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110

115

Moliri, et longo fessi discedere bello.
110. Aspera hyems Fecissentque utinam! Sæpe illos aspera ponti
ponti interclusit, et Aus- Interclusit hyems, et terruit Auster euntes.
ter terruit illos euntes.

Præcipuè, cùm jam hic trabibus contextus acernis
Staret equus, toto sonuerunt æthere nimbi.
Suspensi Eurypylum scitatum oracula Phæbi

Mittimus: isque adytis hæc tristia dicta reportat:
116. O Danai, vos pla- Sanguine placâstis ventos, et virgine cæsâ,
câstis

Cùm primùm Iliacas, Danai, venistis ad oras : 118. Reditus sunt quæ- Sanguine quærendi reditus, animâque litandum rendi

Argolicâ. Vulgi quæ vox ut venit ad aures, 119. Ut quæ vox venit

Obstupuere animi, gelidusque per ima cucurrit
121. Omnes sunt soli- Ossa tremor ; cui fata parent, quem poscat Apollo.
citi noscere, cui fata pa- Hìc Ithacus vatem magno Calchanta tumultu

Protrahit in medios : quæ sint ea numina Divům,
Flagitat: et mihi jam multi crudele canebant
Artificis scelus, et taciti ventura videbant.
Bis quinos silet ille dies, tectusque recusat
Prodere voce suâ quemquam, aut opponere morti.
Vix tandem magnis Ithaci clamoribus actus,
Compositò rumpit vocem, et me destinat aræ.

120

rent mortem

125

sea.

NOTES. 109. Moliri fugam: in the sense of efficere the virgin was brought to the altar, he infugam.

formed them that Diana was satisfied with 110. Aspera hyems : a violent storm at that act of submission; but demanded that

the virgin should be transported to Tauris, 112. Contextus: framed, or built of ma- and there serve her in capacity of priestess. ple timber. Some part of the horse might The virgin was slain in intention, and saved have been built of maple, others of fir and only by the interposition of the goddess. pine: so that the poet may be consistent in This warrants the expression of the poet, what he says of this same inachine, verse Virgine cæsa. 15: Intexunt costas sectâ abiete ; and also in 118. Litandum : a ger. in dum of the verb verse 258, infra, where he calls it, pinea lito: an atonement must be made with the claustra.

life of a Greek. Ruæus interprets it by sa113. Sonuerunt: raged-roared. Nimbi: crificandum. But it implies more than simturbines,says Heyne. See Æn. i. 102. ply to offer sacrifice; it includes the idea of

114. Suspensi : in suspense we send Eu- expiation, or atonement. The gerund in rypulus. Homer informs us that he was a dum has a peculiar signitication. While it famous augur, and brought with him forty has the form of a noun, it retains the nature ships to the Trojan war. Scitatum: to con- of the verb; and implies the necessity, duty, sult; a sup. in um, from the verb scitor, put or obligation, to do, or perform an action. after mittimus, a verb of motion.

123. Numina Divûm : the will, purpose, 115. Adytis. Adytum was the most se- or response of the gods. Numen, froin the cret, as well as the most sacred place of the verb nuo: I express my will by a nod. temple, and where the images of the gods 124. Et jam : and now many foretold to were placed the shrine from which the me the atrocious design, or plot, of the vil. responses were delivered. It is governed lanous man. by the preposition à or ab, understood. 125. Taciti: not silent; for that would

116. Placâstis ventos : ye appeased the contradict what is said just before: but winds with blood, and a virgin slain, when, quiet, content, well satisfied. - Ventura: in &c.

the sense of res venturas. The best reason The Greeks, on their way to the siege of why canere came to signify to prophesy, or Troy, came to Aulis, a port of Beotia, where to foretell, is, that the responses of oracles Diana, incensed against Agamemnon for were at first delivered, and written in verse. killing one of her favorite deer, withheld the 126. Tectus: in the sense of occultatus. wind. Upon which Calchas was sent to 127. Prodere: in the sense of designare. consult the oracle upon the subject. He Opponere: in the sense of damnare. brought back the answer that Iphigenia, the 128. Tandem vix actus: at length, with daughter of Agamemnon, must be sacrificed difficulty forced or compelled, &c. to appease the anger of the goddess. When 129. Rumpit vocem: he opens his mouth

Assensere omnes : et, quæ sibi quisque timebat, 130
Unius in miseri exitium conversa tulere.

