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Fudimus insidiis, totâque agitavimus urbe,
Apparent: primi clypeos mentitaque tela

422. Illi etiam appe Agnoscunt, atque ora sono discordia signant.

rent; primique Ilicèt obruimur numero, primusque Choræbus Penelei dextrâ divæ armipotentis ad aram

425 Procumbit: cadit et Ripheus, justissimus unus, Qui fuit in Teucris, et servantissimus æqui ;

427. Qui fuit unus Dis aliter visum. Pereunt Hypanisque, Dymasque, justissimus, et Confixi à sociis : nec te tua plurima, Pantheu, Labentem pietas, nec Apollinis infula texit.

430 Iliaci cineres, et flamma extrema meorum, Testor, in occasu vestro, nec tela, nec ullas

432. Testor vos, me Vitavisse vices Danaûm : et, si fata fuissent

vitavisse nec tela, nec Ui caderem, meruisse manu. Divellimur inde,

ullas vices Danaûm Iphitus et Pelias mecum : quorum Iphitus ævo 435 Jam gravior, Pelias et vulnere tardus Ulyssei.

Protinùs ad sedes Priami clarnore vocati.
Hìc verò ingentem pugnam, ceu cætera nusquam

438. Hic verò cerneBella forent, nulli totâ morerentur in urbe :

mus ingentem pugnam, Sic Martem indomitum, Danaosque ad tecta ruentes 440

ceu

NOTES.

ness,

dusky night, &c. they also appear. Menti 429. Nec tua plurima pietas: nor did thy la lela: false or fictitious armour. It pur- great piety, nor the fillets of Apollo, protect ported that those who wore it were Greeks; thee from falling. but in truth were Trojans.

431. Iliaci cineres : ye Trojan ashes, and 423. Signant ora : they observe our words the last flames of my country, I call you to differing in sound from theirs. We speak witness, that, &c. Vices. By this Servius not their language, and, therefore, they know understands pugna, fights ; because they there must be some deception in the busi- fought by courses. Scaliger takes it to

Some understand by sono, the Gre mean wounds and deadly blows, vulnera et cian watch-word. Ora: in the sense of cædes ; because wounds in fighting are muverba, by meton.

tually given and received. Donatus consi

ders it an allusion to the gladiators; the 424. Ilicèt obruimur : instantly we are overpowered by numbers. The word ilicèt in fencing ta parry off a thrust, in opposition

verb vito, joined with it, being a term used was anciently used in the sense of actum est : all is over. 'It was an expression used by pericula. Heyne says casus pugnæ:

to peto, to aim one. For vices, Ruæus says. the judge, who, when he thought fit to put

433. Fuissent : in the sense of sinuissent. an end to business, ordered the crier to pronounce ilicèl , i. e. ire licel : all may go-the this right hand, i. e.

434. Meruisse manu : that I merited it by business is over.

by fighting. There is

something noble in this sentiment. It con425. Armipotentis Divæ: the warlike god- siders death as a prize or reward, which the dess—Pallas. See Geor. i. 18. Penelež: valiant win by their merit or valor. This Peneleus was one of the five generals of the

agrees with his former reflection: pulchrum Beotians who came to the Trojan war.

que mori succurrit in armis. Divellimur in428. Visum aliter Dis. Having mention- de Iphitus, et: we are torn away from thence. ed that his friend was the most just, and He speaks of it as a great affliction, and, most observant of justice among the Tro as it were, accuses his fate that aenied him jans, Æneas certainly could not mean that the honor of so glorious a death. it seemed otherwise to the gods. Something 435. Gravior ævo: Iphitus was now opit is evident must be understood. Now, the pressed or enfeebled with age; and Pelias mention of this excellent man, would natu disabled by a wound which he had received rally suggest the reflection that he deserved from Ulysses. Ævo: for annis. a better end: he ought not to have fallen 437. Protinùs : imm iately-in haste. with the rest; but he checks hinself: Dis Vocali: sumus is understood. aliler visum : it seemed otherwise to the 438. Ceu: in the sense of quasi. It is gods. Commentators have been much di- understood before nulli. Bella : in the sense vided in opinion upon these words. But in of pugnæ. this view they are plain and intelligiblc. 440. Mariem indomitum : Mars, furi: The verb est is understood.

ungoverned. Mars, the god of war, pu

445

Cernimus, obsessumque actâ testudine limen.

