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Troas, relliquias Danaûm atque immitis Achillei,
Arcebat longè Latio : multosque per annos

Errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circùm.
33. Condere Roma- Tantæ molis erat Romanam condere gentem.
nam gentem, erat opus

Vix è conspectu Siculæ telluris in altum tantæ molis 35. Vix Trojani læti

Vela dabant læti, et spuinas salis ære ruebant ; dabant vela

Cùm Juno, æternum servans sub pectore vulnus, 37. Volvebat hæc se- Hæc secum: Mene incepto desistere victam, cum. Me-ne victam

Nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ?
Quippe vetor fatis. Pallasne exurere classem
Argivûm, atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto,
Unius ob noxam, et furias Ajacis Oilei ?

40

NOTES. destruction of her favorite Carthage, and the does not ask a question, it either is a negarecollection of her past war, in which she tive particle, or expresses some circumstance had encountered so many difficulties, do not or condition of an action. appear the only cause of her procedure. 38. Teucrorum. The Trojans were someThey contributed, no doubt, with the other times called Teucri, from Teucer, one of their particulars just mentioned, to increase the founders. See note 1. supra. By Regem flame in her breast.

Teucrorum we are to understand Æneas. It 30. Achillei: gen. of Achilles. He was seems now to be the purpose of Juno to the son of Peleus, king of Thessaly, and prevent the settlement of the Trojans in Thetis, a goddess of the sea. While he was Italy; and by that means, counteract the an infant, his mother dipped him all over in purposes of the gods concerning their future the river Styx, to render him invulnerable, grandeur and power; to destroy then utterexcept the heel by which she held him. He ly, if it be possible, and disperse them over was concealed among the daughters of Ly- the deep. To this end, she applies to comedes, king of the island of Scyros, in Æolus to raise a tempest on the sea, as the female apparel, that he might not go to the most likely way to effect her object. siege of Troy. While there, he deflowered 40. Argivům : for Argivorum, by syn. Deždamia, one of the princesses, who bore properly the citizens of Argos : but by him Pyrrhus. He was, however, discovered synec. put for the Greeks in general, or any by Ulysses, and afterward went to Troy. part of them. Here it means the Locrians, He slew Hector in single combat, and drew who, with Ajax, their king, returning home his dead body, behind his chariot, seven from Troy, were shipwrecked. Ajax was times around the walls of Troy, in revenge struck by Pallas with a thunderbolt for for his friend Patroclus, whom Hector had having ravished Cassandra, the daughter of slain in battle. And he was himself slain Priam, in the temple of Pallas. But Homer by Paris, with an arrow, which pierced his gives us a different account. He says, that heel, while he was in the temple of Thym- Ajax was drowned by Neptune, for having brian Apollo. He is sometimes called Pe- impiously boasted that he would escape the lides, from Peleus his father: also Æacides, dangers of the sea, even against the will of from his grand-father Æacus. He is repre- the gods. sented to have been of a cruel and vindictive The Greeks are sometimes called Danai, temper, but at the same time, very brave. from Danaus, one of their kings. He led a

33. Molis: magnitude-labor-difficulty. colony from Egypt into Greece; and, for

34. Siculæ: an adj. from Sicilia. Sicily his services and talents, was held in high is the largest island in the Mediterranean, estimation through all the Grecian states. lying to the south of Italy, and separated 41. Ajacis Oilei. There were two persons from it by the straits of Messina.

at the siege of Troy, by the name of Ajax. 35. Ære : with the brazen prow. The The one here meant was the son of Oileus, beaks of their ships were of brass, or over- king of the Locrians. He went with forty laid with brass.—Dabant : spread.

ships against Troy. The other was the 36. Vulnus æturnum: a lasting resent- son of Talemon king of Salamis, an island ment. The same as memorem iram, verse iv. in the Sinus Saronicus, between Attica, and supra. Servans : feeding, cherishing. the Morea, or Peloponnesus. It is said he

37. Me-ne viclam: shall I overcome, de- fell upon his own sword, because the armour sist from my purpose, nor be able, &c.-Me of Achilles was adjudged to Ulysses rather victam : the acc. after the verb volvebat, or than to himself. Noxam et furias. These some other of the like import, understood. both refer to the crime committed by him Ne, when joined to a verb, is generally inter- upon Cassandra. He offered violence to her Logative, as in the present case. When it during the sack of Troy.

mas

+ Ipsa, Jovis rapidum jaculata è nubibus ignem,

Disjecitque rates, evertitque æquora ventis:y
Illum expirantem transfixo pectore flammas
Turbine corripuit, scopuloque infixit acuto.

