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Inspectura domos, venturaque desuper urbi;
50 50. Sic fatus, validis In latus, inque feri curvam compagibus alvum
viribus contorsit ingenContorsit : stetit illa tremens, uteroque recusso Insonuere cavæ gemitumque dedêre cavernæ.
' i Et, si fata Deûm, si mens non læva fuisset,
54. Si fata Deûm non Impulerat ferro Argolicas fædare latebras :
55 fuissent adversa
55. Ille impulerat nos Trojaque, nunc stares, Priamique arx alta, maneres !
fædare Ecce manus juvenem intereà post terga revinctum 57. Ecce, intereà DarPastores magno ad regem clamore trahebant
danidæ pastores magno Dardanidæ : qui se ignotum venientibus ultrò,
clamore trahebant ad Hoc ipsum ut strueret, Trojamque aperiret Achivis, 60 regem juvenem revincObtulerat: fidens animi, atque in utrumque paratus,
tum quoad manus post
terga ; qui ultrò obtule Seu versare dolos, seu certæ occumbere morti.
rat se ignotum illis Undique visendi studio Trojana juventus
63. Visendi illius Circumfusa ruit, certantque illudere capto. Accipe nunc Danaûm insidias; et crimine ab uno 65 Disce omnes. Namque, ut conspectu in medio turbatus, inermis
67. Ut Sinon constitit Constitit, atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit : Heu, quæ nunc tellus, inquit, quæ me æquora possunt Accipere! aut quid jam misero mihi denique restat ! 70 Cui neque apud Danaos usquam locus ; insuper ipsi
NOTES. 47. Inspectura : about to overlook our Troy, thou wouldst be standing, and thou, houses, and to come down upon the city. lofty citadel of Priam, wouldst be remainIt was higher than the walls and houses, ing? Fædare : in the sense of excindere. and might, with propriety, be said to over 59. Dardanidæ : the Trojans; so called look them, and to come down upon the city from Durdarus, one of their founders. It -to make an attack upon it.
is here used as an adj. 48. Error: 'guile, deceit, or trick. It 60. Strueret : in the sense of efficeret. properly signifies whatever is opposed to 61. Fidens animi : bold-daring of soul, truth.
and prepared for either event; to carry into 49. Et: in the sense of etiam: I fear the execution his purpose, (versare dolos ;) or, Greeks even offering presents. There is a in case of discovery, to yield to certain peculiar emphasis to be placed upon the et death. He threw himself a stranger, and in this instance.
unknown, in the way of these shepherds, 51. Feri : the horse. Ferus does not al on purpose that they might take him, and ways signify a wild beast, or beast of prey: bring him before Priam and the Trojan it signifies a tame or domesticated animal chiefs, the better to effect his purpose, to also. He struck that part of the horse, persuade them to admit the horse within where the timbers or ribs arose from their their city. horizontal to a perpendicular position. Cur 64. Circumfusa : surrounding him-envam compagibus: bending out in seams or compassing him on every side: a part. froin joints. Juncturis, says Ruæus. Recusso: circumfundor. Capto: in the sense of capin the sense of repercusso.
tivo. 53. Gemitum. "This groan probably was 65. Accipe: in the sense of audi. Ab made by the Greeks within, who now began uno crimine: from one criminal person, to be alarmed at their situation.
(namely, Sinon,) learn the character of all 54. Fata: decrees, or purposes of the the Greeks. This appears to be the sense gods.
in which Heyne takes the words. Valpy 55. A licas : an adj. from Argos, a city says: “ Froin this instance of deceit and of Greece, situated in the Peloponnesus; treachery,” &c. Davidson :
" From one by synec. sometimes put for Greece in ge- crime, take a specimen of the whole nation.” geral. Latebras: hiding places--recesses. Crimen : properly a crime; by meton. a Trojaque, &c. This is a happy apostrophe: criminal, or villanous person. had we taken his advice-had our minds 66. In medio conspectu: in the midst of not been stupid and infatuated ; now, O the gazing crowd.
Dardanidæ infensi pænas cum sanguine poscunt. 73. Quo gemitu nose tri animi sunt conversi,
Quo gemitu conversi animi, compressus et omnis
Impetus : hortamur fari, quo sanguine cretus ; 74. Eum fari, ex quo Quidve ferat, memoret, quæ sit fiducia capto.