131. Conversa esse in Jamque dies infanda aderat: mihi sacra parari,

exitium Et salsæ fruges, et circum tempora vittæ.

132. Sacra cæperunt

parari
Eripui, fateor, leto me, et vincula rupi:
Limosoque lacu per noctem obscurus in ulvâ 135
Delitui, dum vela darent, si fortè dedissent.
Nec mihi jam patriam antiquam spes ulla videndi,
Nec dulces natos exoptatumque parentem :
Quos illi fors ad pænas ob nostra reposcent
Effugia, et culpam hanc miserorum morte piabunt. 140
Quòd te, per Superos et conscia numina veri ;

141. Quòd oro te, per Per, si qua est, quæ restat adhuc mortalibus usquam,

Snperos, et numina con

scia veri; per fidem, si Intemerata fides, oro; miserere laborum

qua est intemerata fides, Tantorum; miserere animi non digna ferentis. 144

quæ His lachrymis vitam damus, et miserescimus ultrò. Ipse viro primus manicas atque arctą levari

146. Priamus ipse priVincla jubet Priamus; dictisque ita fatur amicis : mus jubet Quisquis es, amissos hinc jam obliviscere Graios. Noster eris : mihique hæc edissere vera roganti : 149 Quò molem hanc immanis equi statuêre ? quis auctor ? Quidve petunt ? quæ relligio ? aut quæ machina belli ? 151. Quæ religio est Dixerat. Ille, dolis instructus et arte Pelasgâ,

in eo Sustulit exutas vinclis ad sidera palmas :

NOTES. 130. Et, tulere quæ: they permitted (were 138. Natos : in the sense of liberos. Excontent to have) what every one feared to optatum : dear-greatly beloved. himself, to be turned to the destruction of 139. Quos illi fors: whom they, perhaps, one unhappy being. Tulere conversa : sim- will demand for punishment on account of ply for converterunt, says Heyne.

my escape; and will expiate this fault of 133. Salsæ fruges : the salted cakes. This mine by the death of those innocents. cake was made of bran, or meal, mixed with Here the poet alludes to an ancient law salt, and called mola. They sprinkled it among the Romans, which subjected chilupon the head of the victim, i he fire of the dren to suffer for some particular crimes, altar, and upon the sacrificing knife. The committed against the state by their parents. ceremony was called immolatio: hence the 143. Intemerata : inviolable-pure-holý. verb iminolare came to signify, to sacrifice Laborum : sufferings. in general. Vittæ : these were fillets of white

144. Animi : animus, the soul, is here wool, with which the temples of the victim, used by meton. for the man, viz. Sinon.and also the priest, and statues of the gods, Pity me bearing such undeserved, or unmewere bound.

rited treatment. Non digna : in the sense 134. Rupi vincula. The victims were of indigna. loose and unbound when they were brought 146. Manicas: hand-cuffs. Arcta vincle: forward to the altar. But even so, it is not tight cords. probable that Sinon could have made his

149. Edissere: declare-speak. Vera : escape from the guards and spectators, that

verum,

truth. would accompany him. By rupi vincula, we may understand that he broke the pri

150. Quò statuere: for what purpose did son in which he was confined against the they erect this mass of a huge horse? Who day of sacrifice, and made his escape. Any

was the author of it? The following interthing that binds, holds, or restrains another, rogatories, as Mr. Davidson observes, are may be called vinculum. Eripui: rescued elliptical. They are thus supplied : Quid or delivered.

petunt? What do they intend? Is it to 135. Delituique obscurus: and I lay con

fulfil some duty of religion? If it be so, cealed or hid. Lacu. Lacus here ineans a

qua religio? What duty or motive of relifen, or marshy ground. Ulva: weeds, or gion led to it? Or is it an engine of war? rushes.