Hærent parietibus scalæ, postesque sub ipsos 443. Darai nituntur Nituntur gradibus; clypeosque ad tela sinistris

Protecti objiciunt, prensant fastigia dextris.

Dardanidæ contrà turres ac tecta domorum
446. His telis parant Culmina convellunt: his se, quando ultima cernunt,
defendere se

Extremâ jam in morte parant defendere telis ;
Auratasque trabes, veterum decora alta parentum,
Devolvunt : alii strictis mucronibus imas

Obsedêre fores : has servant agmine denso. 451. Nostri animi sunt Instaurati animi, regis succurrere tectis, instaurati

Auxilioque levare viros, vimque addere victis.

Limen erat, cæcæque fores, et pervius usus 455. Dum regna Pri- Tectorum inter se Priami, postesque relicti ami

A tergo : infelix quà se, dum reyna manebant,

450

455

NOTES.

war, or fighting in general. Ad tecta : to 447. In extrema morte: in the last catasthe palace.

trophe. Suprema ruinâ, says Ruæus. 441. Testudine actâ: the testudo being 448. Devolvunt auratas trabes : they tumformed. The testudo was a figure into which ble down upon their enemies the gilded the soldiers formed themselves in attacking rafters, the stately decorations of their antowns and other fortified places. The first cestors. In this passage, the poet has drawn rank stood upright, the next behind them a lively picture of men in despair. Soine stooped lower and lower by degrees, till the copies have decora illa parentum; which last rank kneeled down: all holding their has a peculiar emphasis. targets or shields over their heads in their 449. Alii obsedère. These I take to be left hands. By these means they were se- Trojan guards, who had taken possession of cure from the missive weapons of the enemy the lower doors, to prevent the entrance of froin the walls and towers. To carry on an the Greeks. Others understand the Greeks attack this way was called, agere testudi- themselves, who had besieged the doors. nem: to form the testudo, or target defence. Mucronibus. Mucro is properly the point of Limen : the passage which led up to the the sword; by synec. put for the whole palace—the place before the door.

sword. 442. Parietibus. Puries is properly the 450. Denso agmine: in a close, or comwall of a house-murus, the wall of a city. pact body. Animi : courage.

443. Nituntur gradibus sub, &c. 'By gra- 452. Levare: in the sense of juvare. Vicdibus, here, we may either understand the tis: to those despairing—fighting without steps that led up to the palace, or the steps any hope of victory. Vim : force-vigor. of the scaling ladders by which they mount- In the sing. it is a triptot; in the plu. regued up, or pressed to get up, to the roof, the lar. foot of these ladders being placed at the very 453. Pervius usus tectorum : lit. a thodoor-posts. Mr. Davidson understands the roughfare (free communication) between passage in this last sense. The former, how- the palaces of Priam with each other, and ever, is the easier : which is the sense of a gate left free (unobserved by the enemy) Ruæus. Ad ipsas portas, says he. The from behind, where unhappy Andromache, Greeks ascend (nituntur) by the steps up to &c. the very doors. Postes, properly the frame It appears that Priam had two palaces of the door, put, frequently, for the door it- near each other, with a communication be. self, by meton.

tween then; in one of which Hector and 444. Protecti sinistris : protected by their Andromache resided, while he and Hecuba left hands, (by the shields which they sup- resided in the other. Limen: an entrance. ported on their left arm,) they oppose their Cæcæ : private--secret. Through this prishields, &c. Fastigia: the roof, or the eaves vate, or back door, Æneas entered the paor edge of the roof.

lace, and ascended by the usual passage up 445. Tecta culmina domorum; the cover

to the watch-tower. ed tops of their houses. Here tecta is a par- 454. Postes : in the sense of porta. ticipial adjective, from the verb tego. Its 455. Quà infelix Andromache. The menneuter, lectum, properly signifies the roof or tion of her using this secret passage of the covering of any building. Hence by synec. palace, gives a dignity to the circumstanchy the building itself—a house, a palace. which in itself is low.

