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à toigo

Navem in conspectu nullam; es litore cervos
Prospicit errantes : hos tota armenta sequuntur

185 185. Hos tres ductores
A tergo, et longum per valles pascitur agmen.
- Constitit hic, arcumque manu celeresque sagittas
Corripuit, fidus quæ tela gerebat Achates.
Ductoresque ipsos primùm, capita alta ferentes
Cornibus arboreis, sternit : tum vulgus, et omnem 190
Miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam.
Nec priùs absistit, quàm septem ingentia victor
Corpora fundat humi, et numerum cum navibus æquet.
Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnes.
Vina, bonus quæ deinde cadis onerârat Acestes 195 195. Deinde dividit
Litore Trinacrio, dederatque abeuntibus heros,

vina, que bonus Acestes

onerârat in cadis TrinaDividit, et dictis mærentia pectora mulcet :

crio litore, herosque deO socii, (neque enim ignari sumus antè malorum) derat illis abeuntibus O passi graviora : dabit Deus his quoque finem.

199. O vos passi graVos et Scyllæam rabiem, penitusque sonantes Accêstis scopulos ; vos et Cyclopea saxa Experti : revocate animos, mestumque timorem

202. Vos experti estis Mittite : forsan et hæc olim meminisse juvabit. Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum, Tendimus in Latium ; sedes ubi fata quietas 205 Ostendunt: illic fas regna resurgere Trojæ. Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.

Talia voce refert: curisque ingentibus æger, Spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem. Illi se prædæ accingunt dapibusque futuris.

210

200 viora

NOTES.

trees.

186. A tergo. This might seem mere 198. Antè malorum: of past evils, or distautology, but it is consistent with the tresses. Ruæus takes antè here in the sense purest Latin. Cicero says: Adolescens cursu of præteritorum. Or perhaps, malorum quæ à tergo insequens. Longum agmen : the fuerunt antè. long, or extended herd.

200. Vos accêstis : ye have approached 189. Ferentes alta : bearing their lofty both the rage of Scylla, and the rocks roarheads with branching horns. The poet fine- ing within. See Ecl. vi. 74, and Æn. iii. ly describes the leaders. They move with 420. Opposite the rock of Scylla is Chaà degree of majosty, having their heads rybdis, a dangerous whirlpool; which, taken erect, and their horns branching out like together, render the passage of the straits

Gerebat: in the sense of ferebat. between Sicily and Italy very hazardous. 191. Agens telis vulgus: pursuing with Hence arose the proverb: Incidit in Scyllam, his weapons the herd and the rest of the qui vull vitare Charybdem. This Charybdis, throng, among the leafy groves, he disperses as fable says, was a voracious old woman, them-he puts them into confusion by who stole the oxen of Hercules. For which, breaking their ranks. The word misceo, as being struck by the thunder of Jove, she was here used, is beautiful and expressive. Om- turned into this whirlpool. Accèstis : by nem turbam: in the sense of reliquam mul- syn. for accessistis. titudinem.

203. Olim: hereafter. Discrimina : in 194. Partitur: he divides them among the sense of pericula. all his companions. He had killed seven 207. Secundis rebus : preserve yourselves huge deer, so that there was one for the for prosperity. Durate : persevere. erew of each ship.

203. Æger ingentibus : oppressed with 195. Acestes. See Æn. v. 35. Onerârat: heavy cares, (full of anxious solicitude for had put in casks, and given them.

his friends,) he dissembles hope on his coun196. Trinacrio: an adj. from Trinacria, tenance, but represses, &c. Refert : in the a name of Sicily, derived from its triangular sense of dicit. form. Its three promontories are: Pachy 210. Accingunt se: they prepare themnum, on the south; Lilybæus, on the west; selves for. T'ergora: the skins or hides of and Pelorus, on the north.

the slain deer.

Tergora diripiunt costis, et viscera nudant :
Pars in frusta secant, verubusque trementia figunt
Litore ahena locant alii, flammasque ministrant.

Tum victu revocant vires : fusique per herbam, 212. Figunt frusta Implentur veteris Bacchi, pinguisque ferinæ.

