxitque jugis avulsa ruinam.
Descendo, ac, ducente Deo, flammam inter et hostes 636. Quemque primùm Expedior: dant tela locum, flammæque recedunt. petebam, abnegat Ast ubi jam patriæ perventum ad limina sedis, posse producere vitam, Antiquasque domos : genitor, quem tollere in altos 635 Trojâ excisa
Optabam primùm montes, primùmque petebam, 638. Ait: O vos, qui. Abnegat excisâ vitam producere Trojâ, ævi ; quibusque vires Exiliumque pati. Vos ô, quibus integer ævi stant solidæ suo robore Sanguis, ait, solidæque suo stant robore vires; 642. Est satis super- Vos agitate fugam.
640 que vidimus una exci- Me si cælicolæ voluissent ducere vitam, dia, et
Has mihi servâssent sedes: satìs una supèrque 644. O vos, affati meum corpus, sic, sic positum, Vidimus excidia, et captæ superavimus urbi. discedite.
Sic, ô, sic positum affati discedite corpus.
626. Ac veluti, &c. This simile is taken upon his shoulders. The Greeks, struck from Homer, Iliad xvi. 481, who applies it with this eminent example of filial tenderto the death of Sarpedon; but the copy ex- ness and affection, gave him a second opceeds the original.
tion, when he carried off his gods.
Upon 627. Bipennibus. The axe is here used this, they were induced to grant him full for the stroke, or blow of the axe, by me- liberty to take along with him his whole faton. Accisam: in the sense of circumcisam. mily and all his effects. 628. Usque: in the sense of diu.
638. Integer ævi : unimpaired, or entire, 629. Nutat comam. It is usual with Vir- on account of age. Causâ, or some word gil to consider a tree in analogy to a human of the like import, is probably to be underbody, and to call the extended limbs, or stood, to govern the gen. O ye, whose branches, brachia, arms; and the leaves, blood is not chilled and wasted by age, and comam, hair, or locks. This diversifies his who are yet in the full vigor of youth, do style, and renders it pleasant.
ye attempt your flight. The repetition of 630. Vulneribus : in the sense of actibus. the vos is emphatical. For robore, Ruæus This is beautifully figurative. The allusion says firmitate. to the human body is still kept up.
642. Satis supèrque: it is enough, and 631. Avuisa jugis : torn from the sides of more, that I have seen one destruction of the mountains.
my country, and survived the captured city. 632. Deo ducente. Deus is either a god This is an allusion to the siege and capture or goddess. Here it means Venus. Under of Troy by Hercules, in the reign of Laoher conduct, Æneas made his way through medon, a fact mentioned by historians as the dangers that beset him, to the house of well as by poets. And Virgil says of Anhis father.
chises, that he had been twice saved from 633. Expedior. Habeo liberum iter, says the ruins of Troy. Æn. iii. 476. Heyne.
644. Sic, 0, sic affati: O ye, having ad634. Ast ubi perventum. The imp. verb dressed my body, thus, thus laid out, deperventum est is used for the personal verb part. There is a peculiar emphasis in the perveni. This mode of expression is very repetition of the word sic. Anchises concommon among the poets. Our language siders himself as already dead, and his body will not admit of it, and we are under the laid out in burial: corpus positum, placed necessity of rendering such impersonals by on the funeral pile: at which time it was the personals of the correspondent verb, as usual for the friends of the deceased to take in the present case : perventum est: I came, a solemn farewell, by repeating the word or had comc.
vale three times. The repetition of the sic 637. Abnegat: refuses to prolong his life. shows his determined purpose of dying, We learn from Varro that the Greeks hav- and his earnest desire of being left to puring given permission to Æneas to carry off sue his resolution. It is used in the same what was dearest to him, he took his father way in the fourth book, where Dido, bent
Ipse manu mortem inveniam: miserebitur hostis, 645
647. Inutilis homini. Demoror, ex quo me Divûm pater atque hominum rex
bus Fulminis afflavit ventis, et contigit igni.
648. Ex tempore, quo
652. Precamur, ne paCuncta pater, fatoque urgenti incumbere vellet.
ter vellet vertere, cuncta Abnegat, inceptoque et sedibus hæret in isdem. 654
Rursus in arma feror, mortemque miserrimus opto. Nain quod consilium, aut quæ jam fortuna dabatur ? 656. Nam quod aliud Mene efferre pedem, genitor, te posse relicto
consilium, aut quæ alia
fortuna jam Sperâsti ? tantumque nefas patrio excidit ore ?
