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Verùm etiam invisos si quis tentârat amictus ;
Ardentes papulæ, atque immundus olentia sudor
Membra sequebatur ; nec longo deinde moranti
Tempore, contactos artus sacer ignis edebat.

565. Deinde sacer ig

nis edebat contactos ar555

tus illi moranti dimittere eos amictus à se, nec longo tempore.

NOTES.

564. Ardentes papulæ : red, fiery pimples, The meaning of these last six lines apor blains.

pears to be this: That the people were 565. Sequebatur : spread over the noi- forced at length to abstain from shearing some body.

the infected feeces; or touching the wool ; 566. Sacer ignis : the erysipelas, or St. or ever wearing any garments, when made Anthony's fire. It consuraed those parts of of it: because those, who had done so, had the body with which the garments (amictus) been great sufferers thereby. came in contact.

QUESTIONS.

What is the subject of this book?

Where were they celebrated ? How does the poet commence?

And in honor of whom? Why does he first invoke Pales?

Who was Tithonus? How was she worshipped ?

How long did he live before Augustus ? What were her festivals called ?

In what sense do Servius and Eustathius After finishing the main subject, does he consider the word Tithonus, as used by the add any thing by way of episode?

poet in reference to Augustus ? Włat number of episodes has he added ? Who were the Lapithæ ? What are the subjects of these episodes ? What are they said to have done? What is the general character of them? What was the name of their principal city?

May they be reckoned among the finest Can you mention any nation that began parts of the Georgics?

the day at the rising of the sun ? How does the book conclude ?

How did they divide the day? Who was Hippodame?

How did they divide the night? What is said of Enomaus ?

What effect would this have upon the Who was his daughter?

length of their hours? Who was Pelops ?

When do modern nations begin the day? And what is said of his father

When does the nautical dav commence In what year of the world were the Olym Who, probably, wero the Läres? pic games instituted ?

Over what did they preside? How often were they celebrated ?

For what is the word Larcs taken by Did they form an important era in the meton.? Grecian history?

What was the usual weight which the What other games were there in Greece ? Roman soldier carried on his march?

In honor of whom were the Nemean games Of what did it consist? instituted ?

What were all those nations called by the And to commemorate what event? Romans that inhabited the northern part of

In honor of whom were the Pythian Europe and Asia ? games instituted ?

Was there any particular part of this And to commemorate what event? book much admired by Scaliger? Who instituted the Isthmean games? What part was that?

LIBER QUARTUS.

This Book treats of the culture of bees. After proposing the subject, the poet shows the proper stations for placing their hives; and having noticed some particulars respecting the management of the swarms, &c. he digresses into a noble description on a battle between two discordant kings. He then proceeds to consider their different kinds and qualities, the nature and form of their government, and the diseases, which often rage among them—together with the proper remedies for each; and concludes with the story of Aristæus' recovery of his bees, after his swarms were lost, and of Orpheus descent into hell after his wife Eurydice. This episode runs through 277 lines, and is one of the finest pieces of heathen poetry.

nui re

PROTINUS aërii mellis cælestia dona
2. Hanc partem Geo-Exequar: hanc etiam, Mæcenas, aspice partem.
gicorum. Dicam spec- Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum,
tacula levium rerum ad-
miranda tibi

Magnanimosque duces, totiusque ordine gentis
Mores, et studia, et populos, et prælia dicam.

5 6. Ille est labor in te- In tenui labor; at tenuis non gloria : si quem

Numina læva sinunt, auditque vocatus Apollo. 7. Si læva Numina si. nunt quem scriptorem Principio, sedes apibus statioque petenda, exequi id

Quò neque sit ventis aditus (nam pabula venti

Ferre domum prohibent) neque oves hædique petulci 10 10. Prohibent apes Floribus insultent ; aut errans bucula campo ferre domum

Decutiat rorem, et surgentes atterat herbas. 13. Picti quoad squa- Absint et picti squalentia terga lacerti lentia

Pinguibus à stabulis ; meropesque, aliæque volucres,

NOTES.

1. Aërii : an adj. from aër. Honey is stands by læva, propitious, or favorable. here called aërial, because it was thought to Heyne seems to be of the same opinion. come from the dew, which fell from the air Gellius and Wakefield takc it with Ruæus, upon the flowers, whence the bees collected to mean adverse. When words are indefiit. For the same reason the poet uses the nite, or are used in opposite senses, we can epithet cælestra.

hardly expect unanimity among commenta2. Exequar : in the sense of describam. tors. If the adverse deities should not in

6. Tenui : on a low subject. Re is terfere to prevent him, and Apollo should understood. The consideration of bees may come to his aid, the poet promises to exebe considered low, or inferior to the subjects cute a work, worthy of his friend and patreated of in the preceding books. If, how- tron, even upon the humble subject of the ever, the farmer attend properly to them, he bee. will find thein very profitable ; and their government and polity will afford to the phi- des. The poet proceeds to mention the pro.