215 adhuc trementia verubus

Postquàm exempta fames epulis, mensæque remotæ, 216. Exempta est

Amissos longo socios sermone requirunt, 218. Seu credant eos Spemque metumque inter dubii : seu vivere credant,

Sive extrema pati, nec jam exaudire vocatos. 220. Æncas gemit se- Præcipuè pius Æneas, nunc acris Orontei,

220 cum nunc casuin acris Nunc Amyci casum gemit, et crudelia secum Orontei; nunc

Fata Lyci, fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum. Amyci

Et jam finis erat: cùm Jupiter æthere summo

Despiciens mare velivolum, terrasque jacentes, 227. Atque Venus Litoraque, et latos populos ; sic vertice cæli 225 tristior, et suffusa quoad Constitit, et Libyæ defixit lumina regnis. nitentes oculos alloquitur illum jactantem

Atque illum tales jactantem pectore curas, 229. O tu, qui regis

Tristior, et lachrymis oculos suffusa nitentes, res hominumque Alloquitur Venus : O, qui res hominumque Deúmque

casum

NOTES.

cum.

211. Viscera : neu. plu. of viscus, or vis- panions an example of magnanimous forti

It properly signifies all the parts of tude only, which rises superior to dangers the animal within the skin. Here it means and misfortunes. the flesh.

224. Velivolum: navigable. Jacentes ter212. Pars secant: a part cut into pieces. ras : the earth may be said to be lying (jaNouns of multitude may have verbs in the cens) still, dead and at rest, in opposition to singular or plural.

the sea, which is always in motion. The 213. Ahena : neu. plu. brazen dishes or poet considers here the sails of a ship under vessels. An adj. taken as a substantive.- the notion of wings, by which it flies over Ministrant flammas : tend the fires. the sea, as a bird moves through the air.

215. Implentur. This is in imitation of Ruæus takes jacentes in the sense of humithe Greeks, with whom verbs of filling go- les: low-lying low. Populos : in the sense vern the genitive. Bacchi: in the sense of of gentes. vini.

225. Vcrtice : the pinnacle of heaven: 217. Requirunt: they inquire after their the zenith, or point over our heads. lost companions—converse about them. 226. Deficit oculos. Dr. Trapp observes,

219. Pati e:ctrema : to suffer death- that nothing to him breathes the soul of padeath being the last of all earthly things.- etry, particularly Virgil's, more than this Pati : the present in the sense of the perf. delightful passage, in which the majesty of Vocatos nec jam: being invoked, should not Jupiter, and the beautiful grief of Venus are now hear. This alludes to a custom among so finely contrasted. She still remembers, the Romans, of calling the dead three times in all the abruptness of extreme sorrow, by name: which was the last ceremony in that she is addressing the almighty Thunfuneral ubsequies. After which, the friends derer, and yet maintains all the sweetness pronounced the word Vale, three times, as of female complaint, and tender expostulathey departed from the tomb. The same tion. Jactantem : in the sense of volvenwas observed of those, who perished by tem. shipwreck, or otherwise, when their bodies 228. Suffusa oculos : wet, as to her shicould not be found.

ning eyes, with tears. See Ecl. i. 55. Fe220. Æneas gemit: Æneas laments now male beauty never appears so engaging, and the fate of brave Orontes, now, &c. The makes so deep an impression upon the bemost exalted and heroic minds are the most holder, as when suffused with tears, and susceptible of humanity and compassion.— inanifesting a degree

of anxious solicitude. Virgil therefore says: Præcipuè pius Æneas The poet therefore introduces Venus in that gemit. But at the same time, he conducts situation, making suit to her father. The his grief with prudence, and carefully avoids speech is of the chastest kind, and cannot whatever would tend to discourage the rest; fail to charm the reader. and therefore it is said, that he grieves pri 229. Venus. The goddess of beauty and vately, secum, keeping his sorrow and grief love. She is said to have sprung from the in his own bosom; and showing to his com foam of the sea, near the island of Cyprus:

Æternis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres,
Quid meus Æneas in te committere tantum,
Quid Troës potuere ? quibus tot funera passis,
Cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis ?
Certè hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annis,
Hinc fore ductores, revocato à sanguine Teucri,
Qui mare, qui terras omni ditione tenerent,
Pollicitus: quæ te, genitor, sententia vertit ?
Hoc equidem occasum Trojæ tristesque ruinas
Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens.

