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154. Ait: Testor vos, Vos, æterni ignes, et non violabile vestram O æterni igncs, Testor numen, ait; vos, aræ, ensesque nefandi, 155. T'eslor vos,

Quos fugi; vittæque Deûm, quas hostia gessi : aræ, insandique

Fas mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere jura ; 158. Fas est mihi Fas odisse viros, atque omnia ferre sub auras, odisse

Si qua tegunt: teneor patriæ nec legibus ullis. 160. Modò tu, 0 Tro- Tu modò promissis maneas, servataque serves ja, maneas fidelis pro- Troja fidem : si vera feram, si magna rependam. inissis tuis, 164. Sed enim ex quo

Omnis spes Danaûm, et cæpti fiducia belli, tempore impius

Palladis auxiliis semper stetit. Impius ex quo 168. Ausique sunt Tydides sed enim, scelerumque inventor Ulysses, contingere

Fatale aggressi sacrato avellere templo 169. Ex illo tempore Palladium, cæsis summæ custodibus arcis, spes Danaûm sublapsa Corripuere sacram effigiem ; manibusque cruentis cæpit fluere

Virgineas ausi Divæ contingere vittas : 170. Eorum vires fractæ sunt, et

Ex illo fluere, ac retrò sublapsa referri 172. Vix simulacrum

Spes Danaûm; fractæ vires, aversa Deæ mens. fuit positum in castris, Nec dubiis ea signa dedit Tritonia monstris. cùm corusce

Vix positum castris simulacrum; arsere coruscæ

165

170

NOTES.

154. Teslor vos: ye eternal fires, I call viltæ, with which he was to have been bound, you, and your inviolable divinity, to wit were so many witnesses that he was now ness.

under no obligations to regard the interests Some think this is an allusion to the fire of the Greeks, who had withdrawn all proof the altar. But Servius, with more pro- tection froin him. priety, thinks the sun, moon, and other hea 161. Si feram vera : if I relate the truth, venly luminaries are meant: which the an if I repay thee largely-great things. cients thought to be globes of fire, to shine 164. Enim : in the sense of equidem. with their own proper lustre; and to be in 166. Fatale Palladium. The Palladium habited by divinities. The fire of the altar was a statue of Pallas with a small shield and could hardly be called eternal, unless there spear. It was said to have fallen from heahe an allusion to the fire of Vesta.

ven near the tent of Nus, when he was build155. Nefandi enses: ye horrid instruments ing the citadel of Troy. Some say it was of death, which I escaped. I take enses made of the bones of Pelops. All, however, here for the implements used in offering the agree that it was a pledge of the safety of sacrifice, such as the axe, knife, &c.

Troy. 156. Villæque Deûm: and ye fillets of the Ulysses and Diomede entered the temple gods, which as a victim I wore.

where it stood, and carried it away to the In order to excite their compassion the Grecian camp, having slain the guards. It more, and to show the horrid apprehensions is called fatale, because, on the safe keeping he had of the act, he speaks as if he had of it, the preservation of Troy depended. actually been brought to the altar, and as if 169. Ex illo : from that time, the hope of that had been actually put in execution, the Greeks, tottering, began to slip, and to which had only been intended against him. be carried backward.

157. Sacrata jura : sacred obligations. This is a inetaphor taken from a person Jus properly signifies a natural right, law, standing on a slippery place, and with diffiduty, or obligation. It differs from fas, culty maintaining his position The least which properly signifies a divine right, law, movement of his body destroys his equilibri&c. Any thing that the laws of God per At first he totiers, and reels to and init may be called fas.

fro in order to recover hiinself. Unable to 158. Sub auras : into light.

do it, he is borne away, and hurried along 159. Siqua tegunt: if any lie hid. Nec with accelerated motion. ullis legibus, &c. He is no longer bound by 171. Tritonia. This was a name of Pal

ny ties of his country. He is at liberty to las or Minerva, taken from a lake in Africa, break or dissolve his allegiance, and place called Tritona, where she is said to have himself under the protection of the Trojans. been born: or, at least, where she first made 'Their barbarous treatment had cancelled all her appearance on earth. Monstris : prohiz obligations to them: the aræ on which digies-indications of her anger. he wus to have been slain—the enses nefan 172. Coruscæ flammæ : sparkling fiames di, by which he was to have been slain—the flashed from her steady eyes. The signs

um.

