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per tela

Una salus victis, nullam sperare salutem.
Sic animis juvenum furor additus. Inde lupi ceu

350 Raptores, atrâ in nebulâ, quos improba ventris 357. Quos improba Exegit cæcos rabies, catulique relicti rabies ventris exegit ex Faucibus expectant siccis: per tela, per

hostes antris cæcos periculo, Vadimus haud dubiam in mortem, mediæque tenemus quos-que catuli relicti in antris

360 Urbis iter : nox atra cavâ circumvolat umbrâ. 359. Sic nos vadimus Quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando

Explicet ? (aut possit lachrymis æquare labores ?
Urbs antiqua ruit, multos dominata per annos

Plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia passim 365. Domos hominum, Corpora, perque domos, et relligiosa Deorum

365 Lirnina. Nec soli pænas dant sanguine Teucri :

Quondam etiam victis redit in præcordia virtus, 368. Ubique est crude- Victoresque cadunt Danai : crudelis ubique lis

Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortis imago. X 370. Androgeos pri Primus se Danaûm, magnâ comitante caterva, 370 mus Danaûm offert se Androgeos offert nobis, socia agmina credens, nobis, magna caterva Inscius ; atque ultrò verbis compellat amicis : comitante eum, credens nostra agmina esse socia

Festinate, viri : nam quæ tam sera moratur :
Segnities ? alii rapiunt incensa feruntque

et per

NOTES.

tom the poet may here allude; or rather to has in charge his aged father, his wife, and the poetical fiction, that when Troy was infant son; and endeavors to shun thein by like to be taken, the gods were seen carrying tracing out thc by-paths and unfrequented away their statues from the temples.

lanes. 354. Una salus : the only safety to the 361. Fando: in the sense of verbis. vanquished, is, to hope for no safety. This 362. Labores : disasters-toils, is the same argument which the brave Le 365. Inertia corpora. By these bodies, it onidas used to animate his men to sell their is most probable, we are to understand the lives as dear as possible. Una: in the sense feeble and helpless part of the inhabitants of sola.

old men, women, and children; and all who 355. Inde ceu lupi: after that, as ravenous did not take up arms in defence of their wolves in a dark night, which excessive country: they were slain (sternuntur) every hunger hath driven out blind to danger, &c. where, in their own houses, in the streets, Improba rabies ventris : excessive greediness and in the temples whither they had fled for of the belly-pressing hunger. Raplores: protection. They are called inertia in opin the sense of rapaces, ravenous, rapacious. position to those who dared to make resistDr.'Trapp objects to the justness of this ance, and nobly die. This is inuch better simile; but the comparison does not lie in than to take corpora in the sense of cadavera, the action, but in the manner of performing as is usually done; for then the epithet inerit. As hungry rapacious wolves are forced tia would be quite useless and superfluous. from their retreats precipitately into danger, 366. Relligiosa limina : the sacred temwithout fear or dread, so we rush desperate- ples of the gods. Limen, the threshold, by ly on our foes, looking death and danger in synec. put for the temple. Dant pænas santhe face. The poet mentions another cir- guine; simply, suffer punishment with their cuinstance. Catuli relicti : their whelps, blood-by shedding their blood. left behind, wait with parched jaws. By 367. Præcordia : in the sense of corda, which he intended to represent those animals vel , ectora. in their fiercest and most ravenous state; 3€). Plurima imago: very many forms of and, therefore, the more proper to denote deatli. This mode of expression is common the fierceness and rage of men driven to with Virgil, and is conformable to the Latin despair. In atra nebula: in the dark night; idion. So multa virtus-multusque honos. because in the night, or dark weather, they Æn. iv. 3. Such expressions, however, conare the fiercest and least mindful of danger. vey an idea of plurality rather than of uni

359. Vadimus : we march to certain death, ty; and, in our language, require to be renand take the way through the middle of the dered in the plura! zumber. city. This circumstance is mentioned to 271. Socia: friendly. Androgcos took show their courage and intrepidity. Alter- them to be of the party of the Greeks. ward he is afraid of the enemy, when, he 374. Nam que segnilies : what sloth so

er

Pergama: vos celsis nunc primùm à navibus itis ? 375
Dixit : et extemplò (neque enim responsa dabantur
Fida satis) sensit medios delapsus in hostes.
Obstupuit, retròque pedem cum voce repressit.
Improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem

379. Veluti homo qui Pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repentè refugit

380 nitens, humi pressit anAttollentem iras, et cærula colla tumentem.

quem improvisum

aspris sentibus Haud sccùs Androgeos visu tremefactus abibat.