If so, quæ machina belli? What engine of 137. Anliquam : dear country; or anli

war is it? quam may be used in the sense of veterem, 153. Exutas vinclis : free from cords or pristinam.

fetters

plu. of

155

160

154. Ait: Testor vos, Vos, æterni ignes, et non violabile vestram O æterni igncs, Testor numen, ait; vos, aræ, ensesque nefandi, 155. T'eslor vos,

Quos fugi; vittæque Deûm, quas hostia gessi : aræ, insandique

Fas mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere jura ; 158. Fas est mihi Fas odisse viros, atque omnia ferre sub auras, odisse

Si qua tegunt: teneor patriæ nec legibus ullis. 160. Modò tu, 0 Tro- Tu modò promissis maneas, servataque serves ja, maneas fidelis pro- Troja fidem : si vera feram, si magna rependam. inissis tuis, 164. Sed enim ex quo

Omnis spes Danaûm, et cæpti fiducia belli, tempore impius

Palladis auxiliis semper stetit. Impius ex quo 168. Ausique sunt Tydides sed enim, scelerumque inventor Ulysses, contingere

Fatale aggressi sacrato avellere templo 169. Ex illo tempore Palladium, cæsis summæ custodibus arcis, spes Danaûm sublapsa Corripuere sacram effigiem ; manibusque cruentis cæpit fluere

Virgineas ausi Divæ contingere vittas : 170. Eorum vires fractæ sunt, et

Ex illo fluere, ac retrò sublapsa referri 172. Vix simulacrum

Spes Danaûm; fractæ vires, aversa Deæ mens. fuit positum in castris, Nec dubiis ea signa dedit Tritonia monstris. cùm corusce

Vix positum castris simulacrum; arsere coruscæ

165

170

NOTES.

154. Teslor vos: ye eternal fires, I call viltæ, with which he was to have been bound, you, and your inviolable divinity, to wit- were so many witnesses that he was now ness.

under no obligations to regard the interests Some think this is an allusion to the fire of the Greeks, who had withdrawn all proof the altar. But Servius, with more pro- tection froin him. priety, thinks the sun, moon, and other hea- 161. Si feram vera : if I relate the truth, venly luminaries are meant: which the an- if I repay thee largely-great things. cients thought to be globes of fire, to shine 164. Enim : in the sense of equidem. with their own proper lustre; and to be in- 166. Fatale Palladium. The Palladium habited by divinities. The fire of the altar was a statue of Pallas with a small shield and could hardly be called eternal, unless there spear. It was said to have fallen from heahe an allusion to the fire of Vesta.

ven near the tent of Nus, when he was build155. Nefandi enses: ye horrid instruments ing the citadel of Troy. Some say it was of death, which I escaped. I take enses made of the bones of Pelops. All, however, here for the implements used in offering the agree that it was a pledge of the safety of sacrifice, such as the axe, knife, &c.

Troy. 156. Villæque Deûm: and ye fillets of the Ulysses and Diomede entered the temple gods, which as a victim I wore.

where it stood, and carried it away to the In order to excite their compassion the Grecian camp, having slain the guards. It more, and to show the horrid apprehensions is called fatale, because, on the safe keeping he had of the act, he speaks as if he had of it, the preservation of Troy depended. actually been brought to the altar, and as if 169. Ex illo : from that time, the hope of that had been actually put in execution, the Greeks, tottering, began to slip, and to which had only been intended against him. be carried backward.

157. Sacrata jura : sacred obligations. This is a inetaphor taken from a person Jus properly signifies a natural right, law, standing on a slippery place, and with diffiduty, or obligation. It differs from fas, culty maintaining his position The least which properly signifies a divine right, law, movement of his body destroys his equilibri&c. Any thing that the laws of God per- At first he totiers, and reels to and init may be called fas.

fro in order to recover hiinself. Unable to 158. Sub auras : into light.

do it, he is borne away, and hurried along 159. Siqua tegunt: if any lie hid. Nec with accelerated motion. ullis legibus, &c. He is no longer bound by 171. Tritonia. This was a name of Pal

ny ties of his country. He is at liberty to las or Minerva, taken from a lake in Africa, break or dissolve his allegiance, and place called Tritona, where she is said to have himself under the protection of the Trojans. been born: or, at least, where she first made 'Their barbarous treatment had cancelled all her appearance on earth. Monstris : prohiz obligations to them: the aræ on which digies-indications of her anger. he wus to have been slain—the enses nefan- 172. Coruscæ flammæ : sparkling fiames di, by which he was to have been slain—the flashed from her steady eyes. The signs

um.

