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Disce et odoratam stabulis accendere cedrum,
Galbaneoque agitare graves nidore chelydros. 415
Sæpe sub immotis præsepibus, aut mala tactu
Vipera delituit, cælumque exterrita fugit;
Aut tecto assuetus coluber succedere et umbræ,
Pestis acerba boum, pecorique aspergere virus,
Fovit humum. Cape saxa manu, cape robora, pastor,
Tollentemque minas, et sibila colla tumentem, 421
Dejice : jamque fugâ timidum caput abdidit altè,
Cùm medii nexus, extremæque agmina caudæ,
Solvuntur, tardosque trahit sinus ultimus orbes.
Est etiam ille malus Calabris in saltibus anguis, 425

Squamea convolvens sublato pectore terga,
427. Maculosus quoad Atque notis longam maculosus grandibus alvum:
longam

Qui, dum amnes ulli rumpuntur fontibus, et dum 428. Qui serpens colit Vere madent udo terræ, ac pluvialibus Austris, stagna

Stagna colit; ripisque habitans, hic piscibus atram 430
Improbus ingluviem, ranisque loquacibus explet.

Postquam exhausta palus, terræque ardore dehiscunt; 433. In siccum cam- Exilit in siccum ; et flammantią lumina torquens,

Sævit agris, asperque siti, atque exterritus æstu.
Ne mihi tum molles sub dio carpere somnos,

435
Neu dorso nemoris libeat jacuisse per herbas,
Cùm positis novus exuviis, nitidusque juventâ,
Volvitur, aut catulos tectis aut ova relinquens,
Arduus ad Solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis.

Morborum quoque te causas et signa docebo. 440

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415. Galbaneo : an adj. from galbanum, 425. Calabris : an adj. from Calabria, the a gum, or liquor, at the smell of which ser- south-eastern part of Italy. pents fee.

It is agreed that the snake here spoken of Chelydros : Chelydrus is properly a water is the chersydrus. These serpents abounded tortoise-a land or water snake: qui modò in that part of Italy. They were amphi. in paludibus, modò in arboribus latet. bious. Their name is of Greek origin.

417. Vipera : a species of serpent, very The poet here gives a very lively descrippoisonous; so called from the circumstance tion of that destructive reptile. of its bringing forth its young alive.

428. Rumpuntur : in the sense of erumCælum : for lucem. Mala: noxious— punt, vel rumpunt se. poisonous.

430. Improbus implet: greedy, he fills his 418. Coluber : a species of snake, which filthy maw with fish, &c. Mr. Martyn takes for the same that Pliny 432. Exhausla : exhausted-dried up. calls boas, from the circumstance of its feed- Valpy reads exusta, but mentions no authoing on cow's milk, whicli it draws from the rity. Exhausta is the common reading. teat. If this be the case, we see the pro- 435. Tum ne libeat mihi : then may it not priety of the poet's calling the serpent, please me to take, &c. acerba pestis boum : the direful pest of cattle. 436. Dorso. Some render dorso, on the

420. Fovit terram: hugs the ground. back, referring it to the posture of lying. 423. Medii nexus : the middle joints. But there is no necessity of this, if we sup

Agminaque extremæ caudæ : the move- pose the grove to be on an eininence, or hill ments, or windings of the end of his tail. —on the side or edge of a grove.

Agmen is properly an army of men on the 437. Positis exuviis: his skin being put march; it is also said of a serpent: Quia off

. The snake, it is well known, changes corporis pars pòst partem succedit, atque agi- his skin every year. Exuit à capite primùm, tur instir exercitús agminatim procedentis, says Pliny.

438. Tectis : his habitation-den. 424. Ultimus sinus : the extreme joints or 439. Micat ore: he vibrates with his three folds of his tail draw the slow wreaths or forked tongue in his mouth; that is, his spires along. Ruæus says, extrema curvatura. three forked tongue vibrates in his mouth.

says Ruæus.