381. Refugit eum atIrruimus, densis et circumfundimur armis :

tollentem Ignarosque loci passim et formidine captos Sternimus: aspirat primo fortuna labori.

385 Atque hìc exultans successu animisque Chorcebus, socii, quà prima, inquit, fortuna salutis

387. O socii, qua forMonstrat iter, quàque ostendit se dextra, sequamur.

tuna prima monstrat no

bis iter salutis, quàque Mutemus clypeos, Danaûmque insignia nobis

dextra ostendit se, Aptemus : dolus, an virtus, quis in hoste requirat? 390

390. Quis requirat in Arma dabunt ipsi. Sic fatus, deinde comantem hoste, an sit dolus, an Androgei galeam, clypeique insigne decorum

virtus. Ipsi occisi Induitur: laterique Argivum accommodat ensem. Hoc Ripheus, hoc ipse Dymas, omnisque juventus 394. Ripheus facit Læta facit : spoliis se quisque recentibus armat. 395 hoc, Dymas ipse facit

hoc -Vadimus immixti Danais, haud numine nostro : Multaque per cæcam congressi prælia noctem

sum esse.

NOTES. late detains you. Rapiunt : in the sense of 386. Animis: courage—boldness. vastant. Ferunt: in the sense of evertunt. 388. Dectra : in the sense of propitia.

376. Extemplò sensit: he instantly per 339. Insignia Danaûm: the armour of ceived that he had fallen into the midst of the Greeks. This seems to allude to the enemies. Delapsus: in the sense of delap- figures, or images, engraven upon their buckA Grecism.

lers—those of the Greeks having the figure 377. Fida: in the sense of amica. Neque: of Neptune, and those of the Trojans the in the sense of non.

figure of Minerva. Putting on the Grecian 378. Repressit pedem : he retreated back figures, was the same thing as putting on with his words. “As soon as he perceived their armour. his mistake, he retreated back.

Zenobius tells us, that Coræbus was noted 379. Aspris: by syncope

for
asperis.

This simile is taken from Homer, Iliad iii. verse

for stupidity: as an instance, he mentions

that he used to amuse himself on the sea 33. But Virgil is very happy in the appli- shore by counting the waves as they dashed cation, and has improved upon the original, against it. He came to the assistance of by the addition of several circumstances that Priam just before the city was taken; and heighten the comparison, and give it more force and likeness.

now he shows his stupidity and want of 380. Nitens humi: walking on the ground, foresight in suggesting a plan, rash in its

nature, and which in the event proved fatal -steps upon a sngke unseen, &c.

to him and his associates. 382. Haud secùs: no otherwisejust so.

383. Circumfundimur: this verb here has 390. Requirat : ask-demand. an active signification: we encompass them 393. Induitur comantem: he puts on the with our weapons close joined. Or, it may waving helmet of Androgeos. Induitur is have the sense of miscemur, as Ruæus in- plainly to be taken actively, in the sense of terprets it.

induit. Comantem: waving with a hairy 384. Captos formidine. Mr. Davidson ob crest. The crests of their helmets were serves: by this we are to understand that made of the hair of beasts. Decorum inthey were so under the power of fear, as signe clypei : the beautiful, or comely figure not to be able to exert themselves—enchain- of kis shield; i. e. his beautiful shield-his ed, arrested, or nonplussed by fear; and so shield richly ornamented. enslaved to it, that they could obey nothing 396. Haud nostro numine: not with our but its impulse. Ruæus interprets it by god. This is an allusion to their having percitos metu,

put off their own armour, on which was en385. Aspirat: in the sense of favet. La- graven the figure of Minerva, their guar bori: in the sense of conatui.

dian goddess and protectress, and put on the

400

405

Conserimus, multos Danaûm demittimus Orco.