75 sanguire cretus sit ; me- Ille hæc, depositâ tandem formidine, fatur: moret
, quid ferat, quæ-ve Cuncta equidem tibi, Rex, fuerint quæcunque, fatebor, 78. Me cretum esse de Argolica
Vera, inquit : neque, me Argolicâ de gente negabo; 79. Hoc est primum : Hoc primum: nec si miserum fortuna Sinonem nec, si improba fortuna Finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque improba finget. 80 finxit Sinonem
Fando aliquid si fortè tuas pervenit ad aures 83. Quem insontem Belidæ nomen Palamedis, et inclyta famâ Pelasgi demisere neci sub falsa proditione, in- Gloria : quem falsâ sub proditione Pelasgi fando
Insontem, infando indicio, quia bella vetabat, 85. At nunc lugent Demisere neci ; nunc cassum lumine lugent :
85 Illi me comitem, et consanguinitate propinquum, 87. Meus pater pauper Pauper in arma pater primis huc misit ab annis. misit me comitem ili, et 88. Dum Palamides
incolumis, regnumque vigebat stabat
Consiliis, et nos aliquod nomenque decusque
74. Impetus : fury-violence. Compres- of falsehood. What he says of himself is sus : restrained. The verb est is understood. downright falsehood; what he says of Pa
75. Memoret : in the sense of dicat. Quid lamedes is in substance true. His death ferat: what message or news he brought, or might have been known to the Trojans by what confidence there might be placed in common report, (fando aliquid,) though him, a captive. This is the sense usually the circumstances of it might not have been. given to the words; but Valpy gives them By relating them, therefore, he could not another turn: “What he might have to re fail of becoming interesting, of gaining a late in his own defence, and what ground favorable reception, and of preparing the he had for hoping for mercy, now he was a way for the accomplishinent of his purpose. prisoner.”
83. Sub falsa proditione: under a false 77. Cuncta vera : the whole truth-all accusation of treachery-treason. This althings true. Heyne and Valpy read, quod- ludes the letters, which Ulysses forged, cunque fuerit, for quæcunque, &c.
mentioned above. Pelasgi. See Æn. i. 624. 80. Vanum : in the sense of fallaccm. 84. Infando indicio. This alludes to the Finxit: hath made, or rendered. Improba : gold, which Ulysses conveyed to his tent, in the sense of adversa.
and pretended to have been sent him by 81. Si fortè, fundo aliquid: if by chance, Priam. This was adduced in evidence by common report, the name of, &c. Fando against him: we may therefore render inaliquid: the same as dum aliquid dicitur. fando indicio : upon an iniquitous evidence. Narratione aliorum, says Heyne.
Quia vetabat bella. This was false : so far 82. Belidæ Palamedis. Palamedes was from Palamedes being opposed to the war the son of Nauplius king of Eubea, an against Troy, that he was among the first to island in the Ægean :sea, and descended promote it. from Belus, a king of Africa, by Amymone, 85. Cassum lumine : deprived of the light the daughter of Danaus. Ulysses, to avoid of life. Demisere : they condemned to going to the Trojan war, pretended to be death. insane; but the deception was discovered by 86. Illi me comitem. Here, too, Sinon Palamedes. See note 7, supra. This, speaks falsely. So far from his being a reUlysses never forgave, and finally he lation of Palamedes, he was the relation of wrought his ruin, by accusing him of hold- Ulysses, whose mother was the sister of ing a correspondence with Priam. To sup- Æsinus, the father of Sinon. port this charge, he forged letters from 87. Ab primis annis: not from his infan. Priam to Palamedes, which he pretended to cy, but from the first years of his bearing have intercepted. He also conveyed gold arins, which among the Romans was at the to his tent, pretending it was sent from Priam age of seventeen. Arma : by meton. war. as a bribe. Upon which Palamedes was 88. Regno. Regnum may either mean accused of treason, and stoned to death. the kingdom of Eubea, where his father
The whole of Sinon's speech is artful, reigned; or the confederate power and nd calculated to impose upon his audience, council of the Grecian states, that had
ng made up; partly of truth, and partly leagued together for the destruction of Troy
Gessimus : invidiâ postquam pellacis Ulyssei
90 (Haud ignota loquor) superis concessit ab oris ; Aflictus vitam in tenebris luctuque trahebam,
92. Ego afflictus tra
hebam vitam Et casum insontis mecum indignabar amici. Nec tacui demens : et me, fors si qua tulisset,
94. Et promisi me 95 fore ultorem, si
qua Si patrios unquam remeâssen victor ad Argos,
tulisset, si unquam
104. Magno pretio. Tum verò ardemus scitari, et quærere causas,
105 Tum verò nos ignari tan.
90. Gessimus aliquod: I also bore some out his being consulted. This sudden pause reputation and honor. Et: in the sense of and transition are very artfully contrived. etiam. Nos: for ego.
and show the great judgment of the poet in 91. Ab superis oris : from the upper re the management of his subject. Requievit: gions--this upper world. Concessit: in the in the sense of cessavit. Enim: in the sense sense of decessit.
of equidem. 93. Indignabar: I grieved, or repined at
101. Autem: here is an expletive; or used the death of my innocent friend. 94. Demens nec tacui: I, a fool, did not in the sense of narro.
in the sense of verè, vel equidem. Revolvo:
Nequicquam: in hold my peace. Demens, compounded of vain-to no purpose: because the relation de and mens. Si qua fors : if any opportu- of those unpleasant topics would not save nity or chance should present. Tulisset : in his life. Habetis: if ye regard or consider. the sense of obtulissel.