458. Hâc via evado

Sæpiùs Andromache ferre incomitata solebat
Ad soceros, et avo puerum Astyanacta trahebat.
Evado ad summi fastigia culminis, unde
Tela manu miseri jactabant irrita 'Teucri.
Turrim in præcipiti stantem, summisque sub astra
Eductam tectis, unde omnis Troja videri,
Et Danaûm solitæ naves, et Achaïca castra ;
Aggressi ferro circùm, quà summa labantes
Juncturas tabulata dabant, convellimus altis
Sedibus, impulimusque. Ea lapsa repentè ruinam
Cum sonitu trahit, et Danaûm super agmina latè
lucidit: ast alii subeunt: nec sảxa, nec ullum
Telorum intereà cessat genus.
Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine Pyrrhus
Exultat, telis et luce coruscus ahenâ.
Qualis ubi in lucem coluber, mala gramina pastus,
Frigida sub terrâ tumidum quem bruma tegebat;

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NOTES.

457. Soceros : her parents-in-law-Priam palace, on which the tower stood, and to and Hecuba. Astyanacta : a Greek acc. of which it was fastened: or perhaps the highAstyanaz. Some say he was carried off by est story, or part of the tower only, was Ulysses, others say by Menelaus, in the ab- overthrown. Labantes : in the sense of sence of Pyrrhus, and thrown over a preci- infirmas. pice, to evade the prophecy, which imported 464. Dabant : in the sense of habebant. ihat, if he lived, he would avenge his pa 469. Ante ipsum: before the very enrents and country. The name is of Greek trance, or vestibule. The vestibulum proorigin, and signifies, a king of a city. perly was the court yard or space before

458. Evado ad fustigia: I ascend to the the door of the house. By primo limine, top of the highest roof. The word evado we may understand the outer gate; perhaps marks the danger of the enterprise, and the the one that gave admittance into the veshazard he ran of being intercepted by the tibulum. enemy.

470. Coruscus ahenâ luce : gleaming in It is probable that by fastigia here, we arms, and brazen light; the brass of his are to understand the battlements, or watch armour reflected the light. tower, which had been built upon the high Pyrrhus. He was the son of Achilles est part of the palace. We may suppose and Deïdamia, so called from the color of the palace to have been of different heights, his skin, which was red. He was sometimes or to have consisted of several buildings, called Neoptolemus, from two Greek words, differing in height, and connected together which together signify a new war. He inso as to form one mass, each of them with herited much of the spirit and temper of its respective roof; hence the propriety of his father. He slew Priam while holding the expressions : summi tecti-summi cul- the altar, to which he had fled for refuge; minis, &c.

and sacrificed his daughter Polyxena at the 460. In præciputi : in a dangerous place tomb of his father. After the destruction -in a projecting situation.

of Troy, he carried off Andromache, whomy 461. Summus tectis : with its highest roof, he married; at least he had a son by her, or simply, with its top. It is plain that tec- named Molossus. He afterwards married tum here means the roof, or ridge of the her to Helenus, the son of Friam, upon his tower.

falling in love with Hermione, the daughter 463. Ferro. Ferrum properly signifies of Menelaus and Helen. iron. Hence any instrument made of iron Pyrrhus was slain in the temple of -any edged tool; such as swords, axes, &c. Apollo, at Delphi, by Orestes, to whom With these instruments they cut the tower Hermione had been promised. He was also loose, where the topmost story gave weak called Pelides, from Peleus, his grandfather. joints. Mr. Davidson observes, it is some 471. Pustus mala: having fed upon poiwhat difficult to determine the meaning of sonous herbs. It is said that serpents, when summa in this place; because the poet they lie in wait for either man or beast, eat speaks as if the whole tower had been torn poisonous herbs and roots, to make their from its place, and not one story of it only. bite more fatal.. He therefore thinks we may understand by 472. Bruma : properly the shortest day the summa tabulata, the highest story of the of winter--the winter solstice ; hence bi