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Turpis oves tentat scabies, ubi frigidus imber
Altiùs ad vivum persedit, et horrida cano
Bruma gelu: vel cùm tonsis illotus adhæsit

443. Bruma horrido Sudor, et hirsuti secuerunt corpora vepres.

cano gelu
Dulcibus idcirco fluviis pecus omne magistri 445
Perfundunt, udisque aries in gurgite villis
Mersatur, missusque secundo defluit amni:
Aut tonsum tristi contingunt corpus amurcâ,
Et spumas miscent argenti, vivaque sulphura,
Idæasque pices, et pingues unguine ceras,

450
Scillamque, helleborosque graves, nigrumque bitumen.
Non tamen ulla magis præsens fortuna laborum est,
Quàm si quis ferro potuit rescindere summum
Ulceris os: alitur vitium, vivitque tegendo:
Dum medicas adhibere manus ad vulnera pastor 455
Abnegat, et meliora Deos sedet omina

poscens.
Quin etiam ima dolor balantûm lapsus ad ossa
Cùm furit, atque artus depascitur arida febris;
Profuit incensos æstus avertere, et inter
Ima ferire pedis salientem sanguine venam,

460 Bisaltæ quo more solent, acerque Gelonus,

461. Eodem more. quo Cùm fugit in Rhodopen, atque in deserta Getarum,

Bisaltæ solent ferir e veEt lac concretum cum sanguine potat equino.

464. Quam ovem vi. Quam procul, aut molli succedere sæpiùs umbræ

deris procul, aut succeVideris, aut summas carpentem ignaviùs herbas, 465 dere sæpiùs molli umExtremamque sequi, aut medio procumbere campo

bræ Pascentem, et seræ solam decedere nocti ;

466. Extremamque se Continuò culpam ferro compesce, priusquàm

qui cæteras

nam

NOTES.

a vein.

443. Tonsis : to the shorn sheep. Ovibus

456. Meliora omina: better success-or is understood.

luck. 445. Magistri : in the sense of pastores. Verbs of asking, teaching, &c. govern 446. Gurgite: in the sense of fluvio. two accusatives, one of the person, the other 448. Tristi: bitter.

of the thing. Contingunt: in the sense of ungunt. 457. Lapsus : penetrating.

449. Spumns argenti : litharge. Some 460. Inter ima pedis: in the sense of inunderstand quicksilver; but it is not certain ter imas ungulas pedis: between the diviwhether the ancients called that, spuma ar- sions or parts of the hoof. Ferire: to open genti.

450. Idæas pices: the pitch is here called 461. Bisaltæ: a people of Macedonia. Idæan, from mount Ida, in Troas, whose Geloni: a people of Scythia, who paintpitch was the best.

ed their bodies, to be more terrible to their 451. Scillam : the squill, or sea onion; it is a enemies. bulbous root, like an onion, but much larger. 462. Getarum: the Getæ were a people

Helleboros. There are two kinds of hel- of Thrace, inhabiting Masia interior, not lebore, the white and the black. The for- far from the mouth of the Isler. mer, says Mr. Martyn,is serviceable in dis- 463. Concretum: thickened. eases of the skin, if it be externally applied; 467. Decedere seræ nocti: to yield or give but it will not do to be taken internally, as place to the late night. She was the last the black kind will. Hence he thinks, Vir- to leave the pasture grounds, and then comgil here means the white, by his using the pelled only by the darkness of the night. epithet gravis, strong-scented.

She yielded to the darkness, and went 452. Fortuna laborum: remedy of their home. disease, or sufferings. Præsens : speedy- 468. Culpam. By this we are to understand efficacious.

the diseased sheep, and not simply the af454. Summum os ulceris : the highest part, fected part, as Ruæus and some others un. or head of the sore. Vitium: the malady, derstand it. The poet advises, as soon as or disease. Tegendo: by being concealed. you discover, by the signs above mentioned,

Dira per incautum serpant contagia vulgus.

Non tam creber, agens hyemem, ruit æquore turbo; 470 471. Quàm postes pe- Quàm multæ pecudum pestes : nec singula morbi cuduin sunt multe

Corpora corripiunt; sed tota æstiva repentè,

Spemque, gregemque simul, cunctamque ab origine gen474. Tum ille sciat Tum sciat, aërias Alpes et Norica si quis (tem. hoc esse verum, siquis eti

475 Castella in tumulis, et lapidis arva Timavi,

tantò
am nunc quoque
pòst videat aërias Alpes, Nunc quoque pòst tantò videat, desertaque regna
et Norica castella in tu- Pastorum, et longè saltus latèque vacantes.
mulis, et arva lapidis Hìc quondam morbo cæli miseranda coorta est
Timavi, deserta que reg- Tempestas, totoque autumni incanduit æstu,
na pastorum, et saltus

Et genus omne neci pecudum dedit, omne ferarum, 480
Corrupitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo.
Nec via mortis erat simplex : sed ubi ignea venis
Omnibus acta sitis miseros adduxerat artus ;
Rursus abundabat Auidus liquor; omnia que in se
Ossa minutatim morbo collapsa trahebat.