Diffugiunt alii ad naves, et litora cursu 400. Pars præ turpi Fida petunt: pars ingentem formidine turpi formidine

Scandunt rursus equum, et notâ conduntur in alvo.

Heu, nihil invitis fas quenquam fidere Divis! 403. Ecce Cassandra Ecce trahebatur passis Priameïa virgo Priameïa Virgo passis Crinibus à templo Cassandra adytisque Minervæ, crinibus

Ad cælum tendens ardentia lumina frustrà,
406. Lumina, inquam: Lumina, nam teneras arcebant vincula palinas.
nam,

Non tulit hanc speciem furiatâ mente Choræbus,
Et sese medium injecit moriturus in agmen.
Consequimur cuncti, et densis incurrimus armis.
Hic primùm ex alto delubri culmine telis

Nostrorum obruimur, oriturque miserrima cædes,
412. Ex facie nostro- Armorum facie, et Graiarum errore jubarum.
413. Danai commoti

Tum Danai gemitu, atque ereptæ virginis irâ, gemitu, atque irâ virgi- Undique collecti invadunt: acerrimus Ajax, nis ereptæ ex suis mani- Et gernini Atridæ, Dolopumque exercitus omnis. bus

Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti 416. Ceu adversi ven- Confligunt, Zephyrusyue, Notusque, et lætus Eois ti, Zephyrusque, Notus- Eurus equis : stridunt sylvæ, sævitque tridenti equis, quondam confi- Spumeus atque imo Nereus ciet æquo,a fundo. gunt, turbine rupto Illi etiam, si quos obscurâ nocte per umbram

410

rum armorum

415

420

NOTES.

Grecian armour, with the figure of Neptune, understands it of their rushing upon the the inveterate enemy of the Trojans. Im- close or compacted body of the Greeks. mixti Danais. It is one characteristic of Irruimus in densum agmen hostium, says he. the valiant, that they mingle with the ranks 412. Facie armorum: from the appearance of the enemy. Homer says of Diomede, of their armour, the Trojans took them to that he so mingled with the Trojans, that a be Greeks. Jubarum: crests or plumes. spectator would have, sometimes, been at a 413. Gemitu : in the sense of dolore. The loss to know whether he belonged to the Greeks (moved) with grief and resentment, Trojans, or to the Greeks.

on account of the virgin rescued from their 393. Conserimus multa prælia : we wage hands, being collected together from all many a fight. Orco : in the sense of ad in- quarters, attack us. Gemitus here is plainly feros.

used in a wider sense than usual. Both 402. Nihil fas: it is not right that any Ruæus and Heyne take it in the sense of one should have confidence, (trust in any dolor. thing) the gods being against him. Nihil 414. Ajax. He was the son of Oïleus. and nil are often used simply in the sense of He ravished Cassandra in the temple of non. The verb est is understood.

Minerva, for which he was afterward severe404. Crinibus passis : with loose or dis- ly punished by that goddess. See Æn. i. hevelled hair. Passis, from the verb pan- 41. Ajax, the son of Telainon, had some dor, to be loose or spread open.

time before killed himself, for his failure in 405. Tendens : raising her glaring eyes to the contest for the armour of Achilles. heaven in vain. Frusta: in vain, either be 415. Gemini Atridæ : the two sons of cause the gods were inexorable, or because Atreus, Agamennon and Menelaus. she could not move the compassion of the 416. Ceu adversi venti: as when opposite Greeks. This is a most moving represen- winds, &c. This simile is in imitation of tation of the beautiful prophetess and prin- Homer, Iliad 9. In comparing the two, cess in distress. No wonder that it roused Scaliger found the preference so much due the indignation of this valiant band, and to Virgil, that he reckons him the master, brought thein to her rescue. They avenged and Homer the scholar. Confligunt: in the the horrid deed upon their enemies.

sense of certant. 407. Spcciem: sight-spectacle. This sight 419. Nereus: a marine god. The trident Choræbus could not bear.

was assigned to him by the poets, as well as 409. Incurrimus : we rush upon them to to Neptune. See Ecl. vi. 35. the rescue of Cassandra. Densis armis : 420. Si quos fudimus: if we have routed with close weapons in close array. Heyne any by stratagem through the shades in the

