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Et jam Argiva phalanx instructis navibus ibat
A Tenedo, tacitæ per amica silentia Lunæ,

255
Litora nota petens : flammas cùm regia puppis
Extulerat ; fatisque Deûm defensus iniquis,
Inclusos utero Danaos et pinea furtim

258. Furtim laxat Laxat claustra Sinon: illos patefactus ad auras

pinca claustra, et DaReddit equus, lætique cavo se robore promunt 260

naos inclusos utero equi
Tisandrus Sthenelusque duces, et dirus Ulysses,
Demissum lapsi per funem ; Athamasque, Thoasque,
Pelidesque Neoptolemus, primusque Machaon,
Et Menelaus, et ipse doli fabricator Epeüs.
Invadunt urbem somno vinoque sepultam :

265
Cæduntur vigiles : portisque patentibus omnes
Accipiunt socios, atque agmina conscia jungunt.
Tempus erat, quo prima quies mortalibus

ægris 268. Erat tempus nocIncipit, et dono Divûm gratissima serpit.

270. Ecce Hector mesIn somnis ecce ante oculos mæstissimus Hector 270

tissimus visus est adesse Visus adesse mihi, largosque effundere fletus :

mihi ante oculos in somRaptatus bigis, ut quondam, aterque cruento

nis

tis, quo

NOTES.

254. Phalanx : properly a body of men, Greeks shut up in the womb.

Here we consisting of eight thousand, placed in a may observe that Virgil uses the verb laxat square; here used for troops in general. with both the nouns claustra and Danaos, Instructis navibus : in their furnished ships. when in strict propriety, it can be applied

255. Tacitæ Lunæ. Commentators have to one only. This is a freedom which our variously interpreted these words. Some language will not always admit; but it frehave understood by them that the moon quently occurs in the Latin and Greek was then new and shone with feeble light, writers. See Æn. vii. 431. and the darkness in consequence was fa 260. Reddit : in the sense of effundit. vorable to the Greeks, by preventing disco 262. Lapsi per funem. After they were very. Valpy understands by them the ab- let out, they slid down by a rope, secured sence of the moon during the first part of at the top of the horse, and reaching to the the night. The Grecian army, says he, ground. may have chosen the decrease of the moon, 263. Pelides : Pyrrhus, the son of Achil. when she does not rise till near midnight. les, and grandson of Peleus, king of ThesThis darkness was favorable or friendly to saly. He was also called Neoptolemus. them. But we are told by Scaliger and See 469. seq. Primus. By this we are to others, thac Troy was taken about the full understand that he was the first who demoon, when she shines the brightest. This scended the rope; and not the first, or chief led Ruæus to understand by the silence of among these leaders. the moon, the middle of the night, when 263. Doli: for equi. all things are silent and still. But Luna 265. Sepultam somno, vinoque. 'This is may, by meton. be taken for nox, as Sol is a very expressive metaphor, representing often put for dies. This will render it more the inhabitants of the city so deeply in intelligible: the friendly silence of the still sleep, and so silent and stils, that it would (or calm) night. This is the opinion of almost seem as if their beds had been their Heyne.

graves. This greatly moves our pity to256. Cùm regia puppis: when the royal ward the Trojans, and our indignation ship erected a light, then Sinon protected against Sinon and the treacherous Grceks. by, &c. We are to understand that Helen Accipiunt: in the sense of admillunt. Poror Sinon first gave the signal to Agamem- tis patentibus may be put absolutely. non that they were ready, by showing a 267. Conscia : friendly; or conscious, belighted torch from the citadel, and he re cause they were acquainted with the plan turned it to them, by setting up a light upon of attack. the stern of his ship.

