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Aut hos, versa fugâ victor dare terga subegit.
Verùm ubi ductores acie revocaveris ambos :
90. Sine ut melior reg; Alter erit maculis auro squalentibus ardens : net in aula vacua ab hoste.
(Nam duo sunt genera) hic melior, insignis et ore, 92. Genera apum : hic Et rutilis clarus squamis : ille horridus alter
Desidiâ, latamque trahens inglorius alvum.
Aridus : elucent aliæ, et fulgore coruscant, 99. Corpora lita sunt Ardentes auro, et paribus lita corpora guttis.
Hæc potior soboles : hinc cæli tempore certo
At cùm incerta volant cæloque examina ludunt,
Instabiles animos ludo prohibebis inani.
Ire iter, aut castris audebit vellere signa.
85. Aut hos. The meaning is: till one or dirty, as when, &c. Terram : in the side or the other of the combatants should sense of pulverem. yield. The repetition of the aut hos, from 97. Coruscant : sparkle with brightness the end of the preceding line, gives addi- gleaming with gold; and their bodies are tional energy. The figure is called Anadi- covered over with equal spots--spots, equal plosis.
in size and proportion. 87. Compressa : in the sense of repressa. 100. Soboles: in the sense of genus. Also It agrees with certamina.
cæli : in the sense of anni. Hinc : from 89. Ne prodigus obsit : lest the prodigal these bees. should be an injury to the rest, either by 102. Liquida : in the sense of pura. consuming their food himself, or by setting 103. Al cùm volant. Here the poet prean example of sloth and gluttony.
scribes the means of preventing the bees 90. Aula : in the sense of alveari.
from deserting their hives. 91. Alter erit ardens, &c. The poet here 104. Favos. Virgil uses no less than mentions the different kinds of bees. There eleven different words to express the hive: are more particularly two: the red, which cunabula, cubilia, stabula, præsepia, cavec, are the smaller ones, and the dark, or va- tecta, alveare, favus, domus, sedes, and ædes. rious, which are the larger. The red ones For this diversity of style, he is remarkable. are the best. Squalentibus : a part. of the By this means he avoided a disagreeable reverb squaleo, (from squama :) it signifies any petition. Frigida. This Servius explains thing resembling the scales of fish, or ser- by empty, or inactive, in opposition to what pents, in roughness or shape. It also signi. is afterward said of their activity : opus fies any thing filthy or unseemly, in any fervet. respect whatever. Ardens : shining with 105. Prohibebis : in the sense of revocabis. spots rough with gold-resembling the form 107. Altum iter : an aërial journey. of scales, and glittering like gold. Ruæus 108. Aut vellere signa: or to move the interprets it by asperis.
to decamp. It was a phrase 92. Ore: in the sense of forma.
among the Romans. When they pitched 95. Facies : in the sense of formæ. The their camp, they stuck their ensigns, or verb sunt is to be supplied. Plebis. This standards, into the ground before the prethe reading of Heyne, and of Valpy after torium, or general's tent; and pulled them
The common reading is gentis. up again when they decamped: so the beas.
Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti :
112. Ipso, cui talia Tecta serat latè circùm, cui talia curæ :
sunt curæ, ferens
Atque equidem, extremo ni jam sub fine laborum
120 Et virides apio ripæ; tortusque per
121. Quomodoque cuCresceret in ventrem cucumis : nec sera comantem
cumis tortus per herbam
cresceret Narcissum, aut flexi tacuissem vimen acanthi, Pallentesque hederas, et amantes litora myrtos.
Namque sub Ebaliæ memini me turribus altis, 125 125. Namque memini Quà niger humectat flaventia culta Galesus,
me vidisse Corycium vidisse senem : cui
109. Croceis floribus. Saffron flowers from sailing. On the approach to land, appear to be put here for odorous flowers in they take in, or furl their sails. general. Halantes : in the sense of spi- 118. Pingues hortos. Some gardens ntes.
among the ancients were much celebrated, 111. Priapi. Priapus was fabled to have especially those of the Hesperides, of Adobeen the son of Bacchus and Venus. He nis, of Alcinoüs, &c. was worshipped principally at Lampsacus, 119. Pæsti. Pæstum was a town of Lua city of Mysia Minor, near the Hellespont. cania, where the rose bloomed twice in a Hence the epithet Hellespontiacus.