esse

Luminibus flammæ arrectis, salsusque per artus
Sudor iit, terque ipsa solo, mirabile dictu !
Emicuit, parmamque ferens hastamque trementem.
Extemplò tentanda fugâ canit æquora Calchas : 176 176. Æquora tentanda
Nec posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis,
Omina ni repetant Argis, numenque reducant,
Quod pelago et curvis secum advexere carinis.
Et nunc quòd patrias vento petiere Mycenas; 180
Arma Deosque parant comites, pelagoque remenso,
Improvisi aderunt : ita digerit omina Calchas.
Hanc

pro
Palladio moniti, pro numine læso,

183. Illi moniti sta. Effigiem statuêre, nefas quæ triste piaret;

tuêre hanc effigiem equi, Hanc tamen immensam Calchas attollere molem

185. Tamen Calchas Roboribus textis, cæloque educere jussit :

jussit eos attollere Ne recipi portis, aut duci in mænia possit ; Neu populum antiquâ sub relligione tueri.

189. Nam dicebat, si Nam si vestra manus violâsset dona Minervæ ; 189

193. Dicebat Asiam Tum magnum exitium (quod Dî priùs omen in ipsum ultrò venturam esse Convertant) Priami imperio Phrygibusque futurum : 196. Nos-que, quos Sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset in urbem, neque Tydides, nec LaUltrò Asiam magno Pelopcia ad mænia bello

rissæus Achilles domuit; Venturam, et nostros ea fata manere nepotes.

nos, quos decem anni

non domuere; quos mille Talibus insidiis, perjurique arte Sinonis,

domuere, Credita res : captique dolis, lachrymisque coactis, capti sunt dolis

185 quæ

vestra

195 carine

non

NOTES.

ld re

here mentioned are truly ominous; and suf- Omina. Some copies have omnia. Dzficient to have excited in the minds of the gerit : interprets-explains. Greeks fear and alarm.

184. Quæ piaret : which might expiate 174. Ipsa : the goddess—the image of the the horrid crime of carrying off the Pallagoddess. Emicuit : in the sense of salivit. dium from her temple.

175. Parmam-hastam : the shield and 186. Roboribus textis: with compacted or brandished spear. These were the arms by joined timber. Robur properly signifies the which the Palladium was distinguished. lieart of the oak. Hence it may signify

176. Canit: in the sense of declarat. Ca- timber in general, and all wooden materials, no is properly applied to oracles and pre as planks, boards, &c. Immensam : very dictions. It implies that Calchas spoke by high. Molem : for equum. inspiration, and declared it to be the will of

188. Neu tueri: nor defend the people the gods, that the sea, &c. Exscindi : be under their ancient religion-under the rerased-destroyed.

ligious patronage and protection of their an178. Ni repetant : unless they sh

cient guardian goddess, Pallas, or Minerva. peat the omens at Argos, and bring back the goddess, which, &c.

190. In ipsum: which omen may the This, Servius observes, alludes to a cus

gods rather Turn upon him, to wit, Calchas.

It would be more emphatical, if it were in tom of the Romans, when they were unsuccessful in war, to return home, and again ipsos, menning upon the Greeks. Some coconsult the omens: or, if they were too far pies have in ipsos. for that purpose, they used to appropriate a

193. Asiam. Asia Minor, or Natolia, in part of the enemy's territory, and call it which Troy was situated. It is put, by meRome, where they renewed the omens. Nu- ton. for the inhabitants. Ultrò. Servius men : the Palladium--the image or symbol explains this by statim. But the usual acof Pallas' divinity ; which Sinon would ceptation of the word is easier, and more make the Trojans believe had been carried emphatic. Pelopeia monia : the city Argos, to Argos : and in the mean time, until they where Pelops reigned: by synec. put for should return, as an atonernent or offering Greece in general. See Geor. iii. 7. to the onended goddess (numine læso,) the 194. Ea fata: the same fate or destiny. Greeks had built, and consecrated to her, 195. Insidiis : in the sense of fraudibus. this horse.

