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Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem ?
Tempora quæ messor, quæ curvus arator haberet ?
Necdum illis labra admovi; sed condita servo.“

Da. Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit,
Et molli circùm est ansas amplexus acantho : 45
Orpheaque in medio posuit, sylvasque sequentes.
Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita servo.
Si ad vitulam spectes, nihil est quòd pocula laudes.

ME. Nunquam hodie effugies : veniam quocunque vo-
Audiat hæc tantùm vel qui venit : ecce, Palæmon: [câris.
Efficiam posthac ne quemquam voce lacessas. 51

Da. Quin age, si quid habes ; in me mora non erit ulla : Nec quemquam fugio : tantùm, vicine Palæmon,

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NOTES.

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who, &c. It is supposed that Aratus or behold his long-lost Eurydice. He saw her, Archimedes is meant. The former wrote in but she immediately vanished away. He Greek a treatise concerning the situation attempted to follow her, but was refused. and motions of the heavenly bodies : which The only consolation he could find, was in was translated into Latin. The latter the sound of his lyre in groves and moun. was a famous mathematician and astrono- tains apart from society. The Thracian mer of Syracuse, in Sicily. By the help of women, whom by his neglect and coldness his burning-glasses and engines, he nobly he had offended, set upon him, while they defended that city when besieged by the were celebrating the orgies of Bacchus, ånd Romans under Marcellus. After a siege of having torn his body in pieces, they threw three years, however, it was taken by stra- his head into the river Hebrus, which contagem. Archimedes was slain by a soldier, tinued to articulate Eurydice! Eurydice ! while in the act of demonstrating a propo- as it was carried down the stream into the sition.

Ægean sea. After his death, some say, he 45. Anplexus est ansas : he encircled received divine honors. His lyre was transthe handles around with soft acanthus. The ferred to the heavens, and made a constelparts of the verb are here separated for the lation. Sequentes : obedient to his lyre. sake of the verse, by Tmesis. Acantho: a 47. Condita : laid up safe : a part. from plant called Bear's-foot.

condo, agreeing with pocula. 46. Orphea : acc. of Greek ending. 49. Nunquam effugies hodie : you shall by Orpheus was a most ancient and excellent no means avoid the trial this day. Damepoet, the son of Eagrus, king of Thrace. tas had proposed to stake a heifer which But according to fable, he was the son of Menalcas said he could not do through fear Apollo and Caliope, one of the Muses. He of his father and step-mother ; but proposed received a lyre from Apollo, some say from to pledge his bowls. Damætas insisted upon Mercury, upon which he performed in such a the heifer, and so seemed to avoid the conmasterly manner, that the rivers ceased to test, because the conditions could not be flow-thc savage beasts forgot their ferocity accepted by Menalcas. At length, however, -and the lofty oaks bowed their heads and confident of victory, and laying aside his listened to his song. He was beloved by all fear, he says: Veniam quocunque vocâris · the nymphs. Eurydice alone could make I will come to any conditions you shall proan impression on his mind. He married pose. Accordingly the bowls are laid aside, her; but their happiness was short. For and a heifer is the prize. Aristæus fell in love with her; and fleeing 50. Tantum vel qui venit, &c. Only (I have from him, à serpent lying in the way nothing more to say) even let him who wounded her in the foot, of which she died. comes yonder, hear these things. Menalcas Orpheus was so much afflicted at the loss, was so sure of victory, that he was willing that he resolved to recover her, or perish in to submit to the decision of any third perthe attempt. For this purpose, he descend- son; and accordingly seeing some person ed to Hell, and gained admittance to Pluto, at a distance, says: even let him, who is who was so charmed with his music, that coming there, be the judge of our controhe consented to restore to him liis wife, upon versy, whoever he may be. Upon his near the condition that he would forbear to look approach, discovering who he was, he says: behind himn till he passed the bounds of behold, it is Palæmon our neighbor. Voce : his empire. The condition was accepted; in the sense of cantu. hut as they were very near the region of 51. Efficiam: I will cause.

t, the unhappy lover turned his eyes to 53. Fugio: in the sense of recuso.

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Sensibus hæc imis, res est non parva, reponas.

Pal. Dicite : quando quidem in molliconsedimus herba :
Et nunc omnis ager, nunc omnis parturit arbos;

56
Nunc frondent sylvæ, nunc formosissimus annus.
Incipe, Damæta : tu deinde sequêre, Menalca.
Alternis dicetis: amant alterna Camenæ.

Da. Ab Jove principium, Musæ ; Jovis omnia plena : 60. O musæ, princiIlle colit terras; illi mea carmina curæ.