year; in September and May. Hence the The statue of Priapus was usually placed epithet bifer. in gardens to protect them from thieves, and 120. Intyba : plu. endive, or succory. Po. to fray away birds. Hence he is called, tis rivis : in refreshing streams. custos furum atque avium. The meaning 121. Apio: with parsley. This herb was appears to be: that the bees should be in- called apium, from apes, because the bees vited by such gardens as deserve to be under were fond of it. Some take it for smallage the protection of Priapus. Cuslos: in the or celery. sense of abactrix. See Ecl. vii. 33,
122. Cucumis tortus : the cucumber, 112. Thymum. This is not our common creeping along the grass, swells. This is a thyme, but the thymus capitatus, which concise. but beautiful description. Sera : grows in great plenty on the mountains in an adj. neu. plu, used as an adv. in imitaGreece. The Attic honey was considered tion of the Greeks: in the sense of serò. the best, on account of the excellence of 123. Narcissum: the narcissus of the anthis thyme, which is found in abundance cients is the herb we now call daffodil. near Athens.
Comantem: in the sense of forentem. Acan114. Duro labore : with the hard labor thi: Acanthus, the herb bears-foot. of transferring them from the mountains, 125. Ebaliæ. This was the city of Taand planting them around the hives. rentum in the eastern part of Italy, so called
115. Irriget: he should sprinkle, or pour from Phalantus, a native of Ebalia, or Lathe friendly water upon them-he should conia, who rebuilt it. It was once inhabited be careful to water these plants when thus by the Lacedemonians. transplanted, that they might flourish the 126. Gabesus: a river in Calabria, falling more, and afford more abundant food for into the gulf of Tarentum. It is called the bees.
niger, either, on account of the depth of its 116. Atque equidem : and indeed, unless waters, or of its banks being shaded by trees. I were furling my sails, now in the con- Flavenlia: yellow with ripening grain. Arva clusion of my labors, &c. These are fine is understood. lines, and lead us to wish that the poet had 127. Corycium. Either the name of the enlarged upon the subject of gardening. old man, or an adj. taken from the place of Traham vela. This is a metaphor taken his nativity. Corycus was the name of a
Jugera ruris erant; nec fertilis illa juvencis,
Nec pecori opportuna seges, nec commoda Baccho 130. Tamen hic pre- Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus, albaque circùm
Lilia, verbenasque premens, vescumque papaver,
Nocte domum, dapibus mensas onerabat inemptis. 134. Ille erat primus Primus vere rosam, atque autumno carpere poma : carpere
Et cùm tristis hyems etiam nunc frigore saxa
Æstatem increpitans seram, Zephyrosque morantes.
Primus abundare, et spumantia cogere pressis · 141. Erant illi tiliæ, Mella favis: illi tiliæ, atque uberrima pinus : atque
Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos
Jainque ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras.
Nunc age, naturas, apibus quas Jupiter ipse
mountain, and city of Cilicia in Asia Minor. rycian, particularly in the culture of bees, Pompey made war upon the Cilicians; some he returned to his main subject. He was of whom he brought and planted in Cala- the first to abound, &c. Fætis : in the sense bria near Tarentum. The old man here of fæcundis. mentioned, might have been one of them. 141. Favis : the comb—those cells which Relicti : barren-neglected, not worth tilling. contain the honey. Tiliæ : the linden, or Dr. Trapp renders it hereditary ; left him lime-tree. by his ancestors.
142. Quoique pomis, &c. The meaning 128. Nec illa seges fertilis: nor was that is, that as many blossoms as his fertile trees land fit for ploughing, nor suitable for pas- put forth in the spring, so much fruit they ture, nor proper for the vine. Fertilis : in had in autumn. There were no false blooms, the sense of apta, or commoda.
neither did they fail to bring all to maturi129. Seges. This word most commonly ty. Poma is to be supplied with matura. signifies the crop after it is sown and com- The word properly means apples, but it is ing forward to maturity. Here it means the used for all kind of fruit: as in the present soil or land itself.