230 230. Terres mundum

fulmine : quid tantum scelus potuit meus Æneas committere in te !

234. Certè pollicitus

es Romanos orituros esse 235 hinc olim, annis volven

tibus, fore ductores hinc à

revocato sanguine Teucri, qui tenerent

238. Equidem hoc promisso solabar occa

NOTES. or according to Hesiod, near the island of 235. Revocato, &c. Commentators are Cythera. She was taken up to Heaven, divided in opinion, on these words. Corrawhen all the Gods were struck with her dus takes sanguine Teucri, for the Trojans, beauty, and became jealous of her superior the offspring of Teucer; and revocato, in the attractions. Jupiter attempted, in vain, to sense of restituto. Ruæus rejects this in gain her affection; and as a punishment to part. By sanguine Teucri, he understands her, for the refusal, bestowed her upon his the Trojans ; and by revocato, their return deformed son Vulcan. She, however, had into Italy, whence Dardanus, the founder many intrigues with Mars, Mercury, and of their race, originated. The blood of TeuBacchus. Her partiality for Adonis, indu- cer, and that of Dardanus, were united in ced her to leave Olympus. She also had the Trojans, their descendants. Revocato : an affection, it is said, for Anchises, and for recalled-called back to take possession of his sake, often visited the Groves of Mount the land of their ancestor. Ida. By him she had Æneas.

236. Ditione : sway-authority. TeneVenus possessed a mysterious girdle or rent: in the sense of regerent. Sententia : cestus, which gave to any, however ugly and in the sense of consilium. deformed, beauty, elegance, and grace. Her 238. Hoc quidem: with this promise, I worship was universally established. The was mitigating the fall, and sad catastrorose, the myrtle, and the apple, were sacred phe of Troy :- I was consoling myself, at, to her. The dove, the swan, and the spar- &c. row, were hcr favorite birds.

239. Fatis rependens contraria : to these She had various names, derived chiefly fates balancing, (or placing) fates contrary, from the places where she was worshipped; or of an opposite nature. Fatum, as here or from some property or quality she was used, may mean, either the purposes of the thought to possess. Some of which, are the gods concerning the Trojans, or simply, their following: Cypria, from the island Cyprus: fortune or destiny. Their city had been Paphia, from Paphos: Cytherea, from the rased, and a numerous train of ills had beisland Cythera ; in each of which places fallen them. These, we are to understand she had splendid temples. She was also by fatis. By fata contraria, it is plain, we called Telepegcma, because she presided over are to understand prosperity, or a state of marriage : Verticurdia, because she turned things different from their former one. Or, the hearts of women to chastity : Etaira, if fata be taken for the purposes of the because she was the patroness of courtezans: gods toward them, the interpretation will Acidalia, from Acidalus, a fountain in Beo- be the same. tia : Basilea, because she was the queen of The downfall of Troy was a very afflictlove: Myrlea, because the myrtle was sa- ing circumstance to Venus. She strove cred to her: Libertina, on account of her hard to prevent it. And after the event, she inclinations to licentious amours : Pontea, consoled herself with the consideration, that Marina, Lemnesia, and Pelagea, because she Troy was destined to rise again—that their sprung from the sea. The word Venus is race was to be restored to the land of Daroften taken for beauty and love; also for danus, and there become the rulers of the the object of love the person loved. It is world. This lightened her sorrow, and asused sometimes for any sensual passion, or suaged her grief. Here, perhaps, it may be lust—the intercourse of the sexes. Imperiis: asked, if she knew that the future glory of in the sense of potentia.

the Trojan race had been decreed and fixed 233. Quibus passis : against whom, suf- by fate; why does she appear to express so fering so many deaths, the whole world, much anxiety and solicitude upon that sub&c.

ject? It may be said, that the opposition 234. Hinc: hence-from the Trojans. which Juno made to it, might make her Ductores: probably, as Heyne observes, we doubt, and her mind waver. For, Jupiter are to understand JuliusCæsar, and Octavius. alone had a perfect insight into futurity, and