Fudimus insidiis, totâque agitavimus urbe,
Apparent: primi clypeos mentitaque tela

422. Illi etiam appe Agnoscunt, atque ora sono discordia signant.

rent; primique Ilicèt obruimur numero, primusque Choræbus Penelei dextrâ divæ armipotentis ad aram

425 Procumbit: cadit et Ripheus, justissimus unus, Qui fuit in Teucris, et servantissimus æqui ;

427. Qui fuit unus Dis aliter visum. Pereunt Hypanisque, Dymasque, justissimus, et Confixi à sociis : nec te tua plurima, Pantheu, Labentem pietas, nec Apollinis infula texit.

430 Iliaci cineres, et flamma extrema meorum, Testor, in occasu vestro, nec tela, nec ullas

432. Testor vos, me Vitavisse vices Danaûm : et, si fata fuissent

vitavisse nec tela, nec Ui caderem, meruisse manu. Divellimur inde,

ullas vices Danaûm Iphitus et Pelias mecum : quorum Iphitus ævo 435 Jam gravior, Pelias et vulnere tardus Ulyssei.

Protinùs ad sedes Priami clarnore vocati.
Hìc verò ingentem pugnam, ceu cætera nusquam

438. Hic verò cerneBella forent, nulli totâ morerentur in urbe :

mus ingentem pugnam, Sic Martem indomitum, Danaosque ad tecta ruentes 440

ceu

NOTES.

ness,

dusky night, &c. they also appear. Menti 429. Nec tua plurima pietas: nor did thy la lela: false or fictitious armour. It pur- great piety, nor the fillets of Apollo, protect ported that those who wore it were Greeks; thee from falling. but in truth were Trojans.

431. Iliaci cineres : ye Trojan ashes, and 423. Signant ora : they observe our words the last flames of my country, I call you to differing in sound from theirs. We speak witness, that, &c. Vices. By this Servius not their language, and, therefore, they know understands pugna, fights ; because they there must be some deception in the busi- fought by courses. Scaliger takes it to

Some understand by sono, the Gre mean wounds and deadly blows, vulnera et cian watch-word. Ora: in the sense of cædes ; because wounds in fighting are muverba, by meton.

tually given and received. Donatus consi

ders it an allusion to the gladiators; the 424. Ilicèt obruimur : instantly we are overpowered by numbers. The word ilicèt in fencing ta parry off a thrust, in opposition

verb vito, joined with it, being a term used was anciently used in the sense of actum est : all is over. 'It was an expression used by pericula. Heyne says casus pugnæ:

to peto, to aim one. For vices, Ruæus says. the judge, who, when he thought fit to put

433. Fuissent : in the sense of sinuissent. an end to business, ordered the crier to pronounce ilicèl , i. e. ire licel : all may go-the this right hand, i. e.

434. Meruisse manu : that I merited it by business is over.

by fighting. There is

something noble in this sentiment. It con425. Armipotentis Divæ: the warlike god- siders death as a prize or reward, which the dess—Pallas. See Geor. i. 18. Penelež: valiant win by their merit or valor. This Peneleus was one of the five generals of the

agrees with his former reflection: pulchrum Beotians who came to the Trojan war.

que mori succurrit in armis. Divellimur in428. Visum aliter Dis. Having mention- de Iphitus, et: we are torn away from thence. ed that his friend was the most just, and He speaks of it as a great affliction, and, most observant of justice among the Tro as it were, accuses his fate that aenied him jans, Æneas certainly could not mean that the honor of so glorious a death. it seemed otherwise to the gods. Something 435. Gravior ævo: Iphitus was now opit is evident must be understood. Now, the pressed or enfeebled with age; and Pelias mention of this excellent man, would natu disabled by a wound which he had received rally suggest the reflection that he deserved from Ulysses. Ævo: for annis. a better end: he ought not to have fallen 437. Protinùs : imm iately-in haste. with the rest; but he checks hinself: Dis Vocali: sumus is understood. aliler visum : it seemed otherwise to the 438. Ceu: in the sense of quasi. It is gods. Commentators have been much di- understood before nulli. Bella : in the sense vided in opinion upon these words. But in of pugnæ. this view they are plain and intelligiblc. 440. Mariem indomitum : Mars, furi: The verb est is understood.

ungoverned. Mars, the god of war, pu

445

Cernimus, obsessumque actâ testudine limen.

