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275. Inde Romulus Inde lupæ fulvo nutricis tegmine lætus

275 lætus fulvo tegmine nu- Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet tricis hüpæ excipiet gen. Mænia, Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. tem 277. Dicet incolas Ro- His ego nec metas rerum, nec tempora pono :

Imperium sinè fine dedi. Quin aspera Juno,
Quæ mare nunc terrasque metu cælumque fatigat, 280
Consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit
Romanos rerum dominos, gentemque togatam.
Sic placitum. Veniet, lustris labentibus, atas,
Cùm domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas
Servitio premet, ac victis dominabitur Argis. 285
Nascetur pulchrâ Trojanus origine Cæsar,

Imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris, 288. Ille erit Julius, Julius, à magno demissum nomen Yülo.

Hunc tu olim cælo, spoliis Orientis onustum,
Accipies secura : vocabitur hic quoque votis.

Aspera tum positis mitescent sæcula bellis,
Cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus,





276. Mavortra : an adj. from Mavors, a who conquered Achaia ; and Paulus Æmi. name of Mars: warlike-martial. Mænio: lius, who subdued Macedonia and Thessaly. in the sense of urbem.

Argis : in the sing. Argos, neu.; in the plu. 278. Nec pono metas: I place (prescribe) Argi, mas. It was situated about two miles to them neither bounds nor duration of dos from the sea, on the Sinus Argolicus. It minion. The Romans had a belief that was founded by Inachus, 1856 years before their empire would always continue, while Christ. Its inhabitants were called Argoother governments would be unstable and lici and Argivi: by synec. put for the Greeks fluctuating.

in general. Premet: shall subject to servi. 280. Metu: through fear that the Trojans tude-shall subdue. would rise to power, and become dangerous 286. Pulchra : in the sense of illustris: to her dear Carthage and Argos. Futigat: Cæsar, a Trojan of illustrious origin. in the sense of commovet.

288. Nomen demissum : a name derived 281. In melius. This is taken adverbials from, &c. ly: for the better. Referret : shall change. 289. Tu secura : you, sure, shall receive

282. Gentem togatam: the nation of the him hereafter. Cæsar was honored with gown. The toga, or gown, was the distin. four triumphs on four successive days. To guishing badge of the Romans, as the pal- this, refer the words: Onustum spoliis orilium was that of the Greeks. Rerum. Res entis. Cæsar received divine honors by a signifies power-rule-dominion. In the decree of the senate. present case it signifies, the world.

291. Aspera sæcula. Here is an allusion 203. Sic placitum : thus it pleases me to the golden age; or, at least, to the unithis is my pleasure—it is my decree. The versal peace which took place in the reign verb est is to be supplied. Ætas venit: the of Augustus, when the temple of Janus wa. time shall come, years having passed away, shut. Milescent : shall grow mild—soften when, &c. Lustrum : properly the period Aspera : in the sense of dura. of four years. It is often put for time in 292. Cana fides. The meaning is: that general. Ætas : in the sense of tempus, the fidelity of former times should returnand lustris : for annis.

that men should devote more of their time 284. Domus Assaraci. By this we are to to the service of the gods—that there should understand the Romans. Assaracus was be no more civil wars, in which brother the son of Tros, and brother of llus. He should be armed against brother. The epiwas the father of Capys, and Capys the thet canı alludes to the figure of faith, father of Anchises, the father of Æneas, which was represented with hoary locks, to from whom the Romans descended. Phthi- denote that it was the peculiar virtue of

This was a city of Thessaly, the royal former times—the golden age. By the word seat of Achilles. Mycenas-Argis. These Vesta, Servius says, we are to understand were cities of the Peloponnesus, over which religion. Vesta was the daughter of Saturn Agamemnon reigned, put, by synec. for and Ops, the goddess of fire, and patroness Greece in general. This prophecy was ful- of the vestal virgins. Eneas was the first filled under the Roman generals Mummius, who introduced her mysteries into Italy



