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Sed giomerare manum bello, et concurrere in arcem

Cum sociis ardent animi : furor iraque, mentem 316 317. Succurrit mihi in Præcipitant; pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis. mentem pulchrum esse

Ecce autem, telis Pantheus elapsus Achivům,

Pantheus Otriades, arcis Phæbique sacerdos, 320. Ipse trahit sacra, Sacra manu, victosque Deos, parvumque nepotem

320 victosque

Ipse trahit : cursuque amens ad limina tendit : 322. In quo loco est Quo res summa loco, Pantheu ? quam prendimus arcem ?

Vix ea fatus eram gemitu,cùm talia reddit :
Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus
Dardaniæ : fuimus Troës, fuit Ilium, et ingens 325
Gloria Teucrorum : ferus omnia Jupiter Argos
Transtulit : incensâ Danai dominantur in urbe.

Arduus armatos mediis in manibus adstans 331. Tot millia, quot

Fundit equus, victorque Sinon incendia miscet nunquam venêre è magInsultans : portis alii bipatentibus adsunt,

330 nis

Millia quot magnis nunquam venêre Mycenis.

summa res

NOTES.

alpha, privitivum, and mens. It properly sig- 322. Summa res: the commonwealth-~nifies, deprived of reason—destitute of pre- the common interests of his country; which sence of mind, from any cause whatever. was the summa res of Æneas, his chief, his

315. Glomerare : in the sense of colligere. highest concern; and will always be nearest

316. Animi ardent: my mind burns to the heart of every good patriot. Virgil, to collect, &c. The plural here has plainly show the haste and impatience of Æneas, the sense of the singular animus.

makes him throw out these short questions 319. Pantheus : he was the son of Otreus. abruptly, without any previous introducServius informs us, that on the overthrow of tion. Loco: state, or condition. Reddit : Troy by Hercules, and the death of Lao- in the sense of respondet. medon, Priam sent the son of Antenor to consult the oracle of Delphi, whether he these words in the sense of ineritabilis ruina

324. Ineluctabile tempus.

Ruæus takes should build up Troy again upon the same foundations. Pantheus was then priest of

Trojæ. Summa: in the sense of suprema vel

ultima. the Delphic Apollo, a youth of exquisite beauty; and Antenor was so well pleased

325. Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium: we Trowith him, that he carried him off by force jans are no more; Ilium, and the great glory to Troy. To make some amends for this of the Trojans, hath fallen. injury, Priam made hiun priest of Apollo. It was a custom among the Romans, when However this may be, he was a person of they would intimate a person to be dead, to great note and authority among the Tro- say fuit, or vixit, to shun sounds that were jans. Sacerdos arcis Phæbique: priest of shocking, and accounted of bad omen. Bethe tower and of Apollo : (that is) of the side, there is a greater degree of elegance citadel or tower, where Apolìo was worship- in expressing the death of a person, or the ped, together with Pallas or Minerva, to overthrow of a city, thus, indirectly, by fuit, whom it was sacred.

stetit, vixit, &c. than in plain words. The 320. Sacra : sacred utensils. Here again one is the language of poetry, the other of Virgil applies one verb to two or more nouns, prose. This seems to be an imitation of when in strictness it can be applied to one Euripides in his Troades, where Andromache only. Trahit is applicable enough to a child and Hecuba thus alternately complain : who can hardly walk, and must be half once we were happy-! Hecuba : now our dragged along; but it cannot so well be happiness is gone-Troy is no more. .applied to things that are carried in the hand.

329. Miscet : in the sense of spargit. 321. Limina. Some copies have Litora. But Servius, Donatus, Heyne, and others,

330. Bipatentibus : in the sense of apertis. read limina, which is manifestly to be pre

Doors or gates that open both ways, or on ferred. Litora appears inconsistent with both sides, may be called bipatenies. AdBeside, it reflects much honor

sunt: in the sense of intrant. upon Æneas, that both Ilector and Pantheus 331. Mycenis. Mycenæ and Argos were should bring the sacred things of Troy to the chief cities of Greece; and frequently him for safe-keeping. It is a chief object put for Greece in general. They were situ.

th the poet to aggrandize his hero. ated in the Peloponnesus. Hodie, Morea.

the case.