475

480

Nunc positis novus exuviis, nitidusque juventâ,

Lubrica convolvit, sublato pectore, terga 475. Unà cum Pyrrho Arduus ad Solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis. ingens Periphas,

et Unà ingens Periphas, et equorum agitator Achillis Automedon Armiger Pyrrhi, quondam agita

Armiger Automedon ; unà omnis Scyria pubes tor equorum Achillis,

Succedunt tecto, et flammas ad culmina jactant. unà etiam omnis Ipse inter primos, correptâ dura bipenni,

479. Pyrrhus ipse in- Limina perrumpit, postesque à cardine vellit ter primos

Æratos; jamque excisâ trabe firma cavavit
Robora, et ingentem lato dedit ore fenestram.
Apparet domus intus, et atria longa patescunt:

Apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regum : 485. Danai vident ar- Armatosque vident standes in limine primo. matos custodes stantes At domus interior gemitu miseroque-tumultu

Miscetur: penitùsque cavæ plangoribus ædes
Fæmineis ululant: ferit aurea sidera elamor.

Tum pavidæ tectis matres ingentibus errant: 490. Figunt oscula Amplexæque tenent postes, atque oscula figunt. illis

485

490

Instat vi patriâ Pyrrhus ; nec claustra; neque ipsi
Custodes sufferre valent: labat ariete crebro

NOTES.

synec. the whole winter. Tumidum: swol or crosspiece, or other impediments, on the len, or bloated with poison.

inside of the door, to secure it. - By limina, 473. Novus exuviis : now, renewed, his we may understand the impediments or deskin being cast off, and sleek with youth, he fences on the outside of the door;

and by rolls, &c. It is well known that the snake postes, the door itself, by meton. The perchanges, or creeps out of his skin, in the rumpit dura limina, and the vellit postes à spring of the year. Aristotle informs us cardine, show Pyrrhus breaking through all that they begin at the head, and having di- obstructions, and tearing down the doors ; vested themselves of their old garment, and cavavit being in the perf. tense, marks they appear renewed in youth and beauty. the ease and rapidity with which the effect This is effected in about the space of twenty- was produced. Dedit: in the sense of fecit. four hours.

484. Penetralia. Penetrale properly sig475. Arduus ad solem : raised or elevated nifies the interior or private apartments of to the sun; in order to receive his heat, es a house, as here—that part of the temple pecially in the spring, when his warm beams where the images stood-the place whence are the most cherishing. Trisulcis. The the responses of the oracles were givenpoets represent serpents as having three- the shrine. Ruæus says, recessus. forked tongues, probably on account of the 487. Cavæ ædes: the rooms with concave volubility of their tongues, in which they 'arches, or ceilings. Ululant: in the sense are said to exceed all other animals. Micat: of resonant. Plangoribus: shrieks, or lain the sense of vibrat.

mentations. Thes rooms, or apartments 477. Scyria: an adj. from Scyros, one of of the females, were in the middle, or intethe Cyclades. Achilles was placed here rior part of the palace. This is expressed in the habit of a woman, under the care of by penitùs. Lycomedes, king of the island, where he 490. Amplexe tenent, &c. This is an aldefiled his daughter Deïdamia, who brought lusion to a superstitious opinion among the him Pyrrhus. Some say Lycomedes gave Romans, that the door-posts, gates, &e. him his daughter in marriage. Pubes : in possessed a kind of divinity. These, there. the sense of juventus.

fore, the poet represents as being seized and 478. Succedunt tecto: come up to the pa- embraced by the Trojan matrons, who hoped lace, so that they could reach the roof with by these means to recommend themselves the flames. They advance up to a proper to the protection of the deities that were distance, to throw flames upon the roof. supposed to preside over them. Figunt os

481. Cavavit firma robora : 'and now hath cula : fix their lips to them-kiss them. he pierced, or cut through the firm wood, 489. Ingentibus tectis : in the spacious &c. This change of tense is very expres- apartments—halls. sive and beautiful. It marks the violence 492. Sufferre: in the sense of impedire. of Pyrrhus, and the rapidity of his progress. Crebro ariete : with the frequent strokes of By trabe here, we may understand the bar, the ram. This was an engine used in the

Janua, et emoti procumbunt cardine postes.
Fit via vi: rumpunt aditus, primosque trucidant
Immissi Danai, et latè loca milite complent.