45 45. Turbine corripuit' Ast ego, quæ Divâm incedo regina, Jovisque

illum expirantem flamEt soror et conjux, unâ cum gente tot annos Bella gero : et quisquam numen Junonis adoret Prætereà, aut supplex aris imponat honorem?

Talia flammato secum Dea corde volutans, 50 Nimborum in patriam, loca fæta furentibus Austris, Æoliam venit. Hìc vasto rex Æolus antro

52. Hic rex Æolus ir Luctantes ventos, tempestatesque sonoras

vasto antro premit iin

perio luctantes
Imperio premit, ac vinclis et carcere frænat:
Illi indignantes magno cum murmure montis

55
Circùm claustra fremunt. Celsâ sedet Æolus arce,
Sceptra tenens; mollitque animos, et temperat iras.
Ni faciat, maria ac terras cælumque profundum

58. Quippe, ni faciat Quippe ferant rapidi secum, verrantque per auras.

id, illi rapidi ferant se

cum maria

60
Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris,
Hoc metuens: molemque et montes insuper altos
Imposuit; regemque dedit, qui fædere certo

62. Qui jussus sciret Et premere, et laxas sciret dare jussus habenas.

premere eos certo fee

dere, et dare illis laxas Ad quem tum Juno supplex his vocibus usa est :

habenas Æole, (namque tibi Divům pater atque hominum rex 65 Et mulcere dedit fluctus, ei tollere vento,

et

NOTES.

42. Ipsa jacuiata. Beside Jove, several of for wind in general: the species for the the Gods and Goddesses could hurl the genus. thunder of heaven. Here Pallas is said to 52. In Æoliam venit : she came into Æodo it, to burn the ships of Ajax, to drown lia, the country of storms. thcir crews, and to pierce his breast with a The Æolian islands are geven in nuniber, stream of lightning.

situated between Italy and Sicily on the 46. Qure incedo : I who walk the Queen west. They were soinetimes called Vulcania, of the Gods, and both the sister and wife and Hephæsliades. The.chief of which are of Jove, carry on war, &c.

Lipara, Hiera, and Strongyle. Here Æolus Servius observes that the verb incedo sig- have invented sails, and to have been a great

the son of Hippotas reigned. He is said to nifies to walk with dignity, and in state: Cum dignilate aliqua ambulare : and is pro- Hence the poets make him the god of the

astronoiner, and observer of the winds. perly applied to persons of rank, and dis- winds. Homer tells us that he gave to Ulystinguished characters.

ses all the winds, that could impede his 49. Prætereà: beside-in addition to the

course to Ithaca, confined in a bag ; but reasons already given. If I shall show my- that his companions, out of curiosity, untied self unable to effect my purpose, and satiate it, and let out all the adverse winds. my revenge--if I shall let them alone: who

54. Frænat : he curbs or governs. This will adore, &c.Honorem, in the sense of is a metaphor taken from the rider, who maviclimam.

nages his steed. Imperio: power, authority. The whole of this speech of Juno is ani- 61. Molem et altos montes : for molem altomated, full of pride and haughtiness. If rum montium, by hendiadis : the weight of Pallas, a goddess of in-srior honor, dignity, lofty inountains. This mode of expression and power, could destroy the feet of Ajax, is frequent with Virgil.---Insuper : in the drown his followers, and kill their leader; sense of prætereà. surely I, wh am both the sister and wife 63. Premere : in the sense of cohibere. of Jove, am able to destroy these few fugi. Fussus: commanded by Jovu. Here again tive Trojans, and their king.

is a metaphor taken from the rider: Dare 51. Austris furentibus : places pregnant laxas habenas: to give loose reins--to lot with furious winds. Juster properly signi- the horse go at full speed.- Fodere : law fies the south wind; but it frequently is put rule.

21

1

Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat æquor,
Ilium in Italiam portans, victosque Penates.

Incute vim ventis, submersasque obrue puppes :
70. Aut age eas in Aut age diversas, et disjice corpora ponto.

