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suin, tristesque ruinas Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos Troja
Insequitur : quem das finem, rex magne, laborum ?
Regna Liburnorum et fontem superare Timavi:
Troïa : nunc placidâ compôstus pace quiescit.
Olli subridens hominum sator atque Deorum, unius
253. Est-ne hic honos Vultu, quo cælum tempestatesque serenat, nostræ pietatis ? sic
Oscula libavit nat:2: dehinc talia fatur:
the rest of the gods, knew no more than he neighboring people gave to it the name of was pleased to reveal to them. See Æn.
It was formed, says he, by the confluiii. 251.
ence of nine streams, issuing from a mounIt is said, by some, that Virgil makes even tain. It is, however, at the present, a small Jupiter subject to fate or destiny. But from and inconsiderable stream, falling into the several passages, it will appear, that his Adriatic, near Istria. notion of fate was truly philosophical. He 245. Unde: whence-from the fountain. makes fate to be nothing more than the de- The novem oril, I take to mean the nine crees, purposes, or counsels of Heaven, pro- streams which formed the river, and not so nounced by the mouth of Jove; as the ety- many channels, through which it fell into the mology of the word implies. He often calls Os signifies the fountain, or head of a destiny Fata deorum, which can mean no- river, as well as its mouth. thing else than the Divine decrees, or coun- 246. It: it pours along. Proruptum: sels. And, if he give to fate the epithets, rough-swollen. Premit: overflows-deinexpugnabile and inexorabile, he must mean luges. Thompson has finely imitated, in that the laws and order of nature are fixed his “Winter," this description of the Tiand unchangeable, as being the result of mavus. Infinite wisdom and foresight, and having 249. Compôstus : by syn. for compositus: their foundation in the Divine mind, which settled. Fixit: in the sense of suspendit. is subject to none of those changes that af- Nos. Here Venus speaks in the person of fect feeble and erring mortals.
Æneas to show how nearly she had his in242. Antenor. He was a noble Trojan. terest at heart. Annuis : in the sense of After the sack of Troy, he led a colony of promittis. Thou hast promised that after Trojans, and Henetes, a people who came death he should be received among the to assist Priam, and lost their king, in quest gods should be deified. Arcem cæli : the of a settlement. After various toils and dis- court or palace of heaven. asters, he arrived at the head of the Adriatic, 251. Infandum. This word is thrown in and having expelled the Euganes, a people like an interposing sigh, hen she comes to inhabiting between the Alps and the sea, he the most moving part of her complaint ; took possession of their country. He built and the artful pauses in this and the two a.city called Antenorea, after his own name. following lines, together with the abrupt Some say he built Patavium, now Padua. manner in which the speech breaks off, show The whole nation was called Veneti. her quite overpowered by the tide of her grief.
243. Illyricos: an adj. from Illyricum, an Unius: of one, to wit, Juno. Prodimur : extensive country on the borders of the are given up to destruction-we are Adriatic, over against Italy, including the doomed to toils, misfortunes, and dangers, ancient Liburnia and Dalmatia. Penetrare: through the resentment and influence of in the sense of intrare.
Juno. 244. Superare fontem Timavi : to pass be- 253. Honos: reward-recompense. yond the fountain of Timavus. We are told 254. Olli: for illi, by antithesis. Sator: by Servius, on the authority of Varro, that in the sense of puter. the Timavus was a large river, and the 256. Libavit: he kissed the lips of his
Parce metu, Cytherea : manent immota tuorum
bellum in Italia
207. At puer AscaAdditur (Ilus crat, dum res stetit Ilia regno)
nius, cui nunc cogno
men lülo additur, expleTriginta magnos, volvendis mensibus, orbes
bit imperio triginta magImperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavinî 270
nos orbes, mensibus Transferet, et longam multâ vi muniet Albam. Hìc jam tercentum totos regnabitur annos
273. Donec Ilia, reGente sub Hectoreâ ; donec regina sacerdos
gina sacerdos, gravis Marte gravis, geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem.
daughter. The name Venus was given to 268. Ilia res: the Trojan state. Ilia: an adj. several. The one here meant, is the daugh- from Iium, a name of Troy. See 1. supra. ter of Jupiter and Dione, but is often con- 269. Orbes: in the sense of annos. founded with her, who sprung from the 270. Imperio : government-reign. La froth of the sea. Sce 229. supra.
vinî: by apocope for Lavinii. See 2. su257. Metu : for metui. See Ecl. v. 29. pra.