495

495. Danai rumpunt Non sic, aggeribus ruptis cùm spumeus amnis

aditus, immissique Exiit, oppositasque evicit gurgite moles,

496. Amnis, cùm exiit Fertur in arva furens cumulo, camposque per omnes

spumeus, aggeribus rup

tis, evicitque oppositas Cum stabulis armenta trahit. Vidi ipse furentem moles gurgite, non fertur Cæde Neoptolemum, geminosque in limine Atridas: 500 in arva sic furens Vidi Hecubam, centumque nurus, Priamumque per aras

498. Cumulo aquaruni Sanguine fvedantem, quos ipse sacraverat, ignes. Quinquaginta illi thalami, spes tanta nepotum, Barbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi, Procubuere: tenent Danai, quà deficit ignis. 505

505. Danai tenent loForsitan et, Priami fuerint quæ fata, requiras.

cam, quà

509. Senior nequicUrbis ubi captæ casum, convulsaque vidit

quam circumdat arma Limina tectorum, et medium in penetralibus hostem ; diu desueta humeris treArma diu senior desueta trementibus ævo

mentibus ævo, et

NOTES.

name.

attack of towns and fortified plaoes, to make one wife each; who, in the whole, might a breach in the walls. It was a long beam make the exact number of a hundred. This or piece of timber, one end of which was last is the best, or most probable explanaprepared with iron, soinewhat resembling in tion. form the head of a ram, whence it took its 502. Fædantem : defiling with his blood

This was suspended in the middle the fires which, &c. In the open court of by the help of ropes, to another beam, ex- his palace, Priam had an altar consecrated tended across two posts, and thrown forward to Jupiter Hercæus, or the Protector: on by the besiegers with great violence against this altar, we are told that hallowed fire was the wall.

kept perpetually burning. 493. Postes: the door, or gate, by meton.

503. Illi thalami : those fifty bed-cham494. Rumpunt aditus : they force a pas- bers, the so great hope of posterity. These sage, or entrance.

were the separate rooms where his sons 496. Non sic fertur: a river, when it hath lodged with their wives. Homer tells us rushed forth foaming, its barriers being burst, that Priam had twelve daughters, who, with and hath overcoine the opposing mounds their husbands, lodged over against his sons. with its whirling current, is not borne into He had therefore sixty-two children by his the fields so furious with its flood, &c. The several wives, nineteen of whom Hecuba poet here gives us a very lively idea of the bore him. The rest he had by his other rage of the Greeks. It exceeded that of a

wives. All these bed-chambers were in river pent up; at length, bursting its barri, Priam's palace. ers, overflowing the adjacent country, and spreading desolation and destruction every with foreign gold and spoils.

504. Superbi barbarico auro : decorated

The Romans where in its course. Cumulo: auctů aqua- frequently called Phrygia, Barbary. Some rum, says Rumus.

501. Hecubam. She was the wife of Pri- therefore understand by barbarico auro, am, and daughter of C'isseüs, king of Thrace. Phrygian gold. It is better to understand She was carried into slavery by the Grecks. it of the gold, which had been taken from Centum nurus. Homer informs us that Priam their vanquished enemies; more especially

since spoliis immediately follows it. had only fifty sons, Iliad vi. He could not therefore have a hundred daughters-in-law, perbi: in the sense of ornati

, or decorati.

Postes : unless we suppose each one to have had two

: in the sense of portæ : doors. wives. This might have been the case; but

505. Danai tenent, &c. The Greeks are there is no mention made of it. To explain here beautifully represented more cruel than this difficulty, some take the definite num

the flames. The fire abated, and fell from ber centum, for an indefinite one. Others, its rage: but the more merciless Greeks among whom is Ruæus, take nurus for an press on till all is destroyed. attendant, or waiter, understanding by cena

507. Casum : in the conse of ruinam. tum nurus, the hundred servants, or waiters 508. Limina tectorum conrılsa: the door of Hecuba. But there is no impropriety in of his palace torn down-brokea through. supposing that the sons of Priam, imitating Penetralibus : in the inner or private apart the example of their father, had more than ments of his palace.

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