268. Ægris: in the sense of fessis. 257. Fatis : will, or purposes of the gods. 269. Doro: by the favor, or indulgence. Iniquis : in the sense of adversis, vel infes- Serpit: creeps, or spreaas over them. This tis. Nobis is understood.

is extremely significant. Iilis, vel iis, is to 259. Furtim laxat Danaos: he opens be supplied. privately the piny doors, and (lets out) the 272. Bigis. Bigde, properly a chario

275

est

280

273. Trajectus quoad Pulvere, perque pedes trajectus lora tumentes. lora per tumentes

Hei mihi, qualis erat! quantùm mutatus ab illo 275. Indutus quoad Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achillis, exuvias

Vel Danaûm Phrygios jaculatus puppibus ignes ! 276. Vel qui jaculatus Squalentem barbam, et concretos sanguine crines, 277. Nunc Vulneraque illa gerens, quæ circum plurima muros

gerens squalentem barbam, et Accepit patrios : ultrò flens ipse videbar crines

Compellare virum, et mæstas expromere voces :
281. O Hector expec- O lux Dardaniæ ! spes ô fidissima Teucrûm !
tate, ab quibus oris, ve- Quæ tantæ tenuêre moræ ? quibus Hector ab oris
nis! Ut nos defessi as-
picimus te, post

Expectate, venis ? ut te post multa tuorum
Funera, post varios hominumque urbisque labores,
Defessi aspicimus ? quæ causa indigna serenos

Fædavit vultus ? aut cur hæc vulnera cerno? 287. Ille respondit ni. Ille nihil : nec me quærentem vana moratur; hil ad hæc :

Sed graviter gemitus imo de pectore ducens : 288, Graviter ducens gemitus de imo pectore,

Heu ! fuge, nate Deâ, teque his, ait, eripe flammis ait: Heu! fuge

Hostis habet muros; ruit alto à culmine Troja : 291. Ulla dextrâ, fuis- Sat patriæ Priamoque datum: si Pergama dextrâ sent defensa etiam hâc Defendi possent, etiam hâc defensa fuissent. mea dextrâ.

Sacra, suosque tibi commendat Troja Penates : 294. Quære mænia Hos cape fatorum comites : his mania quære, his, quæ statues magna, Magna pererrato statués quæ denique ponto. ponto denique pererrato, Sic ait, et manibus vittas, Vestamque potentem,

Æternumque adytis effert penetralibus ignem.

285

290

295

NOTES.

drawn by two horses. Here it means the 286. Fædavit: hath disfigured thy sereno chariot of Achilles, behind which Hector's countenance. dead body was drawn around the walls of 287. Moratur: nor did he, by answering Troy several times. See Æn. i. 99. these questions, detain ine, &c.

273. Trajectus-que per tumentes : pierced 291. Sat datum: enough has been done through his swelling feet with thongs. It for our country, and for Priam. Sat here agrees with Hector, mentioned above.

performs the office of a noun. Pergama: 274. Qualis erat! how he looked ! how properly the fort and fortifications of Troy, much changed from that Hector, &c. but frequently used and taken for the whole

275. Indutus eruvias : clad in the spoils city, as in the present case, by synec. of Achilles. When Achilles left the Greeks 293. Penates. Macrobius, in his Saturna. in disgust, his friend Patroclus requested of lin, explains the Penates to be those gods by hin the favor of wearing his armour, with whom we breathe, and to whom we owe the a view of striking the greater terror to the faculties of our minds and bodies, i. e. Juo *Trojans. He was slain by Hector, and piter, Juno, and Minerva. To these he adds stripped of his armour. See Ecl. i. 55. Vesta : on which account the consuls, and

280. Expromere : to utter these sorrowful other magistrates, when they entered upon words. This word is very appropriate here; their offices, used to pay divine honors to it shows him laboring to bring out his words the Penates, and Vesta. This seems to be and give them utterance, like a person confirmed by the passage before us, where drawing a heavy load.

Vesta is delivered to the care of Æneas, as 281. Lux: in the sense of salus.

well as the Penates. These gods, he ob282. Tantæ : in the sense of longæ. The serves, were styled the great gods. They pron. te is understood.

were also styled powerful: on which account 283. Expectate : earnestly desired, or Virgil here styles Vesla, the powerful godlonged for. Ut defessi: how gladly do we, dess: Vestam potentem. worn out, (with toil and fatigue,) see thee, Dionysius Halycarnassus informs us, that after the many deaths of thy friends, &c. the symbols of these Penates at Rome were By labores hominum, perhaps we are to un two wooden statues of young men, in a sitderstand the disasters of their allies, and ting posture, with javelins in their hands. by labores urbis, the disasters of his country 294. Mænia : in the sense of urbem. Fa.