esse

Luminibus flammæ arrectis, salsusque per artus
Sudor iit, terque ipsa solo, mirabile dictu !
Emicuit, parmamque ferens hastamque trementem.
Extemplò tentanda fugâ canit æquora Calchas : 176 176. Æquora tentanda
Nec posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis,
Omina ni repetant Argis, numenque reducant,
Quod pelago et curvis secum advexere carinis.
Et nunc quòd patrias vento petiere Mycenas; 180
Arma Deosque parant comites, pelagoque remenso,
Improvisi aderunt : ita digerit omina Calchas.
Hanc

pro
Palladio moniti, pro numine læso,

183. Illi moniti sta. Effigiem statuêre, nefas quæ triste piaret;

tuêre hanc effigiem equi, Hanc tamen immensam Calchas attollere molem

185. Tamen Calchas Roboribus textis, cæloque educere jussit :

jussit eos attollere Ne recipi portis, aut duci in mænia possit ; Neu populum antiquâ sub relligione tueri.

189. Nam dicebat, si Nam si vestra manus violâsset dona Minervæ ; 189

193. Dicebat Asiam Tum magnum exitium (quod Dî priùs omen in ipsum ultrò venturam esse Convertant) Priami imperio Phrygibusque futurum : 196. Nos-que, quos Sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset in urbem, neque Tydides, nec LaUltrò Asiam magno Pelopcia ad mænia bello

rissæus Achilles domuit; Venturam, et nostros ea fata manere nepotes.

nos, quos decem anni

non domuere; quos mille Talibus insidiis, perjurique arte Sinonis,

domuere, Credita res : captique dolis, lachrymisque coactis, capti sunt dolis

185 quæ

vestra

195 carine

non

NOTES.

ld re

here mentioned are truly ominous; and suf- Omina. Some copies have omnia. Dzficient to have excited in the minds of the gerit : interprets-explains. Greeks fear and alarm.

184. Quæ piaret : which might expiate 174. Ipsa : the goddess—the image of the the horrid crime of carrying off the Pallagoddess. Emicuit : in the sense of salivit. dium from her temple.

175. Parmam-hastam : the shield and 186. Roboribus textis: with compacted or brandished spear. These were the arms by joined timber. Robur properly signifies the which the Palladium was distinguished. lieart of the oak. Hence it may signify

176. Canit: in the sense of declarat. Ca- timber in general, and all wooden materials, no is properly applied to oracles and pre- as planks, boards, &c. Immensam : very dictions. It implies that Calchas spoke by high. Molem : for equum. inspiration, and declared it to be the will of

188. Neu tueri: nor defend the people the gods, that the sea, &c. Exscindi : be under their ancient religion-under the rerased-destroyed.

ligious patronage and protection of their an178. Ni repetant : unless they sh

cient guardian goddess, Pallas, or Minerva. peat the omens at Argos, and bring back the goddess, which, &c.

190. In ipsum: which omen may the This, Servius observes, alludes to a cus

gods rather Turn upon him, to wit, Calchas.

It would be more emphatical, if it were in tom of the Romans, when they were unsuccessful in war, to return home, and again ipsos, menning upon the Greeks. Some coconsult the omens: or, if they were too far pies have in ipsos. for that purpose, they used to appropriate a

193. Asiam. Asia Minor, or Natolia, in part of the enemy's territory, and call it which Troy was situated. It is put, by meRome, where they renewed the omens. Nu- ton. for the inhabitants. Ultrò. Servius men : the Palladium--the image or symbol explains this by statim. But the usual acof Pallas' divinity ; which Sinon would ceptation of the word is easier, and more make the Trojans believe had been carried emphatic. Pelopeia monia : the city Argos, to Argos : and in the mean time, until they where Pelops reigned: by synec. put for should return, as an atonernent or offering Greece in general. See Geor. iii. 7. to the onended goddess (numine læso,) the 194. Ea fata: the same fate or destiny. Greeks had built, and consecrated to her, 195. Insidiis : in the sense of fraudibus. this horse.