Obsedêre alii telis angusta viarum
Oppositi : stat ferri acies mucrone corusco
Stricta, parata neci: vix primi prælia tentant
Portarum vigiles, et cæco Marte resistunt.

335
Talibus Otriadæ dictis, et numine Divûm
In flammas et in arma feror : quò tristis Erinnys,
Quò fremitus vocat, et sublatus ad æthera clamor.
Addunt se socios Ripheus, et maximus annis

339. Ripheus, et Iphi. Iphitus,' oblati per lunam, Hypanisque, Dymasque ; 340 tus maximus annis, Hly

panisque, Dymasque obEt lateri agglomerant nostro : juvenisque Choræbus

lati per Lunam addunt Mygdonides : illis ad Trojam fortè diebus

se socios mihi
Venerat, irsano Cassandræ incensus amore ;
Et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusque ferebat:
Infelix, qui non sponsæ præcepta furentis

345

345. Infelix juvenis ! Audîerat.

qui non
Quos ubi confertos audere in prælia vidi,
Incipio super his : Juvenes, fortissima frustrà
Pectora, si vobis audentem extrema cupido est

349. Si certa cupido Certa sequi ; quæ sit rebus fortuna, videtis.

350 est vobis sequi me au

denter extrema; vos viExcessêre omnes adytis arisque relictis

detis, quæ fortuna sit Dî, quibus imperium hoc steterat: succurritis urbi

nostris Incensæ : moriamur, et in media arma ruamus.

NOTES.

332. Angusta viarum : the narrow places, 347. Audere in prælia: to bave courage or passages of the streets. Loca seems to for fight-to be ready to engage. Quos: be understood. It is used in the sense of in the sense of illos. angustas vias.

348. Super his : upon these things. HayCæco Marte : in the blind (doubtful) en- ing observed them collected together, and counter. It is so called on account of the prepared for fight, he then begins. Or, sudarkness of the night; or because it was per his may be in the sense of ad hæc, to sudden and unexpected, and resistance could these things—to their readiness and courage not, therefore, be made with any prospect for fight, he begins. Servius takes thein of success. Marte: in the sense of pugna differently. I begin in these words, the more vel certamine.

to animate them. In this case, super inust 336. Nuncine : impulse, or will of the be for insuper; in the former, a prep. Dagods.

vidson follows Servius. Heyne has post 337. Erinnys : this is a common name of hæc-inde. the three furies. See Geor, i. 278. In ar- 248. Juvenes, pectora : there is a great ma: in the sense of in pugnas.

confusion, and neglect of order and method, 339. Maximus annis. Some read armis: in this speech, to mark the hurry and disbut the former appears to be the true read- rde of Æneas' mind O youths, souls ing from verse 435, seq. Heyne has armis. most valiant! Frustra: in vain; because

340. Oblati : meeting me by the light of they could not save their country. the moon.

349. Certa cupido : a fixed, determined 341. Agglomerant: in the sense of adhæ- resolution. Audentem : in the sense of tenrent.

tantem. Cupido : in the sense of animus. 343. Insano: in the sense of magno, or 351. Omnes Di, quibus : all the gods, by vehementi. Virgil has here applied to Chore- whom this empire stood, have departed bus, what Homer says of Othryoneus. from, &c. It was a prevailing opinion that

He was passionately in love with Cassan- a city, or place, could not be taken, while dra, the daughter of Priam, and hoped to its tutelary divinities remained in it. It was become his son-in-law: with that view he the practice, therefore, of the besiegers to came to his assistance. He was the son of invite, or call them away. For this reason Mygdon.

the Romans took care to conceal the Latin 345. Furentis: furens here means inspi- name of the god under whose protection red-prophetic. Sponsa: properly a woman Rome was; and the priests were not allowpromised, or betrothed in marriage; from ed to call the Roman gods by their names, the verb spondeo : also a young married lest, if they were known, an enemy might

solicit and entice them away. To this cus

Woman.

tela, per

andris

per tela

Una salus victis, nullam sperare salutem.
Sic animis juvenum furor additus. Inde lupi ceu 35.5