Urbis : the city; by meton. put for torum : of thy fortunes. the inhabitants.

297. Æternum ignem. The sacred fire was

men.

298. Et sonitus claros.

cunt magis atque magis 300

305

Diverso intereà miscentur mænia luctu :
Et magis atque magis (quanquam secreta parentis
Anchisæ domus, arboribusque obtecta recessit)
Clarescunt sonitus, armorumque ingruit horror.
Excutior somno, et summi fastigia tecti
Ascensu supero, atque arrectis auribus adsto.
In segetem veluti cùm flamma furentibus Austris
Incidit; aut rapidus montano flumine torrens
Sternit agros, sternit sata læta boumque labores,
Præcipitesque trahit sylvas: stupet inscius alto
Accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor.
Tum verè manifesta fides, Danaûmque patescunt
Insidiæ ; jam Deïphobi dedit ampla ruinam,
Vulcano superante, domus: jam proximus ardet
Ucalegon: Sigea igni freta lata relucent.
Exoritur clamorque virûm, clangorque tubarum.
| Arma amens capio, nec sat rationis in armis :

309. Fides verborum 310 Hectoris fuit manifesta

314. Nec erat sat rationis mihi in arinis. Sed animi ardent glomerare

sero.

NOTES. kept burning all the year. It was brought from those animals that prick up their ears by Æneas into Italy, where Numa Pompilius at every sound which gives them alarm. re-established the order of the Vestal Vir 304. Velut cùm flamma, &c. This fine gins ; whose office was to preserve this fire simile is taken from Homer, Iliad ii. 455. in the temple of Vesta. It was suffered to Austris : for ventis. die away on the last day of the year, and 305. Torrens rapidus : a torrent rapid was rekindled again on the first day of March with a mountain flood prostrates the fields, from the beams of the sun. The origin of prostrates, &c. Auctus colluvie aquarum è this religious custom seems to have been de- montibus, says Heyne. rived from the Persians, who were famous 306. Sata : properly crops of corn, from for worshipping the sun, and the fire, as an Læta : in the sense of copiosa, or fereinblem of that luminary. This everlasting tilia. fire was not only preserved in the temple of 308. Accipiens: in the sense of audiens. Vesta, but also in private houses, and in the Inscius: ignorant of the cause of the sound. palaces of the great; where was an altar 309. Fides : the truth of Hector's words to Jupiter Herceus, on which fire was kept was now manifest. perpetually burning. Some suppose that 310. Deïphobi. Desphobus was the son this was the fire which Priam had consecra of Priam and Hecuba. After Paris was ted on the altar, at which he was slain. slain by Pyrrhus, he married Helen, by Adytis. Adytum properly was the most whose treachery he fell a sacrifice to the sacred part of the temple—the place where resentment of the Greeks, among the first the images and statues of the gods were—the of his countrymen. See Æn. vi. 494, et seq. shrine. This was commonly the interior or 311. Vulcano: in the sense of igne. The middle of the temple. Hence the propriety god of fire, by meton. put for fire itself. of adytis penetralibus. It is often taken for 312. Ucalegon. He was one of Priam's the temple itself by synec.

counsellors : here put, by meton. for the 298. Diverso : in the sense of vario. house of Ucalegon. His house burns the 299. Secrela : 'private, separated from

next. Lata Sigea freta : the broad Sigean others-by itself: it agrees with domus. Fuit straits shine with the light of the flames. is understood.

Sigea: an adj. from Sigeum, a promontory

of Troas. 300. Oblecta : surrounded (covered) by

Fretum is properly a narrow sea trees, was retired from noise and bustlé.

or strait : it here means that part of the

Ægean sea lying between Tenedos and 301. Sonitus clarescunt : the sounds are Troas. heard niore and more clearly: and the din 313. Exoritur clamorque, &c. This is or clashing of arms increases.

one of the finest lines that ever imaged the 303. Ascensu: by climbing up, I ascend sense in the sound. The words and syllato the summit of the palace. By this we bles are rough, hoarse, and sonorous; and are to understand the watch tower, which so artfully put together as to strike the ear was usually built on the ridge, or highest like the thrilling notes of the trumpet which part of the house, that it might afford them they describe. Clangor : in the sense of a more extensive prospect. Arrectis auribus : with listening ears. It is a metaphor taken 314. Amens: compounded of the Greek

sonus.