240

245

suin, tristesque ruinas Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos Troja

Insequitur : quem das finem, rex magne, laborum ?
242. Antenor elapsus Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis,
mediis Achivis potuit Illyricos penetrare sinus, atque intima tutus
tutus penetrare

Regna Liburnorum et fontem superare Timavi:
Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis
It mare proruptum, et pelago premit arva sonanti.
Hìc tamen ille urbem Patavî sedesque locavit
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit, armaque fixit

Troïa : nunc placidâ compôstus pace quiescit.
250. Nos, quibus tu Nos, tua progenies, cæli quibus annuis arcem,
annuis arcem cæli, na Navibus, infandum! amissis, unius ob iram
vibus, 0 infandum ! Prodimur, atque Italis longè disjungimur oris.
amissis prodimur peri- Hic pietatis honos ? Sic nos in sceptra reponis !
culis ob iram Junonis

Olli subridens hominum sator atque Deorum, unius

253. Est-ne hic honos Vultu, quo cælum tempestatesque serenat, nostræ pietatis ? sic

Oscula libavit nat:2: dehinc talia fatur:

250

255

NOTES.

sea.

sea.

the rest of the gods, knew no more than he neighboring people gave to it the name of was pleased to reveal to them. See Æn.

It was formed, says he, by the confluiii. 251.

ence of nine streams, issuing from a mounIt is said, by some, that Virgil makes even tain. It is, however, at the present, a small Jupiter subject to fate or destiny. But from and inconsiderable stream, falling into the several passages, it will appear, that his Adriatic, near Istria. notion of fate was truly philosophical. He 245. Unde: whence-from the fountain. makes fate to be nothing more than the de- The novem oril, I take to mean the nine crees, purposes, or counsels of Heaven, pro streams which formed the river, and not so nounced by the mouth of Jove; as the ety- many channels, through which it fell into the mology of the word implies. He often calls Os signifies the fountain, or head of a destiny Fata deorum, which can mean no- river, as well as its mouth. thing else than the Divine decrees, or coun 246. It: it pours along. Proruptum: sels. And, if he give to fate the epithets, rough-swollen. Premit: overflows-deinexpugnabile and inexorabile, he must mean luges. Thompson has finely imitated, in that the laws and order of nature are fixed his “Winter," this description of the Tiand unchangeable, as being the result of mavus. Infinite wisdom and foresight, and having 249. Compôstus : by syn. for compositus: their foundation in the Divine mind, which settled. Fixit: in the sense of suspendit. is subject to none of those changes that af Nos. Here Venus speaks in the person of fect feeble and erring mortals.

Æneas to show how nearly she had his in242. Antenor. He was a noble Trojan. terest at heart. Annuis : in the sense of After the sack of Troy, he led a colony of promittis. Thou hast promised that after Trojans, and Henetes, a people who came death he should be received among the to assist Priam, and lost their king, in quest gods should be deified. Arcem cæli : the of a settlement. After various toils and dis court or palace of heaven. asters, he arrived at the head of the Adriatic, 251. Infandum. This word is thrown in and having expelled the Euganes, a people like an interposing sigh, hen she comes to inhabiting between the Alps and the sea, he the most moving part of her complaint ; took possession of their country. He built and the artful pauses in this and the two a.city called Antenorea, after his own name. following lines, together with the abrupt Some say he built Patavium, now Padua. manner in which the speech breaks off, show The whole nation was called Veneti. her quite overpowered by the tide of her grief.

243. Illyricos: an adj. from Illyricum, an Unius: of one, to wit, Juno. Prodimur : extensive country on the borders of the are given up to destruction-we are Adriatic, over against Italy, including the doomed to toils, misfortunes, and dangers, ancient Liburnia and Dalmatia. Penetrare: through the resentment and influence of in the sense of intrare.