485 Sæpe in honore Deûm medio stans hostia ad aram, Lanea dum niveâ circumdatur infula vittâ,

Inter cunctantes cecidit moribunda ministros. 489. Aut si sacerdos Aut si quam ferro mactaverat antè sacerdos; mactaverat quam hos- Inde neque impositis ardent altaria fibris,

430 tiam ferro, antè-quàm Nec responsa potest consultus reddere vates : ceciderat, inde

492. Suppositi viceri. Ac vix suppositi tinguntur sanguine cultri, bus vix tinguntur Summaque jejunâ sanie infuscatur arena.

Hinc lætis vituli vulgò moriuntur in herbis,

Et dulces animas plena ad præsepia reddunt. 495 498. Victor equus, in. Hinc canibus blandis rabies venit; et quatit ægros felix, et immemor studi. orum, atque herbæ, la- Tussis anhela sues, ac faucibus angit obesis. bitur

Labitur infelix studiorum, atque immcmor herbæ

NOTES. that any one of your sheep is diseased, to 485. Trahebat omnia : and drew all the take away the faulty animal: kill it forth- bones, wasted, or consumed, little by little, with, that the contagion may not spread by the disease, into itself. Convertebat in among the unwary flock. This is the sense of Davidson and Valpy.

487. Infula. This was a broad wreath, 474. Norica: an adj. from Noricum, a

or band, made of wool, and bound about the country of Germany, in the neighborhood temples of the victim; but not covering of the Alps, but beyond them with regard the whole head: from it hung the vilta, or to Italy.

fillet. Timavi: Timavus, a small river in the

490. Fibris : the flesh. Venetian territory, called lapidis (Iapidian) from lapides, an ancient people, who in

492. Suppositi : applied to the carcass, habited that part of it, through which the

or flesh. Timavus flowed.

493. Jejuna sanie : with the meagre gore. 476. Regna : possessions.

In these diseases, the blood was wasted, or 479. Miseranda tempestas : a direful pes- converted into a thin meagre Auid, which tilence arose.

the poet calls fluidus liquor. This perÆstu: heat. Incanduit: raged during vaded the body so thoroughly, that it even the whole heat of autumn.

converted the marrow, and life of the bones, 481. Tabo: with a poisonous quality. into itself. Lacus: in the sense of aquam.

496. Rabies: madness. 482. Nec via mortis: nor was the manner 497. Anhela tussis : a wheezing cough of their death simple and common. It was shakes the diseased swine. complicated, and attended with affecting Obesis : a disease something like the circumstances.

quinsy. 483. Sitis : properly thirst. By meton. 498. Studiorum: of his exercises—those the fever causing it. Ignea sitis: the raging races in which he bore off the palm of vicfever.

tory.

se, says Ruæus.

Victor equus ; fontesque avertitur, et pede terram
Crebra ferit: demissæ aures : incertus ibidem 500
Sudor; et ille quidem morituris frigidus : aret

501. Et ille sudor qui. Pellis, et ad tactum tractanti dura resistit.

dem erat frigidus iis

morituris Hæc ante exitium primis dant signa diebus : Sin in processu cepit crudescere morbus,

504. In processu temTum verò ardentes oculi, atque attractus ab alto 505 poris Spiritus interdum gemitu gravis : imaque longo Ilia singultu tendunt: it naribus ater Sanguis, et obsessas fauces premit aspera lingua. Profuit inserto latices infundere cornu

509. Primò profuit. Lenæos: ea visa salus morientibus una.

510 Mox erat hoc ipsum exitio : furiisque refecti

511. Illi refecti illo Ardebant : ipsique suos, jam morte sub ægrâ,

vino

512. Ipsique jam sub (Dî meliora piis, erroremque hostibus illum) Discissos nudis laniabant dentibus artus.

ægra morte, laniabant

suos artus discissos Ecce autem duro fumans sub vomere taurus 515 Concidit, et mixtum spumis vomit ore cruorem, Extremosque ciet gemitus: it tristis arator, Mærentem abjungens fraternâ morte juvencum, Atque opere in medio defixa relinquit aratra. Non umbræ altorum nemorum, non mollia possunt 520 Prata movere animum, non, qui per saxa volutus Purior electro campum petit, amnis : at ima Solvuntur latera, atque oculos stupor urget inertes, Ad terramque fluit devexo pondere cervix. Quid labor, aut benefacta juvant ? quid vomere terras 525. Quid eorum labor, Invertisse graves ? atqui non Massica Bacchi 526 aut benefacta homini Munera, non illis epulæ nocuere repôstæ:

juvant eos? Quid juvat

eos invertisse graves terFrondibus et victu pascuntur simplicis herbæ :

ras vomere? Pocula sunt fontes liquidi, atque exercita cursu Flumina: nec somnos abrumpit cura salubres. 530

Tempore non alio, dicunt, regionibus illis, Quæsitas ad sacra boves Junonis, et uris

NOTES.