Raptores, atrâ in nebulâ, quos improba ventris
357. Quos improba Exegit cæcos rabies, catulique relicti
rabies ventris exegit ex Faucibus expectant siccis : per

hostes antris cæcos periculo, Vadimus haud dubiam in mortem, mediæque tenemus quos-que catuli relicti in

Urbis iter : nox atra cavâ circumvolat umbrâ. 360 359. Sic nos vadimus Quis cladem illius nociis, quis funera fando

Explicet ? aut possit lachrymis æquare labores?
Urbs antiqua ruit, multos dominata per annos

Plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia passim 365. Domos hominum, Corpora, perque domos, et relligiosa Deorum 365 per

Lirnina. Nec soli pænas dant sanguine Teucri :

Quondam etiam victis redit in præcordia virtus, 368. Ubique est crude- Victoresque cadunt Danai : crudelis ubique lis

Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortis imago. X 370. Androgeos pri- Primus se Danaûm, magnâ comitante catervâ,

370 mus Danaûm offert se Androgeos offert nobis, socia agmina credens, nobis, magna caterva Inscius ; atque ultrò verbis compellat amicis : comitante eum, credens nostra agmina esse socia Festinate, viri : nam quæ tam sera moratur:

Segnities? alii rapiunt incensa feruntque

et

NOTES.

tom the poet may here allude; or rather to has in charge his aged father, his wife, and the poetical fiction, that when Troy was infant son; and endeavors to shun thein by like to be taken, the gods were seen carrying tracing out thc by-paths and unfrequented away their statues from the temples.

lanes. 354. Una salus : the only safety to the 361. Fando : in the sense of verbis. vanquished, is, to hope for no safety. This 362. Labores : disasters-toils. is the same argument which the brave Le- 365. Inertia

orpo By these bodies, it onidas used to animate his men to sell their is most probable, we are to understand the lives as dear as possible. Una : in the sense feeble and helpless part of the inhabitantsof sola.

old men, women, and children; and all who 355. Inde ceu lupi: after that, as ravenous did not take up arms in defence of their wolves in a dark night, which excessive country: they were slain (sternuntur) every hunger hath driven out blind to danger, &c. where, in their own houses, in the streets, Improba rabies ventris : excessive greediness and in the temples whither they had fled for of the belly--pressing hunger. Raplores: protection. They are called inertia in opin the sense of rapaces, ravenous, rapacious. position to those who dared to make resistDr.'Trapp objects to the justness of this ance, and nobly die. This is inuch better simile; but the comparison does not lie in than to take corpora in the sense of cadavera, the action, but in the manner of performing as is usually done; for then the epithet inerit. As hungry rapacious wolves are forced tia would be quite useless and superfluous. from their retreats precipitately into danger, 366. Relligiosa limina : the sacred temwithout fear or dread, so we rush desperate- ples of the gods. Limen, the threshold, by ly on our foes, looking death and danger in synec. put for the temple. Dant pænas santhe face. The poet mentions another cir- guine; simply, suffer punishment with their cuinstance. Catuli relicti : their whelps, blood-by shedding their blood. left behind, wait' with parched jaws. By 367. Præcordia : in the sense of corda, which he intended to represent those animals vel , ectora. in their fiercest and most ravenous state; 3€). Plurima imago: very many forms of and, therefore, the more proper to denote deaths. This mode of expression is common the fierceness and rage of men driven to with Virgil, and is conformnable to the Latin despair. In atra nebula : in the dark night; idion. So multa virtus-multusque honos. because in the night, or dark weather, they Æn. iv. 3. Such expressions, however, conare the fiercest and least mindful of danger. vey an idea of plurality rather than of uni

359. Vadimus : we march to certain death, ty; and, in our language, require to be renand take the way through the middle of the dered in the plural number. city. This circumstance is mentioned to 271. Socia: friendly. Androgeos took show their courage and intrepidity. Alter- them to be of the party of the Greeks. ward he is afraid of the enemy, when, he 374. Nam quce segnulies : what sloth so

er

Pergama: vos celsis nunc primùm à navibus itis ? 375
Dixit : et extemplò (neque enim responsa dabantur
Fida satis) sensit medios delapsus in hostes.
Obstupuit, retròque pedem cum voce repressit.
Improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem

379. Veluti homo qui Pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repentè refugit

380 nitens, humi pressit anAttollentem iras, et cærula colla tumentem.

quem improvisum

aspris sentibus Haud sccùs Androgeos visu tremefactus abibat.