Juno. 244. Superare fontem Timavi : to pass be 253. Honos: reward-recompense. yond the fountain of Timavus. We are told 254. Olli: for illi, by antithesis. Sator: by Servius, on the authority of Varro, that in the sense of puter. the Timavus was a large river, and the 256. Libavit: he kissed the lips of his

we

Parce metu, Cytherea : manent immota tuorum
Fata tibi: cernes urbem et promissa Lavini
Menia, sublimemque feres ad sidera cæli
Magnanimum Æneanı ; neque me sententia vertit. 260
Hic (tibi fabor enim, quando hæc te cura remordet ; 261. Hic geret ingens
Longiùs et volvens fatorum arcana moyebo)

bellum in Italia
Bellum ingens geret Italiâ, populosque feroces
Contundet, moresque viris et mænia ponet :
Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit æstas,

265
Ternaque transîerint Rutulis hyberna subactis.
At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Yülo

207. At puer AscaAdditur (Ilus crat, dum res stetit Ilia regno)

nius, cui nunc cogno

men lülo additur, expleTriginta magnos, volvendis mensibus, orbes

bit imperio triginta magImperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavinî 270

nos orbes, mensibus Transferet, et longam multâ vi muniet Albam. Hìc jam tercentum totos regnabitur annos

273. Donec Ilia, reGente sub Hectoreâ ; donec regina sacerdos

gina sacerdos, gravis Marte gravis, geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem.

Marte dabit

NOTES.

daughter. The name Venus was given to 268. Ilia res: the Trojan state. Ilia: an adj. several. The one here meant, is the daugh- from Iium, a name of Troy. See 1. supra. ter of Jupiter and Dione, but is often con 269. Orbes: in the sense of annos. founded with her, who sprung from the 270. Imperio : government-reign. La froth of the sea. Sce 229. supra.

vinî: by apocope for Lavinii. See 2. su257. Metu : for metui. See Ecl. v. 29. pra.

Vi: labor-strength. Cytherea : Venus.

273. Hectorea gente: under a Trojan line. 261. Fabor: in the sense of dicam. After the building of Rome, Alba continued

262. Movebo arcana: I will unfold the se for a considerable time an independent gocrets of the fates, tracing (volvens) them vernment, and was a rival of the new city. down to a great distance of time. Remor- It was finally destroyed by the Romans, and det: troubles you.

its inhabitants transferred to Rome. 264. Contundet: in the sense of domabit. 274. Ilia: a daughter of Numitor; king Mores: in the sense of leges.

of Alba Longa. She is called regina, on 265. Dum tertia ætas: until the third year account of her royal descent. She was one shall see hiin, &c. The meaning is, that of the vestal virgins, and for that reason three years were to be spent in the wars called sacerdos, or priestess. Being preg. with Turnus and the Rutuli; at the expira- nant (gravis) by Mars, as it is said, she tion of which, having subdued his enemies, brought forth twins, Romulus and Remus. Æneas should commence his government Amulius, having expelled his brother Nuin Latium. Dum: in the sense of donec. mitor, commanded one Faustus, a shepherd,

266. Terna hyberna : three winters shall to expose the children to wild beasts, that have passed, the Rutuli being. conquered. they might perish. Instead of which, he

267. Cui nunc cognomen: to whom now took them home, where they were nourished the sir-name of lülus is added. This cir- by his wife, whose name was Lupa. This cumstance is thrown in to show the origin gave rise to the story of their being brought of the Julian family, and the occasion of up by a wolf, lupa being the name of that changing the name of Ilus, to Tülus or Julius. animal. The poet designs this as a compliment to The children grew up, and when they the Cæsars. Tülus succeeded his father in became acquainted with the conduct of their the government, and reigned thirty years at uncle, they collected a band of men, attackLarinium. He built Alba Longa, and made ed him in his palace, slew him, and restored it the seat of his government. The throne Numitor to the throne. Afterwards, it is was filled for three hundred years by a suc- said, each of the brothers began to build a cession of Trojan princes, down to the time city. Remus leaped over the walls of the of Romulus. He founded Rome, and chang- city founded by Romulus; whereupon, beed the seat of government from Alba Longa ing angry, he slew him. He called the city to the new city. At his death, the line of Rome, after his own name. Romulus was succession was changed, and Numa Pompi- sometimes called Quirinus, from Quiri, a lius, a wise and virtuous prince of the Sa- Sabine word, which signifies a spear. G's bines, filled the throne.

minam prolem: simply, twins.

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