Sed giomerare manum bello, et concurrere in arcem

Cum sociis ardent animi : furor iraque, mentem 316 317. Succurrit mihi in Præcipitant; pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis. mentem pulchrum esse

Ecce autem, telis Pantheus elapsus Achivům,

Pantheus Otriades, arcis Phæbique sacerdos, 320. Ipse trahit sacra, Sacra manu, victosque Deos, parvumque nepotem

320 victosque

Ipse trahit : cursuque amens ad limina tendit : 322. In quo loco est Quo res summa loco, Pantheu ? quam prendimus arcem ?

Vix ea fatus eram gemitu,cùm talia reddit :
Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus
Dardaniæ : fuimus Troës, fuit Ilium, et ingens 325
Gloria Teucrorum : ferus omnia Jupiter Argos
Transtulit : incensâ Danai dominantur in urbe.

Arduus armatos mediis in manibus adstans 331. Tot millia, quot

Fundit equus, victorque Sinon incendia miscet nunquam venêre è magInsultans : portis alii bipatentibus adsunt,

330 nis

Millia quot magnis nunquam venêre Mycenis.

summa res

NOTES.

alpha, privitivum, and mens. It properly sig 322. Summa res: the commonwealthnifies, deprived of reason—destitute of pre- the common interests of his country; which sence of mind, from any cause whatever. was the summa res of Æneas, his chief, his

315. Glomerare : in the sense of colligere. highest concern; and will always be nearest

316. Animi ardent: my mind burns to the heart of every good patriot. Virgil, to collect, &c. The plural here has plainly show the haste and impatience of Æneas, the sense of the singular animus.

makes him throw out these short questions 319. Pantheus : he was the son of Otreus. abruptly, without any previous introducServius informs us, that on the overthrow of tion. Loco: state, or condition. Reddit : Troy by Hercules, and the death of Lao- in the sense of respondet. medon, Priam sent the son of Antenor to consult the oracle of Delphi, whether he these words in the sense of ineritabilis ruina

324. Ineluctabile tempus.

Ruæus takes should build up Troy again upon the same foundations. Pantheus was then priest of

Trojæ. Summa: in the sense of suprema vel

ultima. the Delphic Apollo, a youth of exquisite beauty; and Antenor was so well pleased

325. Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium: we Trowith him, that he carried him off by force jans are no more; Ilium, and the great glory to Troy. To make some amends for this of the Trojans, hath fallen. injury, Priam made hiun priest of Apollo. It was a custom among the Romans, when However this may be, he was a person of they would intimate a person to be dead, to great note and authority among the Tro- say fuit, or vixit, to shun sounds that were jans. Sacerdos arcis Phæbique: priest of shocking, and accounted of bad omen. Bethe tower and of Apollo : (that is) of the side, there is a greater degree of elegance citadel or tower, where Apolìo was worship- in expressing the death of a person, or the ped, together with Pallas or Minerva, to overthrow of a city, thus, indirectly, by fuit, whom it was sacred.

stetit, vixit, &c. than in plain words. The 320. Sacra : sacred utensils. Here again one is the language of poetry, the other of Virgil applies one verb to two or more nouns, prose. This seems to be an imitation of when in strictness it can be applied to one Euripides in his Troades, where Andromache only. Trahit is applicable enough to a child and Hecuba thus alternately complain : who can hardly walk, and must be half once we were happy-! Hecuba : now our dragged along; but it cannot so well be happiness is gone-Troy is no more. .applied to things that are carried in the hand. 321. Limina. Some copies have Litora.

329. Miscet : in the sense of spargit. But Servius, Donatus, Heyne, and others,

330. Bipatentibus : in the sense of apertis. read limina, which is manifestly to be pre

Doors or gates that open both ways, or on ferred. Litora appears inconsistent with both sides, may be called bipatenies. AdBeside, it reflects much honor

sunt: in the sense of intrant. upon Æneas, that both Ilector and Pantheus 331. Mycenis. Mycenæ and Argos were should bring the sacred things of Troy to the chief cities of Greece; and frequently him for safe-keeping. It is a chief object put for Greece in general. They were situ.

th the poet to aggrandize his hero. ated in the Peloponnesus. Hodie, Morea.

the case.