381. Refugit eum atIrruimus, densis et circumfundimur armis :

tollentem Ignarosque loci passim et formidine captos Sternimus: aspirat primo fortuna labori.

385 Atque hìc exultans successu animisque Chorcebus, socii, quà prima, inquit, fortuna salutis

387. O socii, qua forMonstrat iter, quàque ostendit se dextra, sequamur.

tuna prima monstrat no

bis iter salutis, quàque Mutemus clypeos, Danaûmque insignia nobis

dextra ostendit se, Aptemus : dolus, an virtus, quis in hoste requirat? 390

390. Quis requirat in Arma dabunt ipsi. Sic fatus, deinde comantem hoste, an sit dolus, an Androgei galeam, clypeique insigne decorum

virtus. Ipsi occisi Induitur: laterique Argivum accommodat ensem. Hoc Ripheus, hoc ipse Dymas, omnisque juventus 394. Ripheus facit Læta facit : spoliis se quisque recentibus armat. 395 hoc, Dymas ipse facit

hoc -Vadimus immixti Danais, haud numine nostro : Multaque per cæcam congressi prælia noctem

sum esse.

NOTES. late detains you. Rapiunt : in the sense of 386. Animis: courage—boldness. vastant. Ferunt: in the sense of evertunt. 388. Dectra : in the sense of propitia.

376. Extemplò sensit: he instantly per- 339. Insignia Danaûm: the armour of ceived that he had fallen into the midst of the Greeks. This seems to allude to the enemies. Delapsus: in the sense of delap- figures, or images, engraven upon their buckA Grecism.

lers—those of the Greeks having the figure 377. Fida: in the sense of amica. Neque: of Neptune, and those of the Trojans the in the sense of non.

figure of Minerva. Putting on the Grecian 378. Repressit pedem : he retreated back figures, was the same thing as putting on with his words. “As soon as he perceived their armour. his mistake, he retreated back. 379. Aspris: by syncope

for

Zenobius tells us, that Coræbus was noted asperis.

This simile is taken from Homer, Iliad iii. verse

for stupidity: as an instance, he mentions

that he used to amuse himself on the sea 33. But Virgil is very happy in the appli- shore by counting the waves as they dashed cation, and has improved upon the original, against it. He came to the assistance of by the addition of several circumstances that Priam just before the city was taken; and heighten the comparison, and give it more force and likeness.

now he shows his stupidity and want of 380. Nitens humi: walking on the ground, foresight in suggesting a plan, rash in its

nature, and which in the event proved fatal -steps upon a sngke unseen, &c.

to him and his associates. 382. Haud secùs: no otherwisejust so.

383. Circumfundimur: this verb here has 390. Requirat : ask-demand. an active signification: we encompass them 393. Induitur comantem: he puts on the with our weapons close joined. Or, it may waving helmet of Androgeos. Induitur is have the sense of miscemur, as Ruæus in- plainly to be taken actively, in the sense of terprets it.

induit. Comantem: waving with a hairy 384. Captos formidine. Mr. Davidson ob- crest. The crests of their helmets were serves: by this we are to understand that made of the hair of beasts. Decorum inthey were so under the power of fear, as signe clypei : the beautiful, or comely figure not to be able to exert themselves—enchain- of kis shield; i. e. his beautiful shield-his ed, arrested, or nonplussed by fear; and so shield richly ornamented. enslaved to it, that they could obey nothing 396. Haud nostro numine: not with our but its impulse. Ruæus interprets it by god. This is an allusion to their having percitos metu,

put off their own armour, on which was en385. Aspirat: in the sense of favet. La- graven the figure of Minerva, their guar bori: in the sense of conatui.

dian goddess and protectress, and put on the

400

405

Conserimus, multos Danaûm demittimus Orco.