657. O genitor, speSi nihil ex tantâ Superis placet urbe relinqui ;
râsti-ne me posse efferro Et sedet hoc animo, perituræque addere Troja 660 pedem, te relicto Teque tuosque juvat: patet isti janua leto.
on death, is just going to plunge the dagger load, which presses another down, so as to into her bosom. She breaks forth into this add to the pressure, and to render it more abrupt exclamation: Sic, sic juvat ire sub insupportable. Æneas and his family were unbras.
already grievously oppressed and weighed 645. Manu. Servius understands by ma down by the public calamity, (fato urgenti, nu, the hand of the enemy; but it is easier the fate that lay so heavy upon them,) and to understand it of his own hand. Ruæus therefore pray Anchises not to increase the says, propria manu. Hostis: the enemy will burden, by the additional weight of his pertake pity on me. This strongly marks the sonal sufferings and death. Ruæus interanguish of his soul. He was so weary of prets incumbere urgenti fato, by: addere vim life, that he would consider it a favor in the falo prementi nos. eneiny to put an end to it.
654. Sedibus: in the sense of loco. 646. Jactura: the loss of burial is easy 655. Miserrimus : most miserable-disthe deprivation of burial rites is a matter of tracted-in despair. no concern to me.
656. Nam quod, &c. The meaning of this 643. Demoror annos : I linger out my line appears to be: for what other course years. Traho vitam, says Ruæus.
could I take, what else could I do, than arm 649. Afflavit me : blasted me with the myself, and seek to renew the conflict? winds of his thunder, and struck me with his Anchises had positively refused to survive lightning. The ancients supposed the winds the fall of his country: Æneas could not were the efficient cause of thunder.
leave him behind: nothing remained for him It is said that this calamity was inflicted to do, but to sell his life as dear as possible. upon Anchises for divulging his ainour with For dabatur, Ruæus says offerebatur. Venus. Some say he was struck blind: 657. Ef'erre pedem: to depart. Sperâstiothers, with more propriety, say that he was ne : didst thou expect that I could depart, blasted in his limbs. Memorans : in the O father, without thee? sense of dicens.
658. Nefas: impiety. 651. Nos effusi : on the other hand, we, 659. Superis. Superi are properly the bathed in tears, (beseech) my father that he gods above, as distinguished from those would not destroy all with himself, and press below. upon the calamity (fato) already weighing 660. El hoc sedet : and this be fixed in thy us down—that he would not, by the aftiict- mind, and it pleases thee to add thyself, &c. ing circumstance of his own death, increase Ruæus understands this of the gods just the calamity already pressing us down with mentioned; but Davidson and others refer its own weight. Ne vellet accelerare perni- it to Anchises. This appears the inore corciem instantem, says Hoyne.
rect and natural; for Anchises is left perDr. Trapp would read occumbere, or ra- fectly free to act, either to stay behind, or to ther succumbere, if there were authority for depart, and to form his plans deliberately. it. As it is, he thinks it a metaphor taken Si hoc fixum est in eorum mente, et delectat from the falling on a sword. Mr. Davidson &c. says Ruæus. takes it to be a metaphor drawn from one's 661. Janua isti leto: the door to that leaning or lying with all his weight upon a death is open. The isti refers to what An
Jamque aderit multo Priami de sanguine Pyrrhus,
Natum ante ora patris, patrem qui obtruncat ad aras 664. Erat-ne ob hoc
Hoc erat, alma parens, quòd me, per tela, per ignes, '665. Ut cernam hos- Eripis ? ut mediis hostem in penetralibus, utque 665 tem in mediis penetra- Ascaniumque, patremque meum, juxtàque Creusam, libus, utque ccrnam Ascaniumque
Alterum in alterius mactatos sanguine cernam ?
Arma, viri, ferte arma : vocat lux ultiina victos. 669. Sinite ut revisam Reddite me Danais, sinite instaurata revisam
Prælia : nunquam omnes hodie moriemur inulti. 67C
Hic ferro accingor rursus: clypeoque sinistram
Insertabam aptans, meque extra tecta ferebam. 673. Conjux Creüsa Ecce autem complexa pedes in limine conjux complexa meos pedes in Hærebat, parvumque patri tendebat Iülum.
675 675. In omnia pericula
Si periturus abis, et nos rape in omnia tecum:
Sin aliquam expertus sumptis spem ponis in armis, 677. Cui parvus Tülus Hanc primùm tutare domum. Cui parvus lülus, relinquitur; cui tuus pa- Cui pater, et conjux quondam tua dicta, relinquor ? ter; et cui ego relinquor, Talia vociferans, gemitu tectum omne replebat: quondam dicta tua conjux?
680 Cùm subitum dictuque oritur mirabile monstrum. Namque manus inter mæstorumque ora parentum,
chises kad said, verse 645, supra, of his find- mache, in the sixth book of the Iliad, where ing death by his own hand, or that the ene- the circumstances are nearly the same. mny would take pity on him, and kill him. Andromache expostulates with Hector, as Æneas here tells hiin the door to that death Creüsa does with Æneas, and in like manis open, and easy to come at; for he imme- ner pleads her future forlorn condition, and diately adds : Jamque Pyrrhus : Pyrrhus that of her child, in case he should abandon will soon be here from the slaughter of Pri- them: and to add force to her entreaties,
Servius takes isti for istic, but without she puts Astyanaz into his arms, as Creüsa sufficient reason. Iste, properly, is that of here does Yülus into the arms of Æneas. yours, hic, this of mine. 663. Qui obtruncat: who butchers the song in the sense of cape, vel trahe.