8. Principio : in the sense of primò. Selosopher and politician much useful instruc

per places for the hives, and the form and tion This is what we are to understand by fashion of constructing them. The words, al gloria non tenuis.

11. Insultent: bruise—frisk about upon, 7. Lara niimina. Lavus is used both in

the flowers. a good and a bad sense. Ruæus interprets it bg adiersa. By the deities, here called ad- 13. Picti: in the sense of maculosi. verse, or inauspicious, we are probably to 14. Meropes. These were a species of understand the infernal deities, Pluto, the bird that fed upon bees; hence called the Furies, &c. who were thought to be op- bce-eater. They were about the size of our posed to the welfare of men. Valpy under. blackbird, but of various colors.

15 15. Procne signata

quoad pectus cruentis manibus, absint ab iis.

16. Ipsasque apes

20

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Et manibus Procne pectus signata cruentis.
Omnia nam latè vastant, ipsasque volantes
Ore ferunt, dulcem nidis immitibus escam.
At liquidi fontes, et stagna virentia musco
Adsint, et tenuis, fugiens per gramina, rivus :
Palmaque vestibulum, aut ingens oleaster inumbrot.
Ut, cùm prima novi ducent examina reges
Vere suo, ludetque favis emissa juventus ;
Vicina invitet decedere ripa calori,
Obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos.

In medium, seu stabit iners, seu profluet luumor,
Transversas salices et grandia conjice saxa :
Pontibus ut crebris possint consistere, et alas
Pandere ad æstivum Solem ; si fortè morantes
Sparserit, aut præceps Neptuno immerserit Eurus.
Hæc circùm casiæ virides et olentia latè
Serpylla, et graviter spirantis copia thymbræ
Floreat : irriguumque bibant violaria fontem.

Ipsa autem, seu corticibus tibi suta cavatis,
Seu lento fuerint alvearia vimine texta,
Angustos habeant aditus ; nam frigore mella
Cogit hyems, eademque calor liquefacta remittit :
Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda : neque illæ
Nequicquam in tectis certatim tenuia cerâ
Spiramenta linunt, fucoque et floribus oras

25 25. Conjice salices

transversas et granida saxa in medium humorem, seu

27. Consistere in iss tanquam pontibus 30 30. Circùm hæc loca

virides

33. Autem alvearia ipsa, seu suta sint tibi è 35 cavatis corticibus, seu

37. Neque illæ nequicquam linunt tenuia spiramenta in tectis cerà

NOTES

15. Procne. By Procne, or Progne, is 30. Casiæ. Some take the casia to be the here meant the swallow, which has some same with the rosemary; but Columella, red feathers on its breast. For the story of speaking of the plants that should grow Procne, see Ecl. vi, 78.

about an apiary, mentions casia and rose17. Dulcem escam as a sweet morsel for inary as two different plants. their merciless young. Nudis: the nests; 31. Serpylla. There were two kinds of by meton. for the young ones in them. this plant; one of the gardens, and the other

18. Liqurdi : in the sense of puri. Viren- wild. It is a strong-scented herb, and retia musco: either the banks of these ponds, sembles thyme. It is proper to be planted or pools skirted with green moss, or the sur- near bees, and is usually called wild-thyme. face of them covered with it.

Thymbre: the herb savory. Spirantis: in 19. Fugiens : in the sense of fuens. the sense of olentis. It was a strong-scent21. Nova examina: the new swarms. ed herb.

22. Emissa : in the sense of egressa. The 32. Violaria : beds of violets-places spring abounds in flowers more than any sown or planted with the violet. season of the year; honey is collected in 33. Suta : in the sense of compacta. Cor. greater abundance, and the bees are then ticibus. The bark of the cork-tree is called most diligent. In this sense, the spring may cortex, by way of eminence. .emphatically be called theirs: suo vere, their 34. Lento vimine : of limber osier, or own spring

wicker. 24. Obvia : in the sense of adversa: op- 36. Cogit: tnickens. Remittit: in the posite, or in front of them. Teneat: in the sense of reddit. sense of accipiat.

