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Sorte tulit, Trojam incensam et prolapsa videntem 555
At me tum primùm sævus circumstetit horror : 560: Subiit mihi in Obstupui : subiit chari genitoris imago,
Ut regem æquævum crudeli vulnere vidi
565 566. Dedêre ea ægra Ad terram misêre, aut ignibus ægra dedêre. ignibus
Jamque adeò super unus eram, cùm limina Vestä
tus tulit: this death carried him off (sorte) a name. The head being the index of the by divine appointment. This is a singular person, that being cut off, there is no means idiom. The several circumstances here left to come at the name, or to distinguish mentioned in the death of Priam, aggravate the person. Or, sinè nomine may mean, the cruelty of the action, and set forth the without honor-despicable. ferocious temper of Pyrrhus. He drew him 561. Ut: in the sense of cùm. (traxit,) trembling with age and decay of 562. Creüsa. The daughter of Priam and nature, to the very altar where he had fied Hecuba, and wife of Æneas. She perished for safety; and slipping (lapsantem) in the in the sack of Troy. Direpta : plundered. blood of his son; the sight of which was 563. Casus: in the sense of periculum. worse than death: then he twisted his hair 565. Saltu: by a leap or spring. with his left hand, and, with his right hand, 566. Ægra : faint-worn out with fadrew his glittering sword from its scabbard, tigue, so that they could fight no longer. and plunged it into his body up to the hilt. 567. Jamque adeò: and so I was now reHere we have a lively picture of a man lost maining alone, when I behold Helen, &c. to all sense of humanity, and capable of The parts of the verb supersum are here seperpetrating the most atrocious deeds. It parated, for the sake of the verse, by Tmesis. shows, also, the pen of a master. A painter Some critics have doubted the genuinecould copy it.
ness of this passage concerning Helen down 556. Pergama: neu. plu. properly the fort to the 588th line inclusive. The reasons asof Troy. It is frequently taken for the city signed are three. First: What is here said itself, by synec. Here it is used in its appro- of her fearing the resentment of Menelaus, priate sense and meaning, as distinguished contradicts what he says of her, (lib. vi. from the city.
525.) having sought to make peace with 555. Videntem : it agrees with illum. him by betraying Deịphobus.
Secondly : 557. Superbum regnatorem: the proud ruler "That Virgil here outrages the character of over so many nations and countries of Asia. his hero, by making him entertain a thought Priam is said to have once reigned over of killing a woman, and perpetrating the Phrygia Major and Minor : which included decd in the temple of Vesta. Thirdly: That the greater part of Asia Minor, or Natolia. Virgil cannot be supposed so unacquainted Ruæus interprets the words thus: Kegem with the history of Helen, as not to know Asiæ, clarum propler tot gentes, et tot regiones. that she left Troy long before it was taken. Jacet ingens truncus: he lies a large trunk In answer to the first objection, it may be upon the shore. Some think the poet had said that, though she endeavored to ingrahere in his view, the circumstances of the tiate herself with Menelaus, by betraying death of Pompey, whose head his assassins Deiphobus to him, it does not follow that cut off, and threw his body on the shore. he was entirely reconciled to her. And we Others say that Priam was not slain at the are told by Euripides that he carried off altar; but drawn by Pyrrhus to the tomb of Helen as a captive along with the Trojan his father, which was on the promontory of women, with a view to have her put to Sigæum, and there slain to appease his death by the Greeks whose sons had fallen Manes. He may have been slain at the al- in the war. To the second objection, it may tar, and his dead body afterward cast upon be replied, that Æneas did not put her to the shore. This supposition will make the death; and even if he had, the deed might poet consistent and intelligible. Regnatorem have been palliated, in a good degrce, by a put in apposition with illum.
consideration of the circumstances of the 558. Corpus sinè noniine: a body without In the hurry and confusion of min.