61 pium omnium est ab ME. Et me Phoebus amat: Phæbo sua semper apud

Jove :

62. Sunt Phæbo semMunera sunt, lauri, et suavè rubens hyacinthus.

per apud me sua muDA. Malo me Galatea petit, "lasciva puella :

nera, nempe, lauri Et fugit ad salices, et se cupit antè videri.

65 ME. At mihi sese offert ultro, meus ignis, Amyntas : Notior ut jam sit canibus non Delia nostris.

Da. Parta meæ Veneri sunt munera: namque notavi Ipse locum, aëriæ quo congessere palumbes.

Me. Quod potui, puero sylvestri ex arbore lecta 70 Aurea mala decem misi: cras altera mittam.

71. Quod solum potui Da. O quoties, et quæ nobis Galatea locuta est ! facere

72. Et quæ dulcia verPartem aliquam, venti, divûm referatis ad aures.

ba Me. Quid prodest, quòd me ipse animo non spernis, Si, dum tu sectaris apros, ego retia servo ? [Amynta,

Da. Phyllida mitte mihi, meus est natalis, Iola. 76 Cùrn faciam vitulâ pro frugibus, ipse venito.

Me. Phyllida amo ante alias : nam me discedere flevit :

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NOTES.

54. Imis sensibus : your deepest attention, times called Delia from Delos, the place of or thoughts. Res: the controversy. her birth. She was the goddess of hunting,

59. Alternis : in alternate verses. This and protectress of Dogs. Ruæus and Dr. is called carmen amæbæum. It consists not Trapp understand by Delia, not Diana, but solely in the dialogue ; but requires that a servant of Menalcas by that name. what the first says shall be replied to by the other upon the same or similar subject.

68. Meæ veneri : for my love—the dear

object of my affections. Carmina : verses, is understood. Camænæ : the Muses. It was formerly written Car- 69. Congessere : in the sense of nidificamence and Casmenæ. Theme, carmen. verunt.

60. Muse. They were nine in number, 71. Aurea : yellow-ripe. the daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. 72. Venti, referatis : bear some part of They were supposed to preside over the them, O winds, &c. Either because her arts and sciences. They were born in words were so sweet that they would dePieria in Macedonia, and were said to re- light even the ears of the gods: or that the side on mount Helicon and mount Parnassus, gods might be witnesses to her promises. the former in Beotia, the latter in Phocis.- 74. Quid prodest, &c. Damætas had been Their names are: Calliope, Clio, Erato, just before expressing his joy at the converThalia, Melpomebe, Terpsichore, Euterpe, sation which he had with his mistress. MePolyhymnia, and Urania.

nalcas now endeavors to go beyond him in 61. Ne colit: he regards the earth ; he sentiments of tenderness and affection; and regards my verses.

intimates that he cannot have any enjoy62. Phæbus. The same as Apollo and ment while Amyntas is absent; nay, unless Sol; the son of Jupiter and Latona. The he share with him his dangers. laurel and hyacinth were sacred to him. 75. Retia : plu. of rete : toils, or snares Hence they are called sua munera, his own set to take any prey. gifts. See Ecl. IV. 10.

76. Phillida : a Greek acc. of Phillis. 66. Ignis : properly a fire or flame. By She was the slave of lolas, and mistress both meton. love---also the object of love; as in to Damætas and Menalcas. the present casc.

77. Faciam vitulâ : that is, faciam sacra 67. Ul jam Delia non : 80 that Delia now ex vitula: I will make the sacrifice of a is not better known, &c. Diana is some- heifer for the fruits.

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Ft, “longum, formose, vale, vale," inquit, Iola.

Da. Triste lupus stabulis ; maturis frugibus imbres; 80
Arboribus venti ; nobis Amaryllidis iræ.

ME. Dulce satis humor; depulsis arbutus hædis,
Lenta salix fæto pecori: mihi solus Amyntas.

Da. Pollio amat nostram, quamvis est rustica, Musam. 86.Pascite taurum illi, Pierides, vitulam lectori pascite vestro.

85 qui jam

ME. Pollio et ipse facit nova carmina ; pascite taurum,

Jam cornu petat, et pedibus qui spargat arenam. 88. Veniat quoque quò Da. Qui te, Pollio, amat ; veniat quò te quoque gaudet: gaudet eum te pervenisse. Mella Aluant illi, ferat et rubus asper amomum.

ME. Qui Bavium non odit, amet tua carmina, Mævi . Atque idem jungat vulpes, et mulgeat hircos.