Vi: labor-strength. Cytherea : Venus.
273. Hectorea gente: under a Trojan line. 261. Fabor: in the sense of dicam. After the building of Rome, Alba continued
262. Movebo arcana: I will unfold the se- for a considerable time an independent gocrets of the fates, tracing (volvens) them vernment, and was a rival of the new city. down to a great distance of time. Remor- It was finally destroyed by the Romans, and det: troubles you.
its inhabitants transferred to Rome. 264. Contundet: in the sense of domabit. 274. Ilia: a daughter of Numitor; king Mores: in the sense of leges.
of Alba Longa. She is called regina, on 265. Dum tertia ætas: until the third year account of her royal descent. She was one shall see hiin, &c. The meaning is, that of the vestal virgins, and for that reason three years were to be spent in the wars called sacerdos, or priestess. Being preg. with Turnus and the Rutuli; at the expira- nant (gravis) by Mars, as it is said, she tion of which, having subdued his enemies, brought forth twins, Romulus and Remus. Æneas should commence his government Amulius, having expelled his brother Nuin Latium. Dum: in the sense of donec. mitor, commanded one Faustus, a shepherd,
266. Terna hyberna : three winters shall to expose the children to wild beasts, that have passed, the Rutuli being. conquered. they might perish. Instead of which, he
267. Cui nunc cognomen: to whom now took them home, where they were nourished the sir-name of lülus is added. This cir- by his wife, whose name was Lupa. This cumstance is thrown in to show the origin gave rise to the story of their being brought of the Julian family, and the occasion of up by a wolf, lupa being the name of that changing the name of Ilus, to Tülus or Julius. animal. The poet designs this as a compliment to The children grew up, and when they the Cæsars. Tülus succeeded his father in became acquainted with the conduct of their the government, and reigned thirty years at uncle, they collected a band of men, attackLarinium. He built Alba Longa, and made ed him in his palace, slew him, and restored it the seat of his government. The throne Numitor to the throne. Afterwards, it is was filled for three hundred years by a suc- said, each of the brothers began to build a cession of Trojan princes, down to the time city. Remus leaped over the walls of the of Romulus. He founded Rome, and chang- city founded by Romulus; whereupon, beed the seat of government from Alba Longa ing angry, he slew him. He called the city to the new city. At his death, the line of Rome, after his own name. Romulus was succession was changed, and Numa Pompi- sometimes called Quirinus, from Quiri, a lius, a wise and virtuous prince of the Sa- Sabine word, which signifies a spear. G's bines, filled the throne.
minam prolem: simply, twins.
275. Inde Romulus Inde lupæ fulvo nutricis tegmine lætus
275 lætus fulvo tegmine nu- Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet tricis hüpæ excipiet gen. Mænia, Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. tem 277. Dicet incolas Ro- His ego nec metas rerum, nec tempora pono :
Imperium sinè fine dedi. Quin aspera Juno,
Imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris, 288. Ille erit Julius, Julius, à magno demissum nomen Yülo.
Hunc tu olim cælo, spoliis Orientis onustum,
276. Mavortra : an adj. from Mavors, a who conquered Achaia ; and Paulus Æmi. name of Mars: warlike-martial. Mænio: lius, who subdued Macedonia and Thessaly. in the sense of urbem.
Argis : in the sing. Argos, neu.; in the plu. 278. Nec pono metas: I place (prescribe) Argi, mas. It was situated about two miles to them neither bounds nor duration of dos from the sea, on the Sinus Argolicus. It minion. The Romans had a belief that was founded by Inachus, 1856 years before their empire would always continue, while Christ. Its inhabitants were called Argoother governments would be unstable and lici and Argivi: by synec. put for the Greeks fluctuating.
in general. Premet: shall subject to servi. 280. Metu: through fear that the Trojans tude-shall subdue. would rise to power, and become dangerous 286. Pulchra : in the sense of illustris: to her dear Carthage and Argos. Futigat: Cæsar, a Trojan of illustrious origin. in the sense of commovet.
288. Nomen demissum : a name derived 281. In melius. This is taken adverbials from, &c. ly: for the better. Referret : shall change. 289. Tu secura : you, sure, shall receive
282. Gentem togatam: the nation of the him hereafter. Cæsar was honored with gown. The toga, or gown, was the distin. four triumphs on four successive days. To guishing badge of the Romans, as the pal- this, refer the words: Onustum spoliis orilium was that of the Greeks. Rerum. Res entis. Cæsar received divine honors by a signifies power-rule-dominion. In the decree of the senate. present case it signifies, the world.