37. Vis : force-violence; the excess of 25. Humor: in the sense of aqua.

heat or cold. 26. Conjice, &c. These willows and rocks 38. Tectis : in their hives. Certatim: in were to be cast into the water, whether the sense of diligenler. running or stagnant, that the bees might 39. Fuco. Fucus was properly a kind of rest upon thein: if, by any means, they fell marine weed, resembling lettuce. It was into it, that they might creep upon them, anciently used in dying; used also by woexpand their wings to the warm sun, and men as a kind of paint for the face. Hence dry themselves.

all kinds of daubing obtained the name of 29. Neptuno: in the sense of aquâ. See fucus: not with the flowers (foribus) themGear, i. 14.

selves, but rather with the substance ex

Explent: collectumque hæc ipsa ad munera gluten 40
Et visco et Phrygiæ servant pice lentius Idæ.
Sæpe etiam effossis (si vera est fama) latebris
Sub terrâ fovere larem ; penitùsque repertæ

Pumicibusque cavis, exesæque arboris antro. 45. Tamen tu et cir- Tu tamen et levi rimosa cubilia limo

45 cùm unge rimosa cubi- Unge fovens circùm, et raras superinjice frondes. lia levi limo.

Neu propiùs tectis taxum sine, neve rubentes 48. Neu crede alvearia Ure foco cancros : altæ neu crede paludi:

49. Gravis odor cæni Aut ubi odor cæni gravis, aut ubi concava pulsu est, aut

Saxa sonant, vocisque offensa resultat imago. 50

Quod superest, ubi pulsam hyemem Sol aureus egit
Sub terras, cælumque æstivâ luce reclusit;
Illæ continuò saltus sylvasque peragrant,

Purpureosque metunt flores, et fumina libant 55. Hinc illæ lætæ, Summa leves. Hinc nescio quâ dulcedine lætæ, 55 nescio quâ dulcedine

Progeniem nidosque fovent: hinc arte recentes ·
Excudunt ceras, et mella tenacia fingunt.
Hinc ubi jam emissum caveis ad sidera cæli
Nare per æstatem liquidam suspexeris agmen,

NOTES.

tracted from them, by meton. Oras: the stroke or concussion, mcet with an obstacle, margin, or edge, of their hives. Valpy takes and are reflected, or turned back, so as to fuco et floribus, by Hendiadis, for fuco floreo. make an impression on the ear. This the

40. Ad hæc ipsa munera : in the sense of poet calls the image of the voice. ad hos ipsos usus.

51. Quod superesi. The poet now pro41. Lentius: an adj. of the com. deg. (of ceeds to speak of the food, the swarming, lentus) agreeing with gluten: tougher than, and the battles of the bees; and to give di&c.

rections how to appease the fury of their 43. Sæpe etiam fovere : they have even contests, and bring them back to the hive. .cherished their families in caverns dug un- 52. Sub terras: under the carth—to the der the earth. Several manuscripts have southern pole. This is a beautiful circumfodêre, but fovêre is the best. Ruæus has locution to express the return of summer. fodêre. He interprets the passage thus: The seasons are opposite, on the opposite aperuerunt sibi domum sub terra. But it is sides of the equator, beyond the tropics. not necessary to suppose that the bees dug When it is suminer on the north, it is winter these caves or cells for themselves, any more on the south, and vice versa. This is occathan that they prepared their cells in the sioned by the motion of the earth in its pumice stone, or cavities in the trees, for orbit, making an angle with the equator of their reception. Davidson, Heyne, and 23° 28'. Heinsius, read fovêre. Larem. See Geor. 54. Purpureos. The poet frequently uses iii. 344. Penitus: in the sense of profundè. purple for any gay color. Metunt : in the

45. Cubilia: in the sense of alrearia. sense of carpunt. Unge: smear, or plaster all around. Fo- 55. Leves libant : and lightly taste or sip. vens: cherishing-keeping them warm. Dulcedine: in the sense of delectutione.