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Jura dabunt : diræ ferro et compagibus arctis Claudentur belli portæ: Furor, impius, intus 294

Sæva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus ahenis 295. Et vinctus post Post tergum nodis, fremet, horridus, ore cruento.- tergum


ahenis nodis, fremot
Hæc ait: et Maiâ genitum demittit ab alto
Ut terræ, utque novæ pateant Carthaginis arces
Hospitio Teucris : ne fati nescia Dido
Finibus arceret. Volat ille, per aëra magnum

Remigio alarum, ac Libyæ citus adstitit oris :
Et jam jussa facit: ponuntque ferocia Pæni
Corda, volente Deo : imprimis Regina quietum
Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam.

305. Volvens animo At pius Æneas, per noctem plurima volvens, 305

306. Constituit exire, Ut primùm lux alma data est, exire, locosque

explorareque novos loExplorare novos ; quas vento accesserit oras,

cos, et quærere ad quas Qui teneant (nam inculta videt) hominesne, feræne,

oras accesserit vento; Quærere constituit, sociisque exacta referre.

qui teneant eas, homiClassem in convexo nemorum, sub rupe cavatâ,

nes-ne, feræ-ne (nam

310 videt loca inculta) referArboribus clausam circùm atque horrentibus umbris,

reque exacta sociis. OcOcculit : ipse uno graditur comitatus Achaie,

culit classem Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro.

314. Cui mater obvia

tulit Cui mater mediâ sese tulit obvia sylvâ,

se mediâ sylva, Virginis os habitumque gerens, et virginis arma

gerens os, habitumque 315

316. Velerat talis quaSpartanæ : vel qualis equos Threïssa fatigat

lis Threissa NOTES66


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The Palladium of Troy was supposed to be his wings. Utens alis quasi remis, says preserved in her temple; where a fire was Ruæus. The motion of his wings is beaucontinually kept burning by certain virgins, tifully expressed; it was like the motion of who dedicated themselves to her service. oars in propelling a boat forward. There was another goddess of the same 302. Pani. The Carthaginians were name, but generally confounded with Ceres, sometimes called Pæni, or Phæni, from Cybelle, Tellus, &c. The word Vesta is fre- Phænicia, the country from which they quently used for fire, by meton.

Corda : in the sense of animos. 293. Arctis compagibus: with close joints 304. Quietum animum: a friendly mind, - bound fast with bars of iron.

and a benevolent disposition, or temper. 294. Porte. The gates, or doors of the 306. Data est : in the sense of orta est. temple of Janus were open in time of war, 309. Exacta: neu. plu. the particulars of and shut in time of peace. This happened his discovery. only three times during a period of seven 810. In convexo. The place where Æneas hundred years, so constantly engaged were moored his fleet, lay in a circular form, the Romans in the work of death? Impius nearly surrounded by a grove. Here they furor. This, Turnebus thinks, alludes could be in safety, without fear of discovery. to the image of warlike rage drawn by The words convexus and concavus are someApelles, and dedicated by Augustus in the times used for each other, which seems to be Forum. But Germanus thinks it alludes the case here; the former properly signifyto the statue of Mars, which the Spartans ing the exterior of a round surface; the had in their city, bound in this manner, in latter the interior. Horrentibus : deep- . chains of brass. Nodis: in the sense of thick shades. Uno : in the sense of solo. catenis.

See Æn. iv. 451. 297. Genitum Maiâ: the son of Maia. 313. Crispans: in the sense of quassans. Mercury was the son of Jupiter, and Maia, Lato ferro : of a broad barb, or point. the daughter of Atlas. See Geor. i. 336. 316. Spartanc. The Spartan virgins

298. Arces. This appears to be used in were trained to all kinds of manly exerci the sense of urbs : that the country and city ses, such as running, wrestling, throwing of New Carthage might open in hospitality the quoit and javelin, riding and hunting, to the Trojans—might receive them kindlý, which is the reason that the poet attires and treat them with hospitality.

Venus in their habit, or dress. Os : in the 301. Remigio alarum: by the motion of sense of rultum.