130. Albaque lilia circùm : the white lilies 144. Distulit ulmos : he planted (transwere most celebrated, and the best known planted) his elms in rows. Seras. Ruæus among the ancients.
says, lardè crescentes, slow growing. But 131. Verbenas: the herb vervain. It was the poet may mean, far grown, or sufficiently highly esteemed by the Romans. Premens: grown to be fit for transplanting; , as he in the sense of plantans. Vescum papaver : observes with respect to the other trees here the white poppy, called vescum, esculent, or mentioned. This is the opinion of Davideatable; because its seeds were roasted by son and Valpy. the ancients, and eaten with honey.
145. Spinos. Spinus, is the sloe tree. 137. Comam: in the sense of frondes. These were sufficiently grown to produce Hyacinthi. This is the reading of Heyne fruit; and the plane tree, to afford a consideand Vossius, and of several ancient manu- rable shade, before he transplanted them. scripts. It appears to be approved of by 147. Iniquis spatiis: narrow bounds-inValpy, although he adopts the common sufficient room. reading, acanthi.. Heyne leaves out tum, 149. Nunc age. The poet now proceeds which is also retained by some editors. to treat of the polity of the bees—the me
139. Ergò idem primus. Having men- thod of desositing their honey-the regu. tioned the advantage, which a diligent cul- lar management of their affairs-their obetivation of his fields brought to the old Co. dience to their sovereign, &c.
Addidit, expediam : pro quâ mercede, canoros 150
150. Pro qua tanquam Curetum sonitus crepita:tiaque æra secutæ,
mercede, illæ secute caDictæo cæli regem pavêre sub antro.
noros sonitus Solæ communes natos, consortia tecta
163. Hæ solæ omnium Urbis habent, magnisque agitant sub legibus ævum ;
animalium habent Et patriam solæ, et certos novêre penates.
160 Prima favis ponunt fun wamina : deinde tenaces
161. Tanquam prima
fundamina favis Suspendunt ceras : aliie, spem gentis, adultos Educunt fætus : aliæ purissima mella Stipant, et liquido distendunt nectare cellas. Sunt, quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sorti; 165 165. Sunt aliæ, quiInque vicem speculantur aquas et nubila cæli,
bus custodia Aut onera accipiunt venientûm, aut, agmine facto,
166. Quæque invicem Ignavum fucos pecus à præsepibus arcent. Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. Ac veluti lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis
. Cùm properant: alii taurinis follibus auras
150. Expediam: in the sense of descri- 159. Exercentur: in the sense of laborant. bam. Pro quâ mercede. According to fable, Septa: the enclosures of their hives. Saturn intending to devour his infant son 160. Narcissi. The flower of Narcissus, Jupiter, he was concealed by his mother
or daffodil, forms a kind of cup in the midamong the Curetes, or Corybantes, lier priests, dle, which is supposed to contain the tear of the sound of whose brazen armour and cym- the youth Nurcissus, who pined away with bals, as they revelled, prevented his cries the love of himself. See Ecl. ii. 48. from betraying him to his father. It is said that Melissus was then king of Crete, whose
163. Educunt adultos fætus: they nourish daughters, Melissæ nourished Jupiter with
or tend upon their young, till they are full the milk of a goat and honey. Hence arose
grown: or, they lead forth their full grown the story of his being nourished by a goat young. Servius prefers the former sense:
as also Ruæus. called Amalthea and bees, Melissæ being the Greek naine for bees. For which reason,
164. Liquido : in the sense of puro. Necthe goat was translated to the heavens, and tare : nectar here, evidently, is to be taken his horns given to the nymphs, with this for honey—the purest, and most refined quality added to them, that whatever they part of it. should ask for, should flow from them plen- 166. Aquas: in the sense of pluviam. teously: and for the service, which the bees
168. Fucos : the drones, a lazy herd. rendered on this occasion, they were endow. These are bees that make no honey. They ed by Jupiter with an extraordinary degree have no stings, and they do not assist the of sagacity and wisdom, as a reward. others in their labors. Prosepibus. See
152. Dictæo: an adj. from Dicte, a city note, verse 104. supra. and mountain in Crete. On this mountain, it is said, Jupiter was brought up.
169. Opus fervet : the work glows it goes 153. Consortia : in the sense of communia.
on briskly. 154. Agitant : in the sense of ducunt.