70 diversas partes, et Sunt mihi bis septem præstanti corpore Nymphæ :

72. Quarum jungam tibi stabili connubio

Quarum, quæ formâ pulcherrima, Deropeiam Deiopeiam, quæ est pul- Connubio jungam stabili, propriamque dicabo : cherrima earum omnium Omnes ut tecum meritis pro talibus annos forma, dicaboque eam Exigat, et pulclirâ faciat te prole parentem.

nes annos

75 propriam; ut exigat om- x olus hæc contrà: Tuus, ô regina, quid optes, 76. Contrà Æolus res

Explorare labor: mihi jussa capessere fas est. pondit hæc: O regina, Tu mihi, quodcunque, hoc regni, tu sceptra, Jovemque tuus labor est

Concilias : tu das epulis accumbere Divûm, 78. Tu concilias mihi Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem.

80 hoc regni, quodcunque

Hæc ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montem est : tu concilias

81. Ubi hæc dicta Impulit in latus; ac venti, velut agmine facto, sunt, impulit cavum Quà data porta, ruunt, et terras turbine pertant. montem in latus Incubuere inari, totumque à sedibus imis 84. Incubuere mari Unà Eurusque Notusque ruunt, creberque procellis

85 Eurusque notusque Africusque creber procellis,

Africus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus.
unaque · ruunt totum Insequitur clamorque virûm, stridorque rudentum.

Eripiunt subitò nubes cælumque, diemque,
Teucrorum ex oculis : ponto nox incubat atra.
Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus æther : 90
Præsentemque viris intentant oinnia mortem.

Extemplò Æneæ solvuntur frigore membra.
Ingemit, et duplices tendens ad sidera palmas,
Talia voce refert: 0 terque quaterque beati,

mare

NOTES.

67. Tyrrhenum mare. That part of the be. Servius thinks no more is meant by ÆoMediterranean between the islands of Cor- lus' receiving his kingdom and sceptre from sica, Sardinia, and Sicily, was called the Juno, than that “the winds are, air put into Tuscan Sea.

motion; which is sumetimes called Juno.” 68. lium: Troy; by meton. for the 80. Potentem : the present part. used as a Trojans--those that survived the catastro- substantive: ruler of storms and tempests. phe of the city. See note 1. supra.--Pena 82. Agmine facto : in a formed battalion tes : see Geor. 2. 505.

—or a battalion being formed.—Impulit : 69. Incute vim : add force to your winds, he struck. and overwhelm their ships sunk in the sea. 84. Incubuere: the perf. in the sense of

71. Praestanti: in the sense of pulchro. I the pres. they rest upon.

73. Dicabo propriam: I will consecrate 87. Rudentum: in the sense of funium. her (to be) your own-your peculiar pro 90. Poli. Polus is properly that part of perty. This passage is in imitation of Ho- the heavens, called the pole. By synec. put mer. Iliad 14. 301.

for the whole heavens. Poli: the heavens 77. Labor : concer—business.-Fas est, thundered.- Ignibus : lightning.--Æther : in the sense of æquum est.

in the sense of aër. 78. Tu concilias, &c. The meaning of the 92. Solvuntur : shudder--are unnerved. passage appears to be: I owe to thy favor Duplices : in the sense of ambas. and kind offices the empire of the winds, and 93. Ingemuit: he groaned. Not indeed at the power and authority of a king, which the fear of death absolutely considered, but thou didst obtain of Jove for me. Through at the prospect of dying an inglorious death thy favor also, I sit at the table of the gods. among the waves. Both duty and gratitude, therefore, impel 94. Refert: he says, or pronounces such me to comply with your request, to do thy like words. terque, quaterquo beati : commands.-Regni: gen. sing. governed by Simply: 0 thrico happy they, to whom it hoc. It is best translated as if it were of the happened to die before the faces, &c. This same case with noc. Concilias hoc regni, &c. mode of expression denotes the highest state You procure for me this power, whatever it of felicity. Or, if we suppose it an apo

Queis ante ora patrum, Trojæ sub mænibus altis,

95

96. () Tydide, fortisContigit oppetere! ô Danaûm fortissime gentis

sime gentis Danaûn, 'Tydide, mene Iliacis occumbere campis

menè non potuisse ocNon potuisse ? tuaque animam hanc effundere dextrâ ? cumbere Iliacis