Harpalyce, volucremque fugâ prævertitur Eurum.
Namque humeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum
Venatrix, dederatque comam diffundere ventis ;

Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fuentes. X 320 321. Ac illa prior in- Ac prior, Heus, inquit, juvenes, monstrate, mearum quit : Heus, juvenes, Vidistis si quam hic errantem fortè sororum, monstrate, si vidistis Succinctam pharetra et inaculosa teginine lyncis, fortè quam mearum sororum errantem hic, suc

Aut spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem. cinctam pharetra

Sic Venus : at Veneris contrà sic filius orsus : 325

Nulla tuarum audita mihi, neque visa sororum, 327. Mortalis vultus 0, quam te memorem, Virgo ? namque haud tibi vultus haud est tibi, nec tua Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat.

O Dea certè : An Phæbi soror, an Nympharum sanguinis una ? 330. Quæcunque es, Sis felix, nostrumque leves quæcunque laborem :

330 sis felix

Et quo sub cælo tandem, quibus orbis in oris
Jactemur, doceas : ignari hominumque locorumque
Erramus, vento huc et vastis fluctibus acti.
Multa tibi ante aras nostrâ cadet hostia dextrâ.

Tum Venus : haud equidem tali me dignor honore.
Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram, 336
Purpureoque alte suras vincire cothurno.
Punica regna vides, Tyrios, et Agenoris urbem •
Sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello.



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317. Harpalyce : a celebrated Amazon, sound (like) a human being-it does not said to have rescued her father, who had indicate you to be mortal. Homo, is properbeen taken in battle by the Getæ. The ly either a man or woman-a human being. comparison here is simply between the habits 329. An soror Phobi : art thou the sister of Venus, and those of Harpalyce. Eurum. of Phæbus, or one of the blood of the Many copies read Hebrum; but there ap- nymphs ? See Ecl. iv. 10. The verb es is pears a manifest incongruity in it. It can to be supplied. hardly be supposed, that the poet, describing 330. Felix: kind-propitious. Oris : in the swiftness of her speed, should say that the sense of regione. Orbis : of the world, she could outride the course of a river, how

or earth. ever rapid it might be. In that there could 334. Multa hostia : many a victim shall be no difficulty. Besides, the epithet volu- fall for you before the altars. crem, is not very applicable to a river. 335. Haud me dignor: I do not consider Eurum is certainly the best reading; it is the myself worthy, &c. language of poetry, while Hebrum is not. 338. Urbem Agenoris : Carthage, founded Fuga : in the sense of cursu.

by Dido, a descendant of Agenor. Punica 320. Nuda genu, &c. This is a Grecism: regna : the kingdom, or realm of Carthage. naked as to her knee, and collected as to her It is distinguished from the city, which is flowing robe in a knot. See Ecl. i. 55. The called_Urbs Agenoris. Punica: an adj. meaning is, that she had her knee naked, from Pæni, or Phæni. and her flowing robe collected in a knot. 339. Fines Libyci: the country is Africa. Sinus: the folds of a garment; also the Libyci : an adj. from Libya, agreeing with garment itself, by synec. Nado: nodus is fines. Libya was properly that part of properly any thing that binds or ties.- Africa bordering upon Egypt on the west; Hence, a girdle, or belt-a knot, &c. but is frequently used for any part of Africa,

321. Quam : in the sense of aliquam. or Africa in general. Genus intractabile:

323. Tegmine. It was a custom among a race fierce in war. The Carthaginians the ancients for hunters to wear the skin of extended their conquests with unexampled some one of the animals, they had killed. rapidity, and were the only people that apPrementem : pursuing.

peared to dispute the empire of the world 325. Orsus : part. of the verb ordior : he with the Romans. Their misfortunes, and began. The verb est is understood. final ruin, were owing more, perhaps, to 327. Quam te memorem.? whom shall I party spirit and civil cabals, than to the

arms of the Romans. See Rol. An. His. 323. Nec vox sonat: nor does your voice Art. Carthage.