Servantem, et tacitam secretâ in sede latentem
570. Mih' erranti, feIlla, sibi infestos eversa ob Pergama Teucros,
671. Illa, communis Et pænas Danaûm, et deserti conjugis iras
Erinnys Trojæ et ejus Permetuens, Trojæ et patriæ communis Erinnys, patriæ, perinetuens TeuAbdiderat sese, atque aris invisa sedebat.
cros infestos sibi obeverExarsere ignes animo : subit ira cadentem
575 sa Pergama, et Ulcisci patriam, et sceleratas sumere pænas. Scilicet hæc Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas
577. Hæc-ne scilicet,
inquiebam, incolumis asAspiciet? partoque ibit regina triumpho?
583. Non ita erit Fæmineâ in pænâ est, nec habet victoria laudem; namque Extinxisse nefas tamen, et sumpsisse merentis 585
NOTES. gied passions with which his mind must then 573. Permetuens: dreading-greatly fearhave been racked, who could have blamed ing. The per in composition increases the him if he had avenged his own and his coun- signification of the simple word. Helen try's sufferings upon her, who was justly proved fatal both to Greece and Troy; to chargeable with the guilt of so many thou- the former, in the loss of so many heroes; sand deaths, and the utter desolation of a to the latter, in being the cause of its ruin whole innocent people—a once flourishing She is therefore styled the common fury and powerful kingdom? But when, instead Erinnys, a name common to the three furies. of giving way to the first emotions of a just See Geor. i. 278. resentment, he checks himself, deliberates 574. Invisa: hated-an adious sight; raupon the merits of the action, and is at length ther than unseen, as Ruæus has it. prevented from doing it by the interposition 575. Ignes exarsere: flames flashed in my of his goddess mother; or, in other words, mind. Ira subit: my resentment rose to by the force of superior judgment, there is avenge my falling country. no reason even for the severest critics to 576. Sumere sceleratas panas : to take secensure his conduct. Lastly: Herodotus vere punishment. Or, perhaps, to take puinforms us that he learned from some Egyp- nishment of such a cuised woinan.
The tian priests, who had received the same from same as, sumere pænas de scelerata femina. Menelaus himself, that the Trojans had sent Ruæus says, pænas sceleris. Heyne, penas Helen to Egypt before the Greeks rede- sumptas à scelerata. manded her. Of this fact, the historian ap 577. Mycenas: Mycenæ was not the place pears to have been fully convinced. But of her own nativity, but of Menelaus, her whether Virgil was acquainted with this husband. She was born at Sparta. Scilipiece of his history or not, it is sufficient cet hæc: shall she, indeed, in safety behold! that he had poetical tradition on his side; &c. These are all animated interrogatories, and that he is supported by the authority of and show the mind of Æneas hurrying from Homer and Euripides. A moment's atten- object to object, and agitated with a tide of tion to the style and manner of expression passions. At last he concludes it must not in these lines, will convince any one that be. She must suffer the punishment due to they are no interpolation. Unus: in the her crimes. sense of solus.
578. Parto triumpho: having obtained a 563. Servantem limina Vestæ; the verb triumph-a triumph being obtained. servare signifies to look after any thing with 530. Comitata turbâ : accompanied by a anxiety, and solicitude; with a jealous eye, train of Trojan matrons, and Phrygian serand watchful of every danger. Limina : in vants, shall she see her former marriage bed? the sense of templum.
&c. Iliadum: gen. plu. of Ilias, a Trojan 569. Tyndarida: acc. of Tyndaris, a name woman. Conjugium : pristinum conjugem, of Helen, the daughter of Jupiter and Leda; says Heyne. Palres : for parentes. Bo`called, because Tyndarus, king of Sparta, 582. Dardanium : an adj. the same as married Leda, her mother.
Trojanum. 572. Deserti conjugis : her deserted, or 583. Nomen : glory-renown. abandoned husband, Menelaus.
585. Tamen laudabor: nevertheless, I shall
Laudabor pænas ; animumque explêsse juvabit 587. Meorum civium. Ultricis flammæ, et cineres satiâsse meorum.