Obsedêre alii telis angusta viarum
Oppositi : stat ferri acies mucrone corusco
Stricta, parata neci: vix primi prælia tentant
Portarum vigiles, et cæco Marte resistunt.

335
Talibus Otriadæ dictis, et numine Divûm
In flammas et in arma feror : quò tristis Erinnys,
Quò fremitus vocat, et sublatus ad æthera clamor.
Addunt se socios Ripheus, et maximus annis

339. Ripheus, et Iphi. Iphitus,' oblati per lunam, Hypanisque, Dymasque ; 340 tus maximus annis, lly

panisque, Dymasque obEt lateri agglomerant nostro : juvenisque Choræbus

lati per Lunam addunt Mygdonides : illis ad Trojam fortè diebus

se socios mihi
Venerat, irsano Cassandræ incensus amore ;
Et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusque ferebat:
Infelix, qui non sponsæ præcepta furentis

345

345. Infelix juvenis ! Audîerat.

qui non
Quos ubi confertos audere in prælia vidi,
Incipio super his : Juvenes, fortissima frustrà
Pectora, si vobis audentem extrema cupido est

349. Si certa cupido Certa sequi ; quæ sit rebus fortuna, videtis.

350 est vobis sequi me au

denter extrema; vos viExcessêre omnes adytis arisque relictis

detis, quæ fortuna sit Dî, quibus imperium hoc steterat: succurritis urbi

nostris Incensæ : moriamur, et in media arma ruamus.

NOTES.

332. Angusta viarum : the narrow places, 347. Audere in prælia: to bave courage or passages of the streets. Loca seems to for fight-to be ready to engage. Quos: be understood. It is used in the sense of in the sense of illos. angustas vias.

348. Super his : upon these things. HayCæco Marte : in the blind (doubtful) en- ing observed them collected together, and counter. It is so called on account of the prepared for fight, he then begins. Or, sudarkness of the night; or because it was per his may be in the sense of ad hæc, to sudden and unexpected, and resistance could these things—to their readiness and courage not, therefore, be made with any prospect for fight, he begins. Servius takes thein of success. Marte: in the sense of pugna differently. I begin in these words, the more vel certamine.

to animate them. In this case, super inust 336. Nuncine : impulse, or will of the be for insuper; in the former, a prep. Dagods.

vidson follows Servius. Heyne has post 337. Erinnys : this is a common name of hæc-inde. the three furies. See Geor, i. 278. In ar 248. Juvenes, pectora : there is a great ma: in the sense of in pugnas.

confusion, and neglect of order and method, 339. Maximus annis. Some read armis: in this speech, to mark the hurry and disbut the former appears to be the true read rde of Æneas' mind O youths, souls ing from verse 435, seq. Heyne has armis. most valiant! Frustra: in vain; because

340. Oblati : meeting me by the light of they could not save their country. the moon.

349. Certa cupido : a fixed, determined 341. Agglomerant: in the sense of adhæ- resolution. Audentem : in the sense of tenrent.

tantem. Cupido : in the sense of animus. 343. Insano: in the sense of magno, or 351. Omnes Di, quibus : all the gods, by vehementi. Virgil has here applied to Chore- whom this empire stood, have departed bus, what Homer says of Othryoneus. from, &c. It was a prevailing opinion that

He was passionately in love with Cassan a city, or place, could not be taken, while dra, the daughter of Priam, and hoped to its tutelary divinities remained in it. It was become his son-in-law: with that view he the practice, therefore, of the besiegers to came to his assistance. He was the son of invite, or call them away. For this reason Mygdon.

the Romans took care to conceal the Latin 345. Furentis: furens here means inspi- name of the god under whose protection red-prophetic. Sponsa: properly a woman Rome was; and the priests were not allowpromised, or betrothed in marriage; from ed to call the Roman gods by their names, the verb spondeo : also a young married lest, if they were known, an enemy might

solicit and entice them away. To this cus

Woman.

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