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344. Dilectus magno 345 amore miseræ Didonis

345. Dederat eam intactam

Imperium Dido Tyriâ regit urbe profecta,
Germanum fugiens : longa est injuria, longæ
Ambages: sed summa sequar fastigia rerum.
Huic conjux Sichæus erat, ditissimus agri
Phænicum, et magno miseræ dilectus amore :
Cui pater intactam dederat, primisque jugârat
Ominibus : sed regna Tyri germanus habebat
Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnes.
Quos inter medius venit furor : ille Sichæum,
Impius ante aras, atque auri.cæcus amore,
Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum
Germanæ: factumque diu celavit; et ægram,
Multa malus simulans, vanâ spe lusit amantem.
Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago
Conjugis, ora modis attollens pallida miris :
Crudeles aras, trajectaque pectora ferro
Nudavit, cæcumque domûs scelus omne retexit.
Tum celerare fugam, patriâque excedere suadet :
Auxiliumque viæ veteres tellure recludit
Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri.
His commota, fugam Dido sociosque parabat.
Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni,
Aut metus acer erat : naves, quæ fortè paratæ,
Corripiunt, onerantque auro: portantur avari
Pygmalionis opes pelago : dux fæmina facti.

349. Ille impius atque 350

cæcus amore auri, clam superat Sichæum ferro ante aras incautum

352. Ille malus simulans multa lusit ægram

amantem 355

358. Recluditque veteres thesauros, depositos

in tellure tanquam aux360 ilium viæ, ignotum pon


361. Omnes conveniunt, quibus erat, aut crudele


340. Dido: the name of a Tyrian prin 352. Ægram amantem : the afflicted, or cess, implying beautiful, or well-beloved. disconsolate lover. Lusit : deceived-deSee Æn. iv. 1. Regit imperium: manages luded. the government.

353. Inhumati. According to their sys342. Ambages longæ : the circumstances tem of religion, the shades of those, who are long and tedious. Sequar summa fasti. were unburied, must wander a hundred gia rerum: I will mention only the chief years, before they could be at rest. The heads of the business—I will trace only the circumstance of Pygmalion's leaving the outlines of the affair. Ruæus takes sequar body of Sichæus unburied, in this view, in the sense of perstringam.

greatly heightens the enormity of the crime 345. Primis ominibus : with the first first committed. Imago : in the sense of omens. This alludes to a custom among umbra. the Romans of consulting the omens in all 354. Conjugis. Conjux is either a husthe important concerns of life, before they band or a wifi ; here the former. Pallida : entered upon them, to see if they would pale in a wonderful manner. Os : in the prove successful or not. Jugârat: by syn. sense of vultum. for jugaverat. Cui: to whom, to wit, Si 356. Nudavit: laid bare the cruel altars, chæus. Intactam: adhuc virginem, says at which he was slain. Retexit: disclosed Ruæus.

-brought to light. 347. Immanior scelere ante: great in wick 358. Recludit : shows, or opens to her, edness above all others. The comp. is here &c. Justin tells us that Sicheus, for fear used in the sense of the pos.

of the king, buried his money in the earth, 348. Sichæum. He was the priest of Her- fearing to kcep it in his house ; but no one cules, an office in dignity next to royalty. knew the place of its deposit during his It appears that Pygmalion came upon Si. life. chæus unexpectedly, while he was officia 362. Parata. Tyre, being a great comting at the altar, and slew him. This cir- mercial city, in the ordinary course of busicumstanco greatly adds to the atrocity of ness, many ships might be prepared and the deed. Furor: in the sense of odium. ready for scu. The verb sunt is to be supInter quos : between Sichæus and Pyg- plicd. malion.

364. Opes avari, &c. Either the wealth 350. Securus. regardless of the love of of Sicheus, which Pygmalion now imaginhis sister. Superat: in the sense of interficit. ed his own; or along with her husband's




365. Illi devenêre ad Devenére locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernes locos, ubi

Mania, surgentemque novæ Carthaginis arcem. 367. Mercati sunt so-, Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam, lum, dictum Byrsam de Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo. nomine facti, tantum Sed vos qui tandem ? quibus aut venistis ab oris ?