196. Coactis lachrymis : by his feigned or 181. Arma: troops---forces, by metón. forced tears. Some copies read coacti, in

200

205

Quos neque Tydides, nec Larissæus Achilles,

Non anni domuere decem, non mille carinæ.
199. Hìc aliud majus Hìc aliud majus miseris multòque tremendum
prodigium multòque ma- Objicitur magis, atque improvida pectora turbat.
gìs tremenduin

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
Solennes taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.

Ecce autem gemini à 'Tenedo tranquilla per alta 204. Gemini angues (Horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues venientes à Tenedo per incumbunt pelago, pariterque ad litora tendunt: tranquilla alta

Pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta, jubæque
Sanguineæ exsuperant undas : pars cætera pontum
Ponè legit, sinuatque immensa volumine terga.

Fit Sonitus spumante salo : jamque arva tenebant, 210. Suffecti quoad Ardentesque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni, ardentes

Sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues : illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt: et primùm parva duorum
Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque

210

NOTES.

the nom. agreeing with nos, meaning the gives the greater probability to the episode Trojans. But this is not so easy and natu of the wooden horse, and accounts for the ral ; nor does it so well agree with the sub- credulity of the Trojans. ject. The poet uniformly represents Sinon 202. Solennes aras: the appointed altars. as an impostor, a cheat, and all his words 503. Tenedo. Tenedos is here mentioned and tears feigned and dissembled. Servius to signify, as Servius says, that the ships strongly insists upon coactis. Valpy reads were to come from hence to the destruction coacti. Heyne, coactis.

of Troy. Per tranquilla alta : over the 197. Larissæus : an adj. from Larissa, a smooth or calm sea. This circumstance is town of Thessaly, near Phthia, the place mentioned, because it would afford the Trowhere Achilles was born.

jans an opportunity the better to view the 198. Mille caring. Homer makes 1186 whole progress of the serpents, to hear their ships in all, that went in the Trojan expedi- dreadful hissings, and every lash they gave tion. Carina, the keel, put, by synec, for the waves : it adds much terror to the hithe whole ship. The poets often use a de- deous spectacle. finite number for an indefinite, particularly 204. Referens: in the sense of narrans. if the number be very large.

Orbibus : in the sense of spiris. 199. Hic aliud : here another greater pro 205. Incumbunt : with their immense folds digy, and one much more to be dreaded, is they rest (swim) upon the sea ; and equally presented to our sight, nobis miseris. (abreast, head and head) stretch to the

200. Improvida : improvident—not ex shore. pecting any thing of the kind. Pectora : in 208. Sinuat: winds their huge backs in the sense of animos.

folds. Their necks down to their breast, 201. Laocoon. The priest of Neptune were raised above the water; the other part having been put to death, because, by his of them swept the sea behind. Jubæ : necks prayers and sacrifices, he did not prevent -crests. Salo: in the sense of mari. Arthe arrival of the Greeks, Laocoon was va : in the sense of litus. chosen by lot to sacrifice to that god upon 210. Suffecti ardentesque : spotted as to the departure of their enemies.

He was

their glaring eyes with blood and fire, they the priest of Apollo Thymbræus. Some say licked their hissing mouths. Vibrantibus : he was the brother of Anchises; others that in the sense of motantibus. Naturalists obhe was the son of Priam.

serve that no animal moves its tongue with Hyginus, who relates the story, says the so much velocity as the serpent. crime for which Laocoon was thus severely 212. Certo agmine: in the sense of recto punished, was his having married, and had bursu. Agmen here denotes the spiral mochildren, contrary to the orders of Apollo: tion of a serpent, shooting forward, fold afand that the Trojans construed this calamity, ter fold, in regular order, like a body of men which befel him, as an act of vengeance of marching in military array. the gods for his having violated the offering 214. Uterque serpiens : each serpent emof Minerva. Virgil, therefore, judiciously bracing, twines around the bodies of his two introduces this event, not only as it is a fine sons, and mangles their wretched limbs with embellishment of his poem; but also as it their teeth.