291. Aspera sæcula. Here is an allusion 203. Sic placitum : thus it pleases me- to the golden age; or, at least, to the unithis is my pleasure—it is my decree. The versal peace which took place in the reign verb est is to be supplied. Ætas venit: the of Augustus, when the temple of Janus wa. time shall come, years having passed away, shut. Milescent : shall grow mild—soften when, &c. Lustrum : properly the period Aspera : in the sense of dura. of four years. It is often put for time in 292. Cana fides. The meaning is: that general. Ætas : in the sense of tempus, the fidelity of former times should returnand lustris : for annis.
that men should devote more of their time 284. Domus Assaraci. By this we are to to the service of the gods—that there should understand the Romans. Assaracus was be no more civil wars, in which brother the son of Tros, and brother of llus. He should be armed against brother. The epiwas the father of Capys, and Capys the thet canı alludes to the figure of faith, father of Anchises, the father of Æneas, which was represented with hoary locks, to from whom the Romans descended. Phthi- denote that it was the peculiar virtue of
This was a city of Thessaly, the royal former times—the golden age. By the word seat of Achilles. Mycenas-Argis. These Vesta, Servius says, we are to understand were cities of the Peloponnesus, over which religion. Vesta was the daughter of Saturn Agamemnon reigned, put, by synec. for and Ops, the goddess of fire, and patroness Greece in general. This prophecy was ful- of the vestal virgins. Eneas was the first filled under the Roman generals Mummius, who introduced her mysteries into Italy
Jura dabunt : diræ ferro et compagibus arctis Claudentur belli portæ: Furor, impius, intus- 294
Sæva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus ahenis 295. Et vinctus post Post tergum nodis, fremet, horridus, ore cruento.-- tergum
ahenis nodis, fremot
305. Volvens animo At pius Æneas, per noctem plurima volvens, 305
306. Constituit exire, Ut primùm lux alma data est, exire, locosque
explorareque novos loExplorare novos ; quas vento accesserit oras,
cos, et quærere ad quas Qui teneant (nam inculta videt) hominesne, feræne,
oras accesserit vento; Quærere constituit, sociisque exacta referre.
qui teneant eas, homiClassem in convexo nemorum, sub rupe cavatâ,
nes-ne, feræ-ne (nam
310 videt loca inculta) referArboribus clausam circùm atque horrentibus umbris, reque exacta sociis. OcOcculit : ipse uno graditur comitatus Achaie,
culit classem Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro.
314. Cui mater obvia
tulit Cui mater mediâ sese tulit obvia sylvâ,
se mediâ sylva, Virginis os habitumque gerens, et virginis arma
gerens os, habitumque 315
316. Velerat talis quaSpartanæ : vel qualis equos Threïssa fatigat
lis Threissa NOTES66
The Palladium of Troy was supposed to be his wings. Utens alis quasi remis, says preserved in her temple; where a fire was Ruæus. The motion of his wings is beaucontinually kept burning by certain virgins, tifully expressed; it was like the motion of who dedicated themselves to her service. oars in propelling a boat forward. There was another goddess of the same 302. Pani. The Carthaginians were name, but generally confounded with Ceres, sometimes called Pæni, or Phæni, from Cybelle, Tellus, &c. The word Vesta is fre- Phænicia, the country from which they quently used for fire, by meton.
Corda : in the sense of animos. 293. Arctis compagibus: with close joints 304. Quietum animum: a friendly mind, - bound fast with bars of iron.
and a benevolent disposition, or temper. 294. Porte. The gates, or doors of the 306. Data est : in the sense of orta est. temple of Janus were open in time of war, 309. Exacta: neu. plu. the particulars of and shut in time of peace. This happened his discovery. only three times during a period of seven 810. In convexo. The place where Æneas hundred years, so constantly engaged were moored his fleet, lay in a circular form, the Romans in the work of death? Impius nearly surrounded by a grove. Here they furor. This, Turnebus thinks, alludes could be in safety, without fear of discovery. to the image of warlike rage drawn by The words convexus and concavus are someApelles, and dedicated by Augustus in the times used for each other, which seems to be Forum. But Germanus thinks it alludes the case here; the former properly signifyto the statue of Mars, which the Spartans ing the exterior of a round surface; the had in their city, bound in this manner, in latter the interior. Horrentibus : deep- . chains of brass. Nodis: in the sense of thick shades. Uno : in the sense of solo. catenis.