369. Sed tandem, qui Quòve tenetis iter? Quærenti talibus ille estis vos?

Suspirans, imoque trahens à pectore vocem : 370. Ille suspirans, O Dea, si primâ repetens ab origine pergam, trabensque vocem à pec- Et vacet annales nostrorum audire laborum; tore imo respondet ei

Antè diem clauso componet vesper Olympo. quærenti in talibus verbis.

Nos, Trojâ antiquâ, si vestras fortè per aures 375. Tempestas suâ Trojæ nomen iit, diversa per æquora vectos, forte appulit Libycis oris Forte suâ Libycis tempestas appulit oris. nes vectos per diversa Sum pius Æneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penates æquora ab antiqua Tro

Classe veho mecum, famâ super æthera notus. 380. Meum genus est Italiam quæro patriam ; et genus ab Jove summo. ab

Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus æquor,
Matre Deâ monstrante viam, data fata secutus :
Vix septem convulsa undis Euroque supersunt.

Ipse ignotus, egens, Libyæ deserta peragro,
.385. Nec Venus passa Europâ atque Asiâ pulsus. Nec plura querentem
est eum querentem plura Passa Venus: medio sic interfata dolore est:

jâ, si



NOTES. money, Dido took the treasure of her brother, opened it. Clauso Olympo: heaven being and fled with it to Africa.

closed. Olyınpus is a mountain in Thessa367. Mercati solum, &c. This passage ly. The ancients supposed its top touched hath been differently interpreted. Donatus the heavens: from which circumstance, the explains it, of the money being made of poets placed upon it the court of heaven. bull's leather, with which she purchased the It is about a milo and a half high. Olymground (solum) for the city. Others say, pus is often put for heaven. that she cut the hide into very small strings, 376. Iit: hath reached, or come to. and by connecting them together, surround 377. Suâ forte. Ruæus says, solito casu. ed twenty-two stadia, or furlongs. Neither Sua vi, says Minelius. of these appears to be the true solution. 378. Penates : properly, household gods. The langaage of the Phænicians was a dia. See Geor. ii. 505. In the sack of Troy, lect of the Hebrew, in which language the Æneas saved his Penates from the hands of word Bosra means a fortification, cr forti- the Greeks, and took them as companions fied place. The Greeks, mistaking this of his adventures. See Æn. ii. 717. Æthemeaning of the word, or overlooking it, ra: a Greek acc. in the sense of cælum. supposed, from the similarity of the words, 380. Quæro Italiam : I seck Italy, my that it was the same with their Byrsa, which country: my descent (genus) is from Jove means a bull's hide. Virgil followed the supreme. Dardanus was an Italian, and common received opinion. Mercati: they one of the founders of the Trojan race. He bought the ground, which they called Byrsa, was the son of Jove. froin the name of the deed, &c. This story 381. Bis denis navibus : with twenty of the bull's hide, Mr. Rollin observes, is ships. Æquor: in the sense of mare: pronow generally exploded. It appears, how- perly, any level surface, whether land or ever, that Dido was to pay the Africans an water. annual tribute, as a quit rent, for the land

382. Secutus fata data : following the dewhich she purchased. This the Carthagi- crees of the gods made in my favor-obeynians afterward refused to do, which was ing the decrecs, &c. the cause of the first war in which they

383. Convulsæ: in the sense of concussa, were engaged. See Æn. iv. 1. 373. El vacet: and there should be leisure the east wind, put for wind in general; the

agreeing with naves, understood. Euro : to you to hear, &c. 374. Annales : in the sense of historiam.

species for the genus. Componet : the evening star shall shut up the 384. Ignotus : a stranger. day, before I shall have done my story. This 386. Interfata est: she thus interrupted is an allusion to the opinion that night shut him in the midst of his grief: she could or sealed up the gate of heaven, and the day bear the piteous story no longer.

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