Uno ordine: on one footing-in the same 95. Remeâssem: in the sense of rediissem. state, or condition of enemies. 97. Hinc mihi prima: hence the first
103. Jamdudum. This is to be taken in source of misfortune to me. Labes, proper- the sense of jam. Or we must suppose, as ly signifies a stain, or blemish. An allusion Dr. Trapp observes, something to be underis here made to the first appearance of a plague or contagious disease breaking out
stood. Sumite pænas jumdudum debetas, or
the like. upon the surface of the body in spots. Sinon's declaration that he would avenge the
104. Ithacus. Ulysses is so called from death of Palamedes roused the bitter resent. Ithaca, a barren and rocky island in the ment of Ulysses; and from that time, (hinc,) Ionian sea, where he was born, and where he began to plot his destruction. Labes :
his father Laërtes reigned. Sinon gives this in the sense of origo, vel causa. Fuit is appellation to him by way of contempt. understood.
Atridæ : Agamemnon and Menelaus, the 98. Novis criminibus : with new charges sons of Atreus. Their religion required that or accusations. Voces: in the sense of verba, a devoted victim that had escaped from the vel sermones.
altar, should be put to death wherever found: 99. Conscius : conscious, (of his crime- and Sinon having been destined as a victim that he was guilty of the death of Palame to the gods, to procure favorable winds for des,) he began to seek the means of destroy their return, nothing could afford the Greeks ing me also. Arma : the means or imple- in general, and the leaders in particular, ments by which any thing is done. Valpy greater joy, than to hear that the Trojans says: the means of defence against Sinon.
had put him to death. Hoc velit: this, Ulys100. Calchante ministro: Calchas being ses wishes, and the sons of Atreus will purhis assistant-being employed. Calchas was
chase it at a great price. a famous soothsayer in the Grecian camp, 106. Artis : in the sense of fraudis. Peand nothing of any moment was done with- lasgæ : Grecian. See Æn. i. 624.
Moliri, et longo fessi discedere bello.
Præcipuè, cùm jam hic trabibus contextus acernis
Mittimus: isque adytis hæc tristia dicta reportat:
Cùm primùm Iliacas, Danai, venistis ad oras : 118. Reditus sunt quæ- Sanguine quærendi reditus, animâque litandum rendi
Argolicâ. Vulgi quæ vox ut venit ad aures, 119. Ut quæ vox venit
Obstupuere animi, gelidusque per ima cucurrit
Protrahit in medios : quæ sint ea numina Divům,
NOTES. 109. Moliri fugam: in the sense of efficere the virgin was brought to the altar, he infugam.
formed them that Diana was satisfied with 110. Aspera hyems : a violent storm at that act of submission; but demanded that
the virgin should be transported to Tauris, 112. Contextus: framed, or built of ma and there serve her in capacity of priestess. ple timber. Some part of the horse might The virgin was slain in intention, and saved have been built of maple, others of fir and only by the interposition of the goddess. pine: so that the poet may be consistent in This warrants the expression of the poet, what he says of this same inachine, verse Virgine cæsa. 15: Intexunt costas sectâ abiete ; and also in 118. Litandum : a ger. in dum of the verb verse 258, infra, where he calls it, pinea lito: an atonement must be made with the claustra.
life of a Greek. Ruæus interprets it by sa113. Sonuerunt: raged-roared. Nimbi: crificandum. But it implies more than simturbines,says Heyne. See Æn. i. 102. ply to offer sacrifice; it includes the idea of
114. Suspensi : in suspense we send Eu- expiation, or atonement. The gerund in rypulus. Homer informs us that he was a dum has a peculiar signitication. While it famous augur, and brought with him forty has the form of a noun, it retains the nature ships to the Trojan war. Scitatum: to con of the verb; and implies the necessity, duty, sult; a sup. in um, from the verb scitor, put or obligation, to do, or perform an action. after mittimus, a verb of motion.