See Æn. iv. 451. 297. Genitum Maiâ: the son of Maia. 313. Crispans: in the sense of quassans. Mercury was the son of Jupiter, and Maia, Lato ferro : of a broad barb, or point. the daughter of Atlas. See Geor. i. 336. 316. Spartanc. The Spartan virgins
298. Arces. This appears to be used in were trained to all kinds of manly exerci the sense of urbs : that the country and city ses, such as running, wrestling, throwing of New Carthage might open in hospitality the quoit and javelin, riding and hunting, to the Trojans—might receive them kindlý, which is the reason that the poet attires and treat them with hospitality.
Venus in their habit, or dress. Os : in the 301. Remigio alarum: by the motion of sense of rultum.
Harpalyce, volucremque fugâ prævertitur Eurum.
Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fuentes. X 320 321. Ac illa prior in- Ac prior, Heus, inquit, juvenes, monstrate, mearum quit : Heus, juvenes, Vidistis si quam hic errantem fortè sororum, monstrate, si vidistis Succinctam pharetra et inaculosa teginine lyncis, fortè quam mearum sororum errantem hic, suc
Aut spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem. cinctam pharetra
Sic Venus : at Veneris contrà sic filius orsus : 325
Nulla tuarum audita mihi, neque visa sororum, 327. Mortalis vultus 0, quam te memorem, Virgo ? namque haud tibi vultus haud est tibi, nec tua Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat.
O Dea certè : An Phæbi soror, an Nympharum sanguinis una ? 330. Quæcunque es, Sis felix, nostrumque leves quæcunque laborem :
330 sis felix
Et quo sub cælo tandem, quibus orbis in oris
Tum Venus : haud equidem tali me dignor honore.
317. Harpalyce : a celebrated Amazon, sound (like) a human being-it does not said to have rescued her father, who had indicate you to be mortal. Homo, is properbeen taken in battle by the Getæ. The ly either a man or woman-a human being. comparison here is simply between the habits 329. An soror Phobi : art thou the sister of Venus, and those of Harpalyce. Eurum. of Phæbus, or one of the blood of the Many copies read Hebrum; but there ap- nymphs ? See Ecl. iv. 10. The verb es is pears a manifest incongruity in it. It can to be supplied. hardly be supposed, that the poet, describing 330. Felix: kind-propitious. Oris : in the swiftness of her speed, should say that the sense of regione. Orbis : of the world, she could outride the course of a river, how
or earth. ever rapid it might be. In that there could 334. Multa hostia : many a victim shall be no difficulty. Besides, the epithet volu- fall for you before the altars. crem, is not very applicable to a river. 335. Haud me dignor: I do not consider Eurum is certainly the best reading; it is the myself worthy, &c. language of poetry, while Hebrum is not. 338. Urbem Agenoris : Carthage, founded Fuga : in the sense of cursu.
by Dido, a descendant of Agenor. Punica 320. Nuda genu, &c. This is a Grecism: regna : the kingdom, or realm of Carthage. naked as to her knee, and collected as to her It is distinguished from the city, which is flowing robe in a knot. See Ecl. i. 55. The called_Urbs Agenoris. Punica: an adj. meaning is, that she had her knee naked, from Pæni, or Phæni. and her flowing robe collected in a knot. 339. Fines Libyci: the country is Africa. Sinus: the folds of a garment; also the Libyci : an adj. from Libya, agreeing with garment itself, by synec. Nado: nodus is fines. Libya was properly that part of properly any thing that binds or ties.- Africa bordering upon Egypt on the west; Hence, a girdle, or belt-a knot, &c. but is frequently used for any part of Africa,
321. Quam : in the sense of aliquam. or Africa in general. Genus intractabile:
323. Tegmine. It was a custom among a race fierce in war. The Carthaginians the ancients for hunters to wear the skin of extended their conquests with unexampled some one of the animals, they had killed. rapidity, and were the only people that apPrementem : pursuing.
peared to dispute the empire of the world 325. Orsus : part. of the verb ordior : he with the Romans. Their misfortunes, and began. The verb est is understood. final ruin, were owing more, perhaps, to 327. Quam te memorem.? whom shall I party spirit and civil cabals, than to the
arms of the Romans. See Rol. An. His. 323. Nec vox sonat: nor does your voice Art. Carthage.