100. Upi Simoïs volSævus ubi Æacidæ telo jacet Hector, ubi ingens

vit sub undis tot scuta, Sarpedon : ubị tot Simoïs correpta sub undis 100

galeasque, et fortia corScuta virûm, galeasque, et fortia corpora volvit.

pora virûm Talia jactanti stridens Aquilone procella

102. Procella stridens Velum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera tollit.

ab aquilone, adversa illi Franguntur remi : tum prora avertit, et undis

jactanti talia, ferit veDat latus : insequitur cumulo præruptus aquæ mons. 108. Notus torquet Hi summo in fluctu pendent: his unda dehiscens 106 tres naves abreptas in Terram inter fluctus aperit: furit æstus arenis.

latentia saxa, illay, saxa, Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet;

quæ in mediis fluctibus,

Itali vocant aras; quoSaxa, vocant Itali, mediis quæ in fluctibus Aras,

rum immane dorsum est Dorsum immane mari summo. Tres Eurus ab alto 110

in summo mari. Eurus In brevia et syrtes urget, miserabile visu ;

urget tres naves ab alto

lum

NOTES,

strophe to those, who fell on the plains of used with this discriinination. Jactanti : Troy, fighting for their country, we may in the sense of dicenti. render it: 0 thrice happy ye, to whom, &c. 103. Adversa: an adj. agreeing with proThis last is the more animated and poetical. cella. As Æneas was steering toward Italy, The former is the sense of Rueus.

a north wind would be in his face, or against 97. Tydide. Diomede, the son of Tydeus, him. king of Ætolia. He was wounded by Æne- 105. Insequitur. Nothing can exceed this as in a combat. Me-ne potuisse : the acc. picture of a rolling billow. It follows (seafter the verb refert, or some other of the quitur) rolling along, constantly on the insame import, understood: why could I not crease, (cumulo) till it becomes a broken and have fallen on the Trojan plains ? &c. rugged mountain of water: præruptus mons

98. Effundere: in the sense of amittere.- aquæ. Jacet : lies slain.

107. Aperit terram. So high did the 99. Sævus Hector: valiant Hector. He waves roll, that between them the sand or was the son of Priam and Hecuba, and the bottom of the sea appeared visible. This bravest of all the Trojans. He was at last may not appear incredible, when it is conslain by Achilles, and his dead body drawn sidered that they were near shore, and on behind his chariot around the walls of Troy, shallows. Dehiscens : opening. Ruæus inand the tomb of Patroclus, whom Hector terprets unda, by mare. Æstus: the tide, had slain some time before. It was after- or current. wards ransomed by Priam at a great price, 108. Saxa. These rocks are generally and honorably buried. Æacidæ : Achilles. supposed to be the Ægates, three Islands See note 30. supra.

not far from the western promontory of Si100. Sarpedon. He was the king of Ly- cily, where the Romans and Carthaginians cia, and came to the assistance of Priam.- made a treaty, which ended the first Punic He was slain by Patroclus. It is said that war. They received the name of altars, he was the son of Jupiter by Laodamia. from the oaths that were then made by the

Simois : a river in Troas, rising out of contracting parties. There is a difficulty in Mount'Ida, and flowing into the Scamman- this interpretation. For it is said their huge der, and with it into the Hellespont, near back was in the surface of the water, and the promontory of Sigeum. Correpta : car- in the preceding line they are called latentia ried–hurried down its current. Virûm, by saxa. Abreptas : driven--forced. syn. for virorum : of heroes. The poet here 111. Brevia et Syrtes : shoals and quickalludes to the bloody battle fought on the sands. Syrtis is properly a large bank of banks of this river, between the Greeks and sand made by the action of the water.Trojans, related by Homer; in which the There were two of these banks, or Syrtes on latter suffered a signal defeat.

the coast of Africa, called the Syrtis Major, 102. Procella : properly, a storm at sea. and the Syrtis Minor: the foriner lay to the Hyems, a cold storm in the winter. Nim- east of Carthage, at a considerable distance; bus, a storm of rain with black angry clouds the latter nearly opposite. Urget : in the and wind; a squall. Imber, a gentle show- sense of impellit. Miserabile: shockinger of rain. They are, however, not always distressing. Visu, is either the supine in 16, 115