Talia jactabam, et furiatâ mente ferebar, 589. Cùm alma pa- Cùm mihi se, non antè oculis tam clara, videndam meis oculis antè, obtulit Obtulit, et purâ per noctem in luce refulsit se videndam mihi, et re- Alma parens, confessa Deam; qualisque videri fulsit per noctem Cælicolis et quanta solet ; dextrâque prehensum
592. Continuit me pre- Continuit, roseoque hæc insuper addidit ore: hensum dextrâ 596. Non aspicies pri
Nate, quis indomitas tantus dolor excitat iras ? us, ubi liqueris parentem Quid furis ? aut quonam nostri tibi cura recessit? Anchisen, fessum Non priùs aspicies, ubi fessum ætate parentem
598. Circùın quos, Liqueris Anchisen ? superet conjuxne Creusa, omnes Graiæ acies er- Ascaniusque puer ? quos omnes undique Graiæ rant undique
Circùm errant acies: et, ni mea cura resistat, 600. Tulerint eos, et inimicus ensis hauserit Jam flammæ tulerint, inimicus et hauserit ensis. eorum sanguinem. Non tibi 'Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacænæ,
602. Sed inclementia Culpatusve Paris : Divûm inclementia, Divům, Divûm, Divûm, inquam, Has evertit opes, sternitque à culmine Trojam. evertit 604. Namque eripiam
Aspice: namque omnem, quæ nunc obducta tuenti omnem nubem,quæ nunc
Mortales hebetat visus tibi, et humida circùm obducta hebetat Caligat, nubem eripiam : tu ne qua parentis
be praised for having put an end to the from his present object, and to direct his remonster of wickedness, and taken vengeance gard to his own—to his aged father, his of one so justly deserving it. Nefas, very for- infant son, and his beloved wife, who othercibly expresses the enormity of her crimes: wise might have fallen victims to the fury she was wickedness itself.
of the Greeks. We are told that Hclen was first rayished 593. Addidit hæc: she added these words. by Theseus. Afterward she married Mene 595. Tibi: in the sense of tua : thy care laus, whom she left for Paris. She also -regard. Quònam : the compound in the committed incest with her son-in-law Ory- sense of the simple quò. thus, the son of Paris and none. It is 597. Superet : in the sense of superest. also said that she had an amour with Achil 600. Tulerint: would have carried them les. She may truly be called (nefas) a off-consumed them. monster of wickedness. Merentis : part. of 601. Lacænæ Tyndaridis : of Spartan HeMereor, agreeing with ejus understood : oflen. See 569. supra. Invisa tibi: hatefui her deserving or meriting it.
or odious to you. 586. Juvabit : it will delight me to have 602. Divûm inclementia. This reading is satisfied
my desire of burning or ardent re much more emphatic than verùm inclemenvenge. Flammæ may here be used in the tia Divûm, as in the common editions: and sense of flammeæ vel ardentis. Animum: it is supported by the authority of ancient in the sense of desiderium. Animus may manuscripts: it is the reading of Heyne signify any affection of the mind; especially and Valpy. Homer makes Priam exculpate in the plural. For ultricis flammæ, Ruæus Helen, and lay the blame of the destruction says, ardentis ultionis. Heyne says, flammâ of his country to the gods themselves. Iliad sive irâ ultrice (hoc est) ullione.
iii. 164. 589. Clara : manifest-clear: attended 603. Has opes: in the sense of hanc powith evident marks of Divinity.
tentiam. Opes, is, properly, power acquired 591. Confessa Deam: manifesting the god- by wealth. dess. Qualisque, et quanta : such, and as 604. Quæ nunc obducta: which now spread illustrious as she used to be seen, &c. Ve- before you, looking earnestly, blunts your nus was the most proper deity to interpose mortal sight, &c. This passage Milton apin behalf of Helen, whom she had long pro- pears to have had in view, where the angel tected, and had conferred on Paris, as a re prepares Adam for beholding the future viward for his adjudging the prize of beauty sion of his posterity, and their history; to her, rather than to Juno or Minerva. which he is going to set before him. See See Æn. i. 27. This interposition of Venus Paradise Lost, lib. xi. verse 411. Humida: was very seasonable in another respect; to moist-impregnated with vapor so as to in
eck the ardor of his soul, to divert him crease the darkness.