123. Numina Divûm : the will, purpose, 115. Adytis. Adytum was the most se or response of the gods. Numen, froin the cret, as well as the most sacred place of the verb nuo: I express my will by a nod. temple, and where the images of the gods 124. Et jam : and now many foretold to were placed the shrine from which the me the atrocious design, or plot, of the vil. responses were delivered. It is governed lanous man. by the preposition à or ab, understood. 125. Taciti: not silent; for that would
116. Placâstis ventos : ye appeased the contradict what is said just before: but winds with blood, and a virgin slain, when, quiet, content, well satisfied. - Ventura: in &c.
the sense of res venturas. The best reason The Greeks, on their way to the siege of why canere came to signify to prophesy, or Troy, came to Aulis, a port of Beotia, where to foretell, is, that the responses of oracles Diana, incensed against Agamemnon for were at first delivered, and written in verse. killing one of her favorite deer, withheld the 126. Tectus: in the sense of occultatus. wind. Upon which Calchas was sent to 127. Prodere: in the sense of designare. consult the oracle upon the subject. He Opponere: in the sense of damnare. brought back the answer that Iphigenia, the 128. Tandem vix actus: at length, with daughter of Agamemnon, must be sacrificed difficulty forced or compelled, &c. to appease the anger of the goddess. When 129. Rumpit vocem: he opens his mouth
Assensere omnes : et, quæ sibi quisque timebat, 130
131. Conversa esse in Jamque dies infanda aderat: mihi sacra parari,
exitium Et salsæ fruges, et circum tempora vittæ.
132. Sacra cæperunt
141. Quòd oro te, per Per, si qua est, quæ restat adhuc mortalibus usquam,
Snperos, et numina conIntemerata fides, oro; miserere laborum
scia veri; per fidem, si
qua est intemerata fides, Tantorum; miserere animi non digna ferentis. 144
quæ His lachrymis vitam damus, et miserescimus ultrò. Ipse viro primus manicas atque arctą levari
146. Priamus ipse priVincla jubet Priamus; dictisque ita fatur amicis : mus jubet Quisquis es, amissos hinc jam obliviscere Graios. Noster eris : mihique hæc edissere vera roganti : 149 Quò molem hanc immanis equi statuêre ? quis auctor ? Quidve petunt ? quæ relligio ? aut quæ machina belli ? 151. Quæ religio est Dixerat. Ille, dolis instructus et arte Pelasgâ,
in eo Sustulit exutas vinclis ad sidera palmas :
NOTES. 130. Et, tulere quæ: they permitted (were 138. Natos : in the sense of liberos. Excontent to have) what every one feared to optatum : dear-greatly beloved. himself, to be turned to the destruction of 139. Quos illi fors: whom they, perhaps, one unhappy being. Tulere conversa : sim- will demand for punishment on account of ply for converterunt, says Heyne.
my escape; and will expiate this fault of 133. Salsæ fruges : the salted cakes. This mine by the death of those innocents. cake was made of bran, or meal, mixed with Here the poet alludes to an ancient law salt, and called mola. They sprinkled it among the Romans, which subjected chilupon the head of the victim, i he fire of the dren to suffer for some particular crimes, altar, and upon the sacrificing knife. The committed against the state by their parents. ceremony was called immolatio: hence the 143. Intemerata : inviolable-pure-holý. verb iminolare came to signify, to sacrifice Laborum : sufferings. in general. Vittæ : these were fillets of white
144. Animi : animus, the soul, is here wool, with which the temples of the victim, used by meton. for the man, viz. Sinon.and also the priest, and statues of the gods, Pity me bearing such undeserved, or unmewere bound.
rited treatment. Non digna : in the sense 134. Rupi vincula. The victims were of indigna. loose and unbound when they were brought 146. Manicas: hand-cuffs. Arcta vincle: forward to the altar. But even so, it is not tight cords. probable that Sinon could have made his
149. Edissere: declare-speak. Vera : escape from the guards and spectators, that
truth. would accompany him. By rupi vincula, we may understand that he broke the pri
150. Quò statuere: for what purpose did son in which he was confined against the they erect this mass of a huge horse? Who day of sacrifice, and made his escape. Any
was the author of it? The following interthing that binds, holds, or restrains another, rogatories, as Mr. Davidson observes, are may be called vinculum. Eripui: rescued elliptical. They are thus supplied : Quid or delivered.
petunt? What do they intend? Is it to 135. Delituique obscurus: and I lay con
fulfil some duty of religion? If it be so, cealed or hid. Lacu. Lacus here ineans a
qua religio? What duty or motive of relifen, or marshy ground. Ulva: weeds, or gion led to it? Or is it an engine of war? rushes.
If so, quæ machina belli? What engine of 137. Anliquam : dear country; or anli
war is it? quam may be used in the sense of veterem, 153. Exutas vinclis : free from cords or pristinam.