196. Coactis lachrymis : by his feigned or 181. Arma: troops---forces, by metón. forced tears. Some copies read coacti, in

200

205

Quos neque Tydides, nec Larissæus Achilles,

Non anni domuere decem, non mille carinæ.
199. Hìc aliud majus Hìc aliud majus miseris multòque tremendum
prodigium multòque ma- Objicitur magis, atque improvida pectora turbat.
gìs tremenduin

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
Solennes taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.

Ecce autem gemini à 'Tenedo tranquilla per alta 204. Gemini angues (Horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues venientes à Tenedo per incumbunt pelago, pariterque ad litora tendunt: tranquilla alta

Pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta, jubæque
Sanguineæ exsuperant undas : pars cætera pontum
Ponè legit, sinuatque immensa volumine terga.

Fit Sonitus spumante salo : jamque arva tenebant, 210. Suffecti quoad Ardentesque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni, ardentes

Sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues : illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt: et primùm parva duorum
Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque

210

NOTES.

the nom. agreeing with nos, meaning the gives the greater probability to the episode Trojans. But this is not so easy and natu- of the wooden horse, and accounts for the ral ; nor does it so well agree with the sub- credulity of the Trojans. ject. The poet uniformly represents Sinon 202. Solennes aras: the appointed altars. as an impostor, a cheat, and all his words 503. Tenedo. Tenedos is here mentioned and tears feigned and dissembled. Servius to signify, as Servius says, that the ships strongly insists upon coactis. Valpy reads were to come from hence to the destruction coacti. Heyne, coactis.

of Troy. Per tranquilla alta : over the 197. Larissæus : an adj. from Larissa, a smooth or calm sea. This circumstance is town of Thessaly, near Phthia, the place mentioned, because it would afford the Trowhere Achilles was born.

jans an opportunity the better to view the 198. Mille caring. Homer makes 1186 whole progress of the serpents, to hear their ships in all, that went in the Trojan expedi- dreadful hissings, and every lash they gave tion. Carina, the keel, put, by synec, for the waves : it adds much terror to the hithe whole ship. The poets often use a de- deous spectacle. finite number for an indefinite, particularly 204. Referens: in the sense of narrans. if the number be very large.

Orbibus : in the sense of spiris. 199. Hic aliud : here another greater pro- 205. Incumbunt : with their immense folds digy, and one much more to be dreaded, is they rest (swim) upon the sea ; and equally presented to our sight, nobis miseris. (abreast, head and head) stretch to the

200. Improvida : improvident—not ex- shore. pecting any thing of the kind. Pectora : in 208. Sinuat: winds their huge backs in the sense of animos.

folds. Their necks down to their breast, 201. Laocoon. The priest of Neptune were raised above the water; the other part having been put to death, because, by his of them swept the sea behind. Jubæ : necks prayers and sacrifices, he did not prevent -crests. Salo: in the sense of mari. Arthe arrival of the Greeks, Laocoon was va : in the sense of litus. chosen by lot to sacrifice to that god upon 210. Suffecti ardentesque : spotted as to the departure of their enemies.

He was

their glaring eyes with blood and fire, they the priest of Apollo Thymbræus. Some say licked their hissing mouths. Vibrantibus : he was the brother of Anchises; others that in the sense of motantibus. Naturalists obhe was the son of Priam.

serve that no animal moves its tongue with Hyginus, who relates the story, says the so much velocity as the serpent. crime for which Laocoon was thus severely 212. Certo agmine: in the sense of recto punished, was his having married, and had bursu. Agmen here denotes the spiral mochildren, contrary to the orders of Apollo: tion of a serpent, shooting forward, fold afand that the Trojans construed this calamity, ter fold, in regular order, like a body of men which befel him, as an act of vengeance of marching in military array. the gods for his having violated the offering 214. Uterque serpiens : each serpent emof Minerva. Virgil, therefore, judiciously bracing, twines around the bodies of his two introduces this event, not only as it is a fine sons, and mangles their wretched limbs with embellishment of his poem; but also as it their teeth.

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