91 92. O pueri, qui legitis Da. Qui legitis flores, et humi nascentia fraga, flores et fraga nascentia Frigidus, ô pueri! fugite hinc, latet anguis in herbâ. humi, fugite

Me. Parcite, oves, nimiùm procedere : non benè ripa
Creditur : ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat. 95

Da. Tityre, pascentes à flumine reice capellas :
Ipse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte lavabo.

Me. Cogite oves pueri : si lac præceperit æstus,
Ut nuper, frustrà pressabimus ubera palmis.

Da. Eheu, quàm pingui macer est mihi tauros in arvo10 102. Neque est amor

Idem amor exitium pecori est, pecorisque magistro. certè causa his meis ovi- ME. His certè neque amor causa est : vix ossibus hæ bus, cur sint tam macra. Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos. (rent

NOTES.

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79. Longum, formose, &c. These are not learned men of his time. See Ec!. IV. 12. the words of Phillis, addressed to lolas, but 89. Amomum. An aromatic fruit of great of Menalcas; and first addressed to Me- value. The Assyrian was considered the nalcas by Phillis. They made a deep im- best. Rubus : the blackberry bush. pression on his mind-they stole his affec- 90. Qui Bavium non odit. Bavius and tions. O beautiful youth, said she, farewell Mevius were two conteniptible poets, and -farewell, a long time. Stabulis : sheep- very inimical to Virgil and Horace. These folds. By meton. the sheep. Triste is to two lines are wonderfully satirical. Let be supplied with each member of the sen- the same persons yoke oxen and milk hetence following, as also the verb est. goats. But this would be a useless, as well

82. Arbutus: the strawberry tree, so call- as a ridiculous employment. ed from the resemblance of its fruit to a 93. Frigidus : deadly, by meton. or cold, strawberry. Depulsis : the words à lacte descriptive of the nature of the snake. are understood.

95. Creditur. It is not easy to translate 82. Salis. The dat. plu. a substantive impersonal verbs always literally. They from the part. pass. of the verb sero, I sow. frequently occur in sentences, when such a It signifies any thing sown or planted-stand- version would be very awkward English, ing corn. Depulsis hædis: to the weaned This is the case here. Menalcas is cautionkids. Dulcis is to be supplied in each mem- ing his sheep not to proceed too far; and ber of the sentence; as also the verb est. adds as a reason for so doing, that it is

85. Pierides. The Muses are so called not well to trust to the bank. To give force from Pieria, the place of their birth. See to this caution, he mentions the case of the 60. supra.

ram that had just recovered of a fall from 86. Pollio. A noble Roman, the friend it into the river, and was then drying his and patron of Virgil. See next Ecl. Nova: fleece. good-excellent.

96. Reice. Imp. of the verb reicio, by 88. Veniat quò gaudet, &c. May he also syncope for rejicio:drive back. arrive at those honors to which it delighteth 98. Præceperit: if the heat should dry up him that thou hast arrived. Pollio was in the milk-should take it before us, then in vested with the consulate in the year of vain, &c. Rome 714, and in the following year he re- 103. Quis oculus: what evil eye bewitchrived a triumph. He was also a poet and es my tender lambs. Mihi: in the sense of

-ian; and considered among the most

meos

Da. Dic quibus in terris, et eris mihi magnus Apollo, Tres pateat cæli spatium non ampliùs ulnas. 105

ME. Dic quibus in terris inscripti nomina regum Nascantur flores : et Phyllida solus habeto.

109. Et tu es dignus Pa. Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere lites. vitulà, et hic. Et vitulâ tu dignus, et hic: et quisquis amores

110. Quisquis aut me

tuet dulces amores, aui Aut metuet dulces, aut experietur amaros.

110

experietur amaros amoClaudite jam rivos, pueri : sat prata biberunt.

Tes.

NOTES.

105. Spatium cæli pateat. Damætas here to settle, &c. Est is to be supplied. Paleproposes a very intricate riddle. Various mon declares his inability to determine the have been the conjectures to solve it. It is controversy between them; but pronounces most generally thought that the place in them both worthy of the prize. tended is the bottom of a well, from whence 110. Meluet dulces : shall fear successful the space of the heavens appears no broad- love shall fear that it would not be lasting. er than its mouth, which in the general may Experretur amaros : shall experience disapbe taken for three ells.

pointed love love not returned or recipro107. Flores nascantur inscripti. Without cated, solving the riddle of Damotas, Menalcas 111. Claudite. This is a beautiful line : proposes this one, and it is an equal match shut up your streams, O swains, the meads for his. The solution of it is all conjec- have drunk enough. It is a metaphor taken ture. It is generally supposed that the hy- from rivers refreshing the meadows through acinth is the flower alluded to. Nomina which they pass ; to music and poetry, deinscripti : inscribed as to the names of lighting the ear, the fancy, and the judge kings—or with the names of kings. See ment. It implies that it was time to cease Ecl. 1. 55.

their song; they had given sufficient proofs 108. Non nostrum : it is not in my power of their skill in music.