215

216. Pòst, corripiunt ipsum subeunteiu auzilio nawrum

220

223. Tales mugitus, quales taurus tollit, cùm

saucius 225

Implicat, et miseros morsu depascitur artus.
Pòst, ipsum auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem
Corripiunt, spirisque ligant ingentibus : et jam
Bis medium amplexi, bis collo squamea circùm
Terga dati, superant capite et cervicibus altis.
Ille simul manibus tendit divellere nodos,
Perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno :
Clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit:
Quales mugitus, fugit cùm saucius aram
Taurus, et incertam excussit cervice securim.
At gemini lapsu delubra ad summa dracones
Effugiunt, sævæque petunt Tritonidis arcem :
Sub pedibusque Deæ, clypeique sub orbe teguntur.
Tum verò tremefacta novus per pectora cunctis
Insinuat pavor): et scelus expendisse merentem
Laocoonta ferunt; sacrum qui cuspide robur
Læserit, et tergo sceleratam intorserit hastam.
Ducendum ad sedes simulacrum, orandaque Divæ
Numina conclamant.

Dividimus muros, et mcenia pandimus urbis.
Accingunt omnes operi : pedibusque rotarum
Subjiciunt lapsus, et stupea vincula collo

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NOTES. Dr. Trapp renders depacitur, devours; rived from deluo. Varro, however, thinks but there is no necessity of this; for it often it was the shrine or place where the image signifies no more than to mangle, prey upon, of the god was placed. It is often used for waste, or consume away. Beside, we can the temple itself, by synec. Lapsu : by a hardly suppose that the serpents devoured or gentle easy motion. Dracones : in the sense · eat up the bodies of his sons, and then laid of serpentes. hold upon the father, to satiate their hunger. 226. Arcem: the shrine of stern Minerva.

There was a statue in the palace of Ves- Tritonis, a name of that goddess. pasian, representing this story, (as mention 230. Ferunt: they declare that Laocoon ed by Pliny,) which showed Laocoon en- justly suffered for his crime—that it was a twined by the serpents, and his sons dead just punishnient inflicted upon him for doing on the ground. It is probable that Virgil violence to the sacred offering of Minerva. took this description from that statue. By this their doubt was removed, and they 215. Morsu: teeth-fangs.

resolved to admit the fatal machine within 218. Bis amplexi. The serpents embrace the city. him twice about the middle; then rising 231. Tergo: in the sense of lateri. upward, they bind their scaly backs twice 232. Simulacrum. Virgil had an admiabout his neck; and holding him in that rable talent at varying his style. He hath situation, elevate their heads and bloody found out no less than twelve names for crests above the head of their unhappy vic- this horse, all equally significant: Lignum, tim. Circumdati. The parts of a compound Machina, Monstrum, Dolum, Pinea Clausverb are sometimes separated by Tmesis, tra, Donum, Moles, Efigies Equi, Equus, for the sake of the verse. This word is Sacrum Robur, Simulacrum, and Cavum Roeither to be taken actively, in ihe sense of bur. Ad sedes : to the proper place the circumdantes, and governing squamea terga; hill, or eminence, on which the temple of or we must take the expression as a Grecism. Minerva stood. Numina: in the sense of See Ecl. i. 55.

divinitatem. 220. Tendit : in the sense of conatur. 234. Moenia : properly, the fortifications Nodos : the folds of the serpent.

or bulwarks of a city, from munio. Murus: 221. Perfusus: smeared, or stained, as to the wall that surrounds it. They are, howhis fillets.

ever, used indiscriminately for a city, fre224. Incertam securim : the erring blow- quently. Accingunt : apply themselves to the axe struck with an erring blow.

the work. 225. Delubra. Delubrum was properly 236. Lapsus rotarum: they place wheels the place before the temple, or near the altar, (or rollers) under its feet, and fasten hempen where they washed before they entered, or cords to its neck. Lapsus rotarum : simply before they performed sacrifice. It is de- for rotas.