Jussa time, neu præceptis parere recusa.
mortales visus tibi tuen Hic, ubi disjectas moles, avulsaque saxis
608. Hic, ubi vides Saxa vides, mixtoque undantem pulvere fumum ;
moles disjectas, saxa que Neptunus muros, magnoque emota tridenti
avulsa saxis, funumque Fundamenta quatit, totamque à sedibus urbem
undantem inixto pulEruit. Hic Juno Scæas sævissima portas
vere, Neptunus quatit Prima tenet, sociumque furens à navibus agmen
muros Trojæ, fundamenFerro accincta vocat.
taque emota magno tri
denti Jam summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas
624. Omne Ilium vi Tum verò omne mihi visum considere in ignes sum est mihi
NOTES. 610. Hic Neptunus quatit : here Neptune boar: they were armed with sharp and shakes the walls, &c. Neptune took an ac crooked claws. tive part against the Trojans, having become Medusa having been ravished in the temtheir enemy on account of the perfidy of ple of Minerva by Neptune, the goddess Laomedon. See Geor. i. 502. This fable gave her serpents the quality of transforming is explained by supposing that Laomedon men into stones at the sight of them. Peremployed the money which had been des seus cut off her head by the aid of Minertined for the service of that god, in building va’s buckler, which, being so finely polished, the walls of Troy. Emota : in the sense of that it reflected the image of the Gorgon's evulsa.
head, secured him from the fatal influ. 619 Hic Juno: here Juno, most fierce, ence of her eye. This head Minerva afoccupies the Scæan gate in front, &c. It is terward wore en her shield or buckler, to most probable that prima, here, has reference render her more awful and tremendous. See to the place of her standing, before, or in Lexicon, sub Ægide. front of the gate. It may, however, mean
617. Pater ipse : the father himself gives that Juno was the first, or chief, in urging on courage and successful strength to the the Greeks in the work of destruction. We Greeks. Juno and Minerva opposed the are told the gates of Troy were six in num- Trojans from selfish motives, because they ber: the gate of Antenor; the gate of Dar- had been slighted by Paris; but Jove was danus; the Ilian; the Catumbrian; the Tro an enemy to them, because their cause was jan; and the Scæan. Through this gate unjust, in detaining Helen against the laws the Trojan horse is said to have entered. of nations, when properly demanded. On which account, it is probable, the poet
620. Abero: in the sense of relinquam. placed Juno at this gate, clad in armour, and
622. Diræ facies: horrid images appearcalling upon her Greeks.
the images of desolation, death, and despair.
623. Magna numina Deúm. The Ro615. Pallcs. She is sometimes called
mans divided the gods into two classes : the Tritona: hence the adj. Tritonia. See 171. Dii majorum, and the Dii rrinorum gentium. supra.
In the first were ranked Jupiier, Neptune, 616. Efulgens nimbo: resplendent with Minerva, and Juno. The three last, in an a cloud. By nimbo, in this place, Servius especial manner, are represented as hostile understands a lucid circle, resembling a dia to Troy; and Jove, on this occasion, is opdem about the head, to distinguish the gods posed to them also. The magna numina from mortals. Gorgone: the three daugh- Deûm may simply mean the great gods; or ters of Phorcus and Ceto, Medusa, Euryale, rather, the great powers of the gods, hostile and Stenyo, were called Gorgones, Gorgons, to Troy. The overthrow of Troy is all or terrible sisters. The name is of Greek along represented to have been effected, not derivation, and signifies fierceness. It is said so much by the power of the Greeks, as by they had but one eye, which served them the power of the gods. I am now persuaded all by turns. They had great wings: their of the inutility of making any further resistheads were attired with vipers instead of ance, since it evidently appears that the hair: their teeth were tusks like those of a great powers of the gods are against us.