Illiditque vadis, atquc aggere cingit arenæ. 114. Ingens pontus, Unam, quæ Lycios fidumque vehebat Orontem, ante oculos Æneæ ip- Ipsius ante oculos ingens à vertice pontus sius, ferit à seslice unam In puppim ferit : excutitur pronusque magister navem in puppim, quæ Volvitur in caput : ast illam ter fuctus ibidem vehebat

116. Ast circùmagens Torquet agens circùm, et rapidus vorat aequore vortex. Auctus torquet illam na. Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto : vem ter ibidem

Arma virûm, tabulæque et Troïa gaza per undas. 118. Homines appa- Jam validam Ilionei navem, jam fortis Achatæ; 120 rent rari nantes in vasto Et quâ vectus Abas, et quâ grandævus Alethes, gurgite. Apparent quo- Vicit hyems : laxis laterum compagibus omnes

120. Hyems vicit jam Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. validam navem Ilionei ; Intereà magno misceri murmure pontum, jam navem fortis Acha- Emissamque hyemem sensit Neptunus, et imis + 125 tæ; et navem, in quâ Stagna refusa vadis : graviter commutus, et alto Abas vectus est, et navem, in quâ

Prospiciens, summâ placidum caput extulit undâ. 125. Neptunus sensit Disjectam Æneæ toto videt æquore classem, pontum

Fluctibus oppressos Troas, cælique ruinâ. 126. Stagna refusa Nec latuere doli fratrem Junonis, et iræ.

130 129. Et Troas oppres- Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri ?

Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat: dehinc talia fatur sos esse fluctibus

133. Jam audetis, o. Jam cælum terramque, meo sinè numine, venti,

que arma

esse, ex

NOTES.

to be seen; or, for visui, the dat. 6f visus, Fatiscunt rimis: gape open in cracks, or to the sight. See Ecl. 5. 29.

leaks. 112. Vadis : against the bottom. Vadum 126. Stagna: plu. of stagnum, the bottom is properly a shallow part of the sea; or a or deep part of the sea. Alto: altum, the part of a river that may be forded. Aggere: deep, or open sea-out of sight of land.a bank of sand.

Fretum, a strait, or narrow sea. Pelagus, 113. Lycios. The Lycians were a people the sea near the land. But they are not of Asia Minor, who came to assist Priam. always used with this discrimination. After the death of Sarpedon their king, they 127. Placidum. This must refer either to chose to accompany Æneas. Oronies took Neptune's natural character-to his mildthe command of thein.

ness in regard to the Trojans, or to the ef114. Pontus: here put for a wave of the fect, which his countenance had upon the sea, by synec. It was so great that it seem- raging sea. For he was greatly moved, ed as if the whole ocean was breaking upon graviter commotus, at the winds, for invading the ship. A vertice. Some understand by his realins without his permission. this, the head or prow of the ship. The 129. Ruina cæli : with the ruin of heaven. common acceptation of the word is the These words strongly denote the violence best: from above. It was so high that it of the tempest—the floods of rain—the thunappeared to fall down upon the ship. derings and lightnings: all which seemed to

115. Pronus. I take this to denote the threaten the destruction of the world. posture of the helmsman, bending or stoop- 130. Doli Junonis : the wiles of Juno, and ing forward, in order to stand more firmly. her anger, did not lie concealed from her The helmsman (magister) is thrown from brother--had not escaped the knowledge of his feet, and tumbled headlong into the sea. her brother. Neptune and Juno were chil

117. Circumagens fluctus : the whirling dren of Saturn and Ops. See Geor. i. 14. water.

132. Tiinta-ne fiducia: hath so great con 118. Rari : scattered here and there.- fidence of vous race possessed you? The Gurgite: in the sense of mari.

winds were the offspring of Aurora and 119. Gaza : this word, signifies all kinds Astræus, one of the Titans. Neptune here of valuable furniture, as well as treasures intimates, that if :hey imitated the rebellion of gold and silver.

of the Giants, their ancestors, they must 122. Compagibus: the seams or streaks expect to share in their punishment; or, at of the sides being loosened, they all let in least, they could not expect to escape with the hostile water. Imber, though properly impunity. a shower of rain, is here used for water in 133. Numine: in the sense of auctoritate, general. Hyems, in the sense of tempestas. vel volunt:ite. Moles: in the sense of fluctus

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