48. Cancros. Crabs and lobsters, it is 56. Fovent : cherish-grow fond of. Niwell known, in boiling, pass from a dark or dos: either the apartinents formed in the brown, to a red color. Hence the epithet hive for the purpose of depositing their rubentes. Altæ paludi. The poet advises young, or simply, the hives themselves. not to place the hives near marshy or fenny 57. Excudunl. they form the fresh or new places, which afford no stones or bridges, on made wax. This is a metaphor taken from which the bees may rest, if occasion should the smith, who is said (excudere) to strike, require.

or hammer out the instrument of iron which 49. Gravis: stinking. Pulsu: by the he forms. The bees are here compared in stroke of the voice.

their labors to the Cyclops, laboring at the 50. Imago vocis : the image of the voice anvil. being struck, rebounds; i. e. where an echo 59. Suspexeris agmen emissum: when now is heard. This is always the case when the you shall see the swarm issuing from the pulses or waves of air, put in motion by some hives, &c. Nare: in the sense of volare

75 ram

per medias

Obscuramque trahi vento mirabere nubem ;

60 Contemplator: aquas dulces et frondea semper

61. Frondea tocta, ubi Tecta petunt: huc tu jussos asperge sapores,

considant : Trita melisphylla, et cerinthæ ignobile gramen :

64. Matris Cybeles Tinnitusque cie, et Matris quate cymbala circùm. Ipsæ consident medicatis sedibus: ipsæ

65 *Intima more suo sese in cunabula condent.

Sin autem ad pugnam exierint (nam sæpe duobus Regibus incessit magno discordia motu) Continuòque animos vulgi, et trepidantia bello

69. Continuò licet tibi Corda licet longè præsciscere: namque morantes 70 longè priùs præsciscere Martius ille æris rauci canor increpat, et vox Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum. Tum trepidæ inter se coëunt, pennisque coruscant, Spiculaque exacuunt rostris, aptantque lacertos,

74. Lacertos ad puge Et circa regem atque ipsa ad prætoria densæ Miscentur, magnisque vocant, clamoribus hostem. Ergò, ubi ver nactæ sudum, camposque patentes,

77. Nartæ sunt ver Erumpunt portis : concurritur: æthere in alto

sudum, uëriosque camFit sonitus: magnum mixtæ glomerantur in orbem,

pos patentes
Præcipitesque cadunt: non densior aëre grando, 80
Nec de concussâ tantum pluit ilice glandis.
Ipsi per medias acies, insignibus alis,

82. Reges ipsi volantes Ingentes animos angusto in pectore versant: Usque adeò obnixi non cedere, dum gravis, aut hos,

NOTES. 60. Trahi : in the sense of ferri. Obscu 69. Trepidantia : eager--anxious. tam: a dark cloud of bees.

70. Præscisere : in the sense of præsentire. 63. Melisphylla : balm-gentle. It is an 71. Canor : in the sense of strepitus, vel herb, of which bees are very fond. It is sonitus. Morantes : those tha are behind. thought to be the same that was sometimes Increpat : rouses—urges on. called apiastrum by the Romans. Cerinthæ : 73. Trepide : eager-hurrying. Pennis : the honey-suckle. The poet calls it ignobile in the sense of alis. gramen, because it was common. It abounds 75. Ipsa prætoria. In the Roman camp, in a sweet juice, like honey.

the tent of the commanding officer was call. 64. Cie tinnitus : make, or excite a ring- ed Prætorium; hence, by meton. put for the ing. The effect of the sound of brass upon cells of the royal bees. Denso miscentur: the swarm is very great. It is the most they are crowded thick. effectual means to stop them in their flight, 77. Sudum ver: a clear spring day. Ruand collect them into the hive. Some have æus says, serenum tempus. Campos patentes : attributed this to fear, others to pleasure. the fields of air open-unobstructed by But more probably it confounds the sound wind or clouds. of their queen, or leader; and being with 78. Concurritur : in the sense of concur. out command or direction, they fall or set runt. tle upon the first place they meet. Matris : 79. Glomerantur. This verb hath a reCybele was the mother of the gods—the flex signification here, like the middle voice same as Rhea, or Ops. At her sacrifices, of the Greeks : they form themselves into cymbals were always used.

a great

circle. Mixtæ: in the sense of 65. Medicatis sedibus: prepared seats, or commistie. places for them to light upon.

81. Pluit : in the sense of cadit. It is to 66. Cunabula : in the sense of recessus, be joined with grando, in the preceding vel alvearia.

line. 68. Incessit : hath seized-invaded. No 82. Insignibus alis : with distinguished thing can be more lively or animated than wings—distinguished from the rest by their this description of a battle of bees. We wings. here find the ardor of the warrior, the 83. Versant : in the sense of exercent, vel sound of the trumpet, the glittering of ar- manifestant. mour, the shouts of the soldiers, the bravery 84. Obnixi usque adeò: determined all of the leaders, and all the rage and madness the time not to yield, until the mighty con. of battle.

queror hath forced one side or the other,&c.

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