625. Ac veluti cùm Ilium, et ex imo verti Neptunia Troja.
625 agricolæ certatim in- Ac veluti summis antiquam in montibus ornum stant eruere antiquam Cùm ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus instant ornum in summis monti. bus, accisam ferro
Eruere agricolæ certatim ; illa usque minatur, 628. Illa usque mina- Et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat: tur ruinam, et tsemefac- Vulneribus donec paulatim evicta, supremùm
630 ta quoad comam
Congemuit, traxitque jugis avulsa ruinam.
Descendo, ac, ducente Deo, flammam inter et hostes 636. Quemque primùm Expedior: dant tela locum, flammæque recedunt. petebam, abnegat Ast ubi jam patriæ perventum ad limina sedis, posse producere vitam, Antiquasque domos : genitor, quem tollere in altos 635 Trojâ excisa
Optabam primùm montes, primùmque petebam, 638. Ait: O vos, qui. Abnegat excisâ vitam producere Trojâ, ævi; quibusque vires Exiliumque pati. Vos ô, quibus integer ævi stant solidæ suo robore Sanguis, ait, solidæque suo stant robore vires; 642. Est satis super- Vos agitate fugam.
640 que vidimus una exci- Me si cælicolæ voluissent ducere vitam, dia, et
Has mihi servâssent sedes: satìs una supèrque 644. O vos, affati meum corpus, sic, sic positum, Vidimus excidia, et captæ superavimus urbi. discedite.
Sic, ô, sic positum affati discedite corpus.
626. Ac veluti, &c. This simile is taken upon his shoulders. The Greeks, struck from Homer, Iliad xvi. 481, who applies it with this eminent example of filial tenderto the death of Sarpedon; but the copy ex ness and affection, gave him a second opceeds the original.
tion, when he carried off his gods.
Upon 627. Bipennibus. The axe is here used this, they were induced to grant him full for the stroke, or blow of the axe, by me- liberty to take along with him his whole faton. Accisam: in the sense of circumcisam. mily and all his effects. 628. Usque: in the sense of diu.
638. Integer ævi : unimpaired, or entire, 629. Nutat comam. It is usual with Vir on account of age. Causâ, or some word gil to consider a tree in analogy to a human of the like import, is probably to be underbody, and to call the extended limbs, or stood, to govern the gen. O ye, whose branches, brachia, arms; and the leaves, blood is not chilled and wasted by age, and comam, hair, or locks. This diversifies his who are yet in the full vigor of youth, do style, and renders it pleasant.
ye attempt your flight. The repetition of 630. Vulneribus : in the sense of actibus. the vos is emphatical. For robore, Ruæus This is beautifully figurative. The allusion says firmitate. to the human body is still kept up.
642. Satis supèrque: it is enough, and 631. Avuisa jugis : torn from the sides of more, that I have seen one destruction of the mountains.
my country, and survived the captured city. 632. Deo ducente. Deus is either a god This is an allusion to the siege and capture or goddess. Here it means Venus. Under of Troy by Hercules, in the reign of Laoher conduct, Æneas made his way through medon, a fact mentioned by historians as the dangers that beset him, to the house of well as by poets. And Virgil says of Anhis father.
chises, that he had been twice saved from 633. Expedior. Habeo liberum iter, says the ruins of Troy. Æn. iii. 476. Heyne.
644. Sic, 0, sic affati: O ye, having ad634. Ast ubi perventum. The imp. verb dressed my body, thus, thus laid out, deperventum est is used for the personal verb part. There is a peculiar emphasis in the perveni. This mode of expression is very repetition of the word sic. Anchises concommon among the poets. Our language siders himself as already dead, and his body will not admit of it, and we are under the laid out in burial: corpus positum, placed necessity of rendering such impersonals by on the funeral pile: at which time it was the personals of the correspondent verb, as usual for the friends of the deceased to take in the present case : perventum est: I came, a solemn farewell, by repeating the word or had comc.
vale three times. The repetition of the sic 637. Abnegat: refuses to prolong his life. shows his determined purpose of dying, We learn from Varro that the Greeks hav- and his earnest desire of being left to puring given permission to Æneas to carry off sue his resolution. It is used in the same what was dearest to him, he took his father way in the fourth book, where Dido, bent