675. Et: in the sense of quoque. Rape • &c. This alludes to his killing Polites in the presence of his father, and after that 676. Experlus: having experience in the atrocious deed, killing the aged monarch, art of war-being skilled in war. Ponis dragged to the altars.
you place any, &c. 604. Hoc erat : was it for this, dear pa- 677. Tuture: in the sense of defende. rent, that, &c. Ruæus says: Hæc-cine erat
678. Quondam : once called your wife.
This is a very tender expostulation. 665. Eripis : in the sense of servavisti. Penetralibus: in the sense of doino, vel tecto.
680. Subitum monstrum. This unexpectSee 484, supra.
ed prodigy, or miracle, is extremely well 667. Mactatos: butchered the one in the timed. Had Anchises finally persisted in blood of the other. This part. refers to the his resolution, it must have put an end to three preceding nouns.
the poem, by involving Æneas and all his 668. Lux: in the sense of dies.
family in one common ruin. He had been 670. Prælia instaurata : the fight renew- urged by all human arguments in the stronged. Nunquam : in the sense of non.
est manner, without any avail; what then 672. Insertabam : I put my left hand to my remained for the poet, but to have recourse shield. fitting it-I fixed my shield upon my
to the interposition of the gods, to save his left arm. The clypeus was a shield of an
hero in this extremity. This was completeoval form, not so large as the scutum.
It ly successful. Anchises is convinced of his was usually mauw of the skins of beasts, and duty to yield to the present necessity, and interwoven in such a manner, as to be im- to save his life by flight. Oritur: in the penetrable to the missive weapons of the
sel.se of appare!. enemy. They carried it upon ihe loft arm. G81. liter minne craque: between the
674. Tendebatque parvum, &c. The poet hands and face of his inournful parentshere appears to have had in his view that while they wero hoding him in their arms, affecting scene between Hector and Andro- behold, &c.
Ecce levis summo de vertice visus lüli
Vix ea fatus erat senior, subitoque fragore
682. Levis apex : the waving tuft, or of the neu. gender, used as a sub. the same plume. Apex properly signifies the top, or with lava purs cæli. eminence of anything. Hence it may 694. Stella lapsa, &c. Servius applies mean the top of one's hat, cap, or bonnet, the several parts of this prodigy as figuraas in Æn. viii. 664. Vertice: in the sense tive of the events that were to happen to of capite.
Æneas and his followers. The star is said, 683. Fundere: in the sense of emittere. condere se Idæa sylva, to fall or hide itself Innoxia : inoffensive-not hurting him. upon mount Ida, to indicate that the TroTaclu. This is the reading of Heyne and jans were to resort to that mountain : cum Davidson. But Ruæus and Valpy read multa luce, with much light, to figure their fractu. Molli : gentle--easy. Heyne has future glory and dignity: signantem vias, mollis, agreeing with flamma. Most copies the sparkles of fire left behind, intimate the have molli.
dispersion of his followers, and that they 684. Lambere: to glide along his hair- should fix their residence in various parts: gently touch it.
longo limite sulcus, inarks Æneas' many 685. Nos pavidi : we, treinbling for fear, wanderings, and the length of his voyage : (begin) to bustle about, to shake his fla- lastly, by the smoke and sulphur, he underming hair, and to extinguish the sacred fire stands the death of Anchises. The stars with water. Fontibus : in the sense of do not move from their stations; they are aqua.
fixed, and remain in the same part of the 689. Si flecteris : if thou art moved. heavens. Meteors are of common occur. 691. Firma hæc omina: confirin this rence, and are supposed to consist of elec
The Romans deemed one omen not tric matter, which in passing from one part sufficient, unless it were followed or con- of the atmosphere to another, becomes visi. firmed by a second. Hence secundus and ble. In the language of the vulgar and secundo came to signify prosperous, and to ignorant, such an appearance is called the prosper.
shooting of a star. Virgil conforms to this 693. Lævum intonuit: the left thundered mode of expression. He calls the meteor a with a sudden peal.
Facem: a train. Both the Greeks and Romans considered 695. Labentem. Ruæus takes this in the those omens, that were presented in the sense of cadentem : falling behind the roof eastern part of heaven, to be prosperous or of the house. But it may be taken in its lucky. But the former, in observing the usual acceptation, gliding, or passing over omens, turned their faces to the north., which the roof : for it appears that the meteor was brought the east on their right hane. The near,
since it filled the air about them with Romans, on the contrary, turned the ir faces its sulphurous smell. to the south, which brought the east on their 697. Sulcus : a trail-indented track. left hand. This was therefore a lucky The meteor drew after it a trail of light, as
It seconded, or confirmed ihe for- it passed through the heavens. It appeared mer, that is, the lambent flame on tie head to mark its way or path, which it left lumi. of lülus. See Ecl. i. 18. Lævum: an adj. nous behind it.