170. Cùm properant Cyclopes. The CyThe poet here speaks of the bees as living clops are said to have forged the thunderin a regular, and well organized society.
bolts of Jove. To this the poet alludes. 155. Certos penates: in the sense of firas This comparison of the bees in their labors, domos.
with those workmen of Jupiter in their 157. Experiuntur : they practise or use, shops, has been censured by some. Prope
158. Victu: for victui. See Ecl. 5, 29. rant : in the sense of fabricuntur. Invigilant : watch over--have the care of 172. Alii accipiunt: simply: some blow providing. Pacto federe:. in the sense of the bull-hide bellows. Lacu : in the trougla certa lege.
Accipiunt, redduntque : alii stridentia tingunt
Non aliter, si parva licet componere magnis, 177. Habendi mella Cecropias innatus apes amor urget habendi,
178. Oppida sunt curæ Munere quamque suo. Grandævis oppida curæ, grandævis
Et munire favos, et Dædala fingere tecta.
• 180 181. Plenæ quoad cru- Crura thymo plenæ : pascuntur et arbuta passim, ra thymo
Et glaucas salices, casiamque, crocumque rubentem,
Et pinguem tiliam, et ferrugineos hyacinthos. 184. Est omnibus una Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus. quies
Manè ruunt portis, nusquam mora : rursus easdem 185 185. Rursus, ubi vesper admonuit easdem
Vesper ubi è pastu tandemn decedere campis
Fit sonitus, mussantque oras et limina circùm.
Nec verò à stabulis, pluviâ impendente, recedunt
Longiùs, aut credunt cælo, adventantibus Euris: 193. Tutæ ab pluvia Sed circùm tutæ sub mænibus urbis aquantur, et vento
Excursusque breves tentant : et sæpe lapillos, 194. Et sæpe tollunt
195 lapillos, ut
Ut cymbæ instabiles, fluctu jactante, saburram,
instabiles cymbæ tollunt sabur. Tollunt : his sese per inania nubila librant. ram, fluctu jactante eas: Illum adeò placuisse apibus mirabere morem, his lapillis
Quòd nec concubitu indulgent, nec corpora 'segnes
NOTES. 175. In numerum : they raise their arms 189. Thalamis : in the sense of cellis. in regular order, making a sort of harmony 190. Suus: in the sense of proprius. Ruwith the strokes of their hammers.
æus says, conveniens. Jamblicus informs us that the sound of 191. Stabulis. See note, verse 104. supra. the smith's hammer led Pythagoras to in- 192. Euris. Eurus, the east wind, here vent the monochord, an instrunient for mea- put for wind in general: the species for the suring the quantities, and proportions of genus. sounds geometrically.
193. Aquantur. This verb appears to be 177. Cecropias : Attic, or Athenian bees, used in the sense of the middle voice of the so called from Cecrops, the first king of Greeks: they water themselves. This manAthens. The Attic honey was inuch cele- ner of expression is common with the poet. brated.
Ruæus says, hauriunt aquas. 178. Quamque suo munere: each one in 195. Saburram : ballast. This is some his own office-department.
ponderous substance, as sand, gravel, iron, 179. Dædala: an adj. from Dedalus, a &c. that light vessels usually take on board very ingenious artificer of Athens. The to render them steady. word, as here used, signifies any thing arti- 198. Nec indulgeni, &c. This account of ficial, or curiously and ingeniously wrought. the production of bees here given by the
180. Minores: in the sense of juniores. poet, is justly exploded. It is found that no
181. Plence crura. The hairiness of the animal is produced without the concurrence legs of the bee is favorable to the retention of the sexes. However as this method was of the juices, which they collect from the the general received one among the ancients, flowers.
the poet might very well adopt it, whatever 132. Rubentem: yellow, or of a golden his own opinion might have been upon the hue. Ruæus says, rufum.
subject. Pliny says of the bees: Foetus 183. Ferrugineos: purple-dark red. quonam modo progenerarent, magna inter
184. Operum: in the sense of ab opere. eruditos, et subtilis quæstio juit: Apum enim Una: one and the same rest.
coitus visus est nusquam. This, however, 188. Oras: this Ruæus interprets by ves- modern philosophers have solved in a są tistibulum. Mussant : they buzz-they make factory manner. They have found that the izzing noise.
laboring bees are of neither sex; that the