QUESTIONS.

What is the subject of this pastoral? What did he do to recover his lost EuryDoes Virgil here imitate Theocritus? dice?

Who is to be understood under the cha. What became of him at last ? racter of Damætas ? Who under that of In what consists the carmen amæbæum. ? Menalcas? Who under that of Palæmon? Who were the Muses? How many were

Who was Conon? Who was Archimedes? they in number? What were their names ?
What did he do against the Romans ? Who was Diana ? Where was she born?
What became of him afterwards? Over what did she preside?
Who was Orpheus? Whom did he marry?

3

ECLOGA QUARTA.

.

POLLIO.

Virgil's design in this pastoral is to celebrate the birth of a son of Pollio, as appears

from verse 17; on which account he dedicated it to that noble Roman. But it is evident that he ascribes to the son of his friend, what cannot be attributed, with any propriety, to a being merely human. On examination, it will be found that there are several expressions and passages, which remarkably correspond with the prophecies and predictions of the Messiah, contained in the scriptures of the Old Testament; and parti

cularly with those of the prophet Isaiah. That the poet was inspired is not pretended. We are assured, on the most credible testimony, that about this time there was a general

expectation of the Messiah's appearance. This was partly from the dispersion of the Jews over the Roman empire, who carried with them their scriptures; and partly from the Sibylline oracles then much in repute. What, therefore, was generally said, and was the common opinion concerning the Messiah, the poet applies to the son of Pollio. It was not fulfilled in him. For he died on the ninth day after his birth. It was, how

ever, actually fulfilled in about forty years afterwards, when the Savior appeared. Some suppose that the poet hath in view Marcellus, the son of Octavia, the sister of

Augustus, whose birth corresponds with the consulship of Pollio. Augustus adopted him, and designed him for his successor in the empire. This is the same Marcellus whom Virgil highly compliments in the sixth book of the Æneid. He died soon after he arrived at manhood.

SICELIDES Musæ, paulò majora canamus.
Non omnes arbusta juvant, humilesque myricæ.
Si canimus sylvas, sylvæ sint consule dignæ.
Ultima Cumæi venit jam carminis ætas :

*NOTES.

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1. Sicclides : an adj. from Silicia, the residence of a sibyl. There were several island of Sicily, the country of Theocritus, others of the same name; but the most disthe father of pastoral poetry. Hence Sice- tinguished were, a city of Æolis, in Asia lides Musa, pastoral inuses.

Minor, and a city of Eubea, an island in 2. Arbusta-myrica. Trees and shrubs the Ægean sea : hodie, Negropont. The reseem to be put here for pastoral subjects, or sidence of this sibyl was a cave or vault the style and manner in which they are dug into a rock. Justin Martyr informs us, sung, by meton. Myrica: a shrub called that he visited the spot, and was shown a the tamarisk. The poet here proposes to kind of chapel in the rock, into which the write in a style different from the usual inhabitants told him (as they received it style of pastoral; for that does not please from their forefathers) she retired whenever every ear. A more elevated strain he will she gave out her oracles. He also mennow atteinpt.

tioned several other particulars. Onuphrius 3. Sylvas : the woods. By meton. pas. tells us, that the cave or residence of the toral or rural subjects. If we sing of pas- sibyl remained in the same state Justin toral subjects, those subjects should be Martyr described it, until 1539, when it was worthy of a consul's ear.

entirely destroyed by an earthquake which 4. Última ætus : the last age of the sibyl. shook all Campania. See Prideaux's Con. line prophecy hath now arrived—the last Part 2. Lib. 9. Tha sibyls were women age, which was the subject, &c. I would said to have been endued with the spirit of here observe that the last daysthe latter prophecy, and to have foretold the destinies days, or times, are common expressions in of states and kingdoms. They lived at the scriptures to denote the age of the Gos- different periods of time, and in different pel, which is the last dispensation of grace. countries. They took the name of Sibylloc, Cumæi :

: an adj. from Cumce, a city of Cam- or Sibyls, from the first, who was thus enpania, in Italy, famous for having been the dued, her name being Sibylla. Varro edu

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