240

Intendunt: scandit fatalis machina muros,

Fæta armis : pueri circùm innuptæque puellæ 239. Circùm canunt Sacra canunt, funemque manu contingere gaudent. sacra carmina

Illa subit, mediæque minans illabitur urbi.
240. Illa machina su-
bit

O patria, ô Divûm domus, Ilium, et inclyta bello,
Mônia Dardanidûm! quater ipso in limine portæ

Substitit, atque utero sonitum quater arma dedêre.
244. Immemores pro- Instamus tamen immemores, cæcique furore,
digii

Et monstrum infelix sacratâ sistimus arce. 246. Tunc etiam Cas- Tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris sandra, jussu Dei .ipol- Ora, Dei jussu non unquam credita Teucris. linis non unquam cre- Nos delubra Deûm miseri, quibus ultimus esset dita Teucris, 248. Nos miseri Tro. Ille dies, festâ velamus fronde

per

urbem. jani, quibus

Vertitur intereà cælum, et ruit Oceano nox,
Involvens umbrâ magnâ terramque polumque,
Myrmidonumque dolos. Fusi per mænia Teucri
Conticuere: sopor fessos complectitur artus.

245

250

NOTES.

237. Scandit muros: it ascends, or mounts 245. Infelix: in the sense of perniciosum, over the ruins of our walls. They had vel fatale. been demolished to admit it, and afford it 246. Cussandra. She was the daughter entrance.

of Priam and Hecuba, and endued with the 239. Funem: the ropes that had been spirit of prophecy by Apollo, upon her profastened to the neck and other parts of the mising to grant him her love; which, howhorse, by which they moved it forward. ever, she afterwards refused to do. Not

241. Ilium, domus Divûm: Ilium, the ha- being able to withdraw from her the gift he bitation of the gods; either because its walls had bestowed, he rendered it of no avail, by had been built by Apollo and Neptune; or; her predictions to be considered as false,

destroying her credibility, and making all on account of the numerous temples and Jussu Dei : by the command of the god consecrated places with which it abounded. Apollo. Ora: for os; the plu. for the sing.

242. Dardanidûm: the same as Trojano- Fatis futuris: to our approaching destrucrum, vel Trojæ.

tion. 243. Substitit quater, &c. Some are of 249. Velamus delubra. It was their cusopinion that this stumbling, or stopping of tom, not only on festival days, but at all the horse in the very threshold, alludes to times of public rejoicing, to adorn, or dress a notion that prevailed of its being a bad the temples of the gods with the branches omen for one to stumble on the threshold, of laurel, olive, ivy, &c. especially when going out to war; as it is 250. Vertitur cælum : the heavens are said to have happened to Protesilaus, the turned around. By the diurnal rotation of first of the Greeks, who was killed on the the earth, the heavens appear to revolve plains of Troy. Tie malignity of this omen

about it once in twenty-four hours. The was thought to proceed from the Furies, who heavens as well as the earth are divided into had their seats on the threshold.

two hemispheres, the upper and the lower, 244. Immemores. Servius thinks that Vir- by the horizon. The diurnal hemisphere gil here allades to the custom of the Romans rises with the sun, and sets with him in the in devoting their enemies and the places to west, below the horizon. At the same time which they laid siege. In the form of words the nocturnal hemisphere rises in the east. which they used upon the occasion, they This tends to explain not ruit Oceano : poured forth these imprecations against night rushes from the ocean, or rises from them: Eique populo civitatique metum, for- the ocean. midinem, oblivionem injiciatis, Dii. Ac 251. Terramque. There is a great beauty cording to him, immemores will imply that in thus singling out the stratagems of the the Trojans were abandoned by the gods, Greeks, as the object of chief attention, and given up to stupidity and infatuation. among all the things in heaven and earth, Furore: with zeal—infatuation. Furor sig- which that night concealed. nifies any inordinate passion whatever, as 252. Fusi : stretched upon their beds, ex. love, hatred, anger, zeal, &c. Immemores: pecting no danger, and taking needful reheedless-unmindful.

pose. Monia: in the sense of urbem.

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