Diffugiunt alii ad naves, et litora cursu 400. Pars præ turpi Fida petunt: pars ingentem formidine turpi formidine

Scandunt rursus equum, et notâ conduntur in alvo.

Heu, nihil invitis fas quenquam fidere Divis! 403. Ecce Cassandra Ecce trahebatur passis Priameïa virgo Priameïa Virgo passis Crinibus à templo Cassandra adytisque Minervæ, crinibus

Ad cælum tendens ardentia lumina frustrà,
406. Lumina, inquam: Lumina, nam teneras arcebant vincula palinas.
nam,

Non tulit hanc speciem furiatâ mente Choræbus,
Et sese medium injecit moriturus in agmen.
Consequimur cuncti, et densis incurrimus armis.
Hic primùm ex alto delubri culmine telis

Nostrorum obruimur, oriturque miserrima cædes,
412. Ex facie nostro- Armorum facie, et Graiarum errore jubarum.
413. Danai commoti

Tum Danai gemitu, atque ereptæ virginis irâ, gemitu, atque irâ virgi- Undique collecti invadunt: acerrimus Ajax, nis ereptæ ex suis mani- Et gernini Atridæ, Dolopumque exercitus omnis. bus

Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti 416. Ceu adversi ven- Confligunt, Zephyrusyue, Notusque, et lætus Eois ti, Zephyrusque, Notus- Eurus equis : stridunt sylvæ, sævitque tridenti equis, quondam confi- Spumeus atque imo Nereus ciet æquo,a fundo. gunt, turbine rupto Illi etiam, si quos obscurâ nocte per umbram

410

rum armorum

415

420

NOTES.

Grecian armour, with the figure of Neptune, understands it of their rushing upon the the inveterate enemy of the Trojans. Im- close or compacted body of the Greeks. mixti Danais. It is one characteristic of Irruimus in densum agmen hostium, says he. the valiant, that they mingle with the ranks 412. Facie armorum: from the appearance of the enemy. Homer says of Diomede, of their armour, the Trojans took them to that he so mingled with the Trojans, that a be Greeks. Jubarum: crests or plumes. spectator would have, sometimes, been at a 413. Gemitu : in the sense of dolore. The loss to know whether he belonged to the Greeks (moved) with grief and resentment, Trojans, or to the Greeks.

on account of the virgin rescued from their 393. Conserimus multa prælia : we wage hands, being collected together from all many a fight. Orco : in the sense of ad in- quarters, attack us. Gemitus here is plainly feros.

used in a wider sense than usual. Both 402. Nihil fas: it is not right that any Ruæus and Heyne take it in the sense of one should have confidence, (trust in any dolor. thing) the gods being against him. Nihil 414. Ajax. He was the son of Oïleus. and nil are often used simply in the sense of He ravished Cassandra in the temple of non. The verb est is understood.

Minerva, for which he was afterward severe404. Crinibus passis : with loose or dis- ly punished by that goddess. See Æn. i. hevelled hair. Passis, from the verb pan- 41. Ajax, the son of Telainon, had some dor, to be loose or spread open.

time before killed himself, for his failure in 405. Tendens : raising her glaring eyes to the contest for the armour of Achilles. heaven in vain. Frusta: in vain, either be- 415. Gemini Atridæ : the two sons of cause the gods were inexorable, or because Atreus, Agamennon and Menelaus. she could not move the compassion of the 416. Ceu adversi venti: as when opposite Greeks. This is a most moving represen- winds, &c. This simile is in imitation of tation of the beautiful prophetess and prin- Homer, Iliad 9. In comparing the two, cess in distress. No wonder that it roused Scaliger found the preference so much due the indignation of this valiant band, and to Virgil, that he reckons him the master, brought thein to her rescue. They avenged and Homer the scholar. Confligunt: in the the horrid deed upon their enemies.

sense of certant. 407. Spcciem: sight-spectacle. This sight 419. Nereus: a marine god. The trident Choræbus could not bear.

was assigned to him by the poets, as well as 409. Incurrimus : we rush upon them to to Neptune. See Ecl. vi. 35. the rescue of Cassandra. Densis armis : 420. Si quos fudimus: if we have routed with close weapons in close array. Heyne any by stratagem through the shades in the

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