Hærent parietibus scalæ, postesque sub ipsos 443. Darai nituntur Nituntur gradibus; clypeosque ad tela sinistris

Protecti objiciunt, prensant fastigia dextris.

Dardanidæ contrà turres ac tecta domorum
446. His telis parant Culmina convellunt: his se, quando ultima cernunt,
defendere se

Extremâ jam in morte parant defendere telis ;
Auratasque trabes, veterum decora alta parentum,
Devolvunt : alii strictis mucronibus imas

Obsedêre fores : has servant agmine denso. 451. Nostri animi sunt Instaurati animi, regis succurrere tectis, instaurati

Auxilioque levare viros, vimque addere victis.

Limen erat, cæcæque fores, et pervius usus 455. Dum regna Pri- Tectorum inter se Priami, postesque relicti ami

A tergo : infelix quà se, dum reyna manebant,

450

455

NOTES.

war, or fighting in general. Ad tecta : to 447. In extrema morte: in the last catasthe palace.

trophe. Suprema ruinâ, says Ruæus. 441. Testudine actâ: the testudo being 448. Devolvunt auratas trabes : they tumformed. The testudo was a figure into which ble down upon their enemies the gilded the soldiers formed themselves in attacking rafters, the stately decorations of their antowns and other fortified places. The first cestors. In this passage, the poet has drawn rank stood upright, the next behind them a lively picture of men in despair. Soine stooped lower and lower by degrees, till the copies have decora illa parentum; which last rank kneeled down: all holding their has a peculiar emphasis. targets or shields over their heads in their 449. Alii obsedère. These I take to be left hands. By these means they were se- Trojan guards, who had taken possession of cure from the missive weapons of the enemy the lower doors, to prevent the entrance of froin the walls and towers. To carry on an the Greeks. Others understand the Greeks attack this way was called, agere testudi- themselves, who had besieged the doors. nem: to form the testudo, or target defence. Mucronibus. Mucro is properly the point of Limen : the passage which led up to the the sword; by synec. put for the whole palace—the place before the door.

sword. 442. Parietibus. Puries is properly the 450. Denso agmine: in a close, or comwall of a house-murus, the wall of a city. pact body. Animi : courage.

443. Nituntur gradibus sub, &c. 'By gra 452. Levare: in the sense of juvare. Vicdibus, here, we may either understand the tis: to those despairing—fighting without steps that led up to the palace, or the steps any hope of victory. Vim : force-vigor. of the scaling ladders by which they mount In the sing. it is a triptot; in the plu. regued up, or pressed to get up, to the roof, the lar. foot of these ladders being placed at the very 453. Pervius usus tectorum : lit. a thodoor-posts. Mr. Davidson understands the roughfare (free communication) between passage in this last sense. The former, how- the palaces of Priam with each other, and ever, is the easier : which is the sense of a gate left free (unobserved by the enemy) Ruæus. Ad ipsas portas, says he. The from behind, where unhappy Andromache, Greeks ascend (nituntur) by the steps up to &c. the very doors. Postes, properly the frame It appears that Priam had two palaces of the door, put, frequently, for the door it near each other, with a communication be. self, by meton.

tween then; in one of which Hector and 444. Protecti sinistris : protected by their Andromache resided, while he and Hecuba left hands, (by the shields which they sup- resided in the other. Limen: an entrance. ported on their left arm,) they oppose their Cæcæ : private--secret. Through this prishields, &c. Fastigia: the roof, or the eaves vate, or back door, Æneas entered the paor edge of the roof.

lace, and ascended by the usual passage up 445. Tecta culmina domorum; the cover

to the watch-tower. ed tops of their houses. Here tecta is a par 454. Postes : in the sense of porta. ticipial adjective, from the verb tego. Its 455. Quà infelix Andromache. The menneuter, lectum, properly signifies the roof or tion of her using this secret passage of the covering of any building. Hence by synec. palace, gives a dignity to the circumstanchy the building itself—a house, a palace. which in itself is low.

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