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Infelix: Unhappy-miserable, after all Stupor: a stupor, or death-like appear. his noble deeds. This is the sense of Ruæus. ance, rests upon their heavy eyes.

500. Incertus : uncertain the cause of 525. Juvant: Ruæus says, prosunt. which was unknown: or, various fluctuating-coming on, and going off, by turns.

526. Massica: the Massic gifts of Bac

chus-wine. Crebrà: here used adverbially; a Grecism.

506. Spiritus attractus: their breath, Massica: an adj. from Massicus, a moundrawn from the bottom of the breast, is tain in Campania, famous for its rich wines. sometimes heavy (interrupted) with a groan.

530. Nec cura, &c. Nor does care interSingultu: a sob, or sobbing. 508. Obsessas : swollen--obstructed.

rupt their healthful slumbers. 510. Lenæos latices : simply, wine.

The whole account of this fatal murrain Cornu inserto: a horn put down their is one of Virgil's finest pieces. But from the throat, through which the wine was poured. 515th lino, Ecce autem, &c. it is extremely

513. Dii meliora, &c. May the gods tender, and inimitable in beauty; and pargrant better things to the pious, and that ticularly the last six lines. They were so madness, or destruci.on to our enemies. much admired by Scaliger, that he declares,

The verb reddant, or another of the like he had rather have been the author of import, is understood.

them, than to have had the favor of Crwaus, 523. Ima latera : their flanks are lank, or or Cyrus. flabby Flaccescunt, says Heyne.

532. Quæsitas : sought after-wanted.

533. Currus ejus duc- Imparibus ductos alta ad donaria currus. tos fuisse ad

Ergò ægrè rastris terram rimantur, et ipsis 534. Ergò agricole Unguibus infodiunt fruges, montesque per altos

535 ægrè rimantur

Contentâ cervice trahunt stridentia plaustra.
Non lupus insidias explorat ovilia circùm,
Nec gregibus nocturnus obambulat: acrior illum
Cura domat. Timidi damæ, cervique fugaces
Nunc interque canes, et circùm tecta vagantur.

540
Jam maris immensi prolem, et genus omne natantûm,
Litore in extremo, ceu naufraga corpora, fluctus
Proluit : insolitæ fugiunt in flumina phocæ.
Interit et curvis frustrà defensa latebris
Vipera, et attoniti, squamis astantibus, hydri. 545
Ipsis est aër avibus non æquus, et illæ
Præcipites altâ vitam sub nube relinquunt.

Prætereà, nec jam mutari pabula refert,
549. Magistri medicina Quæsitæque nocent artes : cessêre magistri,
eessore mederi.

Phillyrides Chiron, Amythaoniusque Melampus. 550

Sævit et in lucem Stygiis emissa tenebris
552. Antè se Pallida Tisiphone : morbos agit antè metumque,

Inque dies avidum surgens caput altiùs effert.
Balatu pecorum, et crebris mugitibus, amnes,
Arentesque sonant ripæ, collesque supini.

555 Jamque catervatim dat stragem, atque aggerat ipsis

In stabulis turpi dilapsa cadavera tabo: 558. Donec Agricolæ Donec humo tegere, ac foveis abscondere discant. discant tegere illa humo Nam neque erat coriis usus : nec viscera quisquam 561. Nec possunt qui

Aut undis abolere potest, aut vincere flammâ. 560 dein tondere vellera, pe

Nec tondere quidem morbo illuvieque peresa
Vellera, nec telas possunt attingere putres.

resa

NOTES.

533. Uris imparibus: by buffaloes, une- 551. Stygiis · an adj. from Styx, a river of qually matched. Ductos : drawn. Riman- Arcadia, whore water was so cold and poitur: break up, or till.

sonous, that it proved fatal to all who drank 536. Contenta cervicê: with their strained it. This, together with the circumstance of neck, they draw, &c.

its disappearing under the earth, led the poets 537. Explorat: meditates, or designs.

to feign it to be a river of hell, around which, Meditatur, says Ruæus.

it flowed nine times. It was held they say,

in such veneration by the gods, that they 541. Jam fluctus: now the waves wash usually swore by it; and if they violated up the race of the boundless, &c.

their oath at any time, they were to be deSuch was the extent, and degree of the prived of their divinity for 100 years. infection of the air, that it reached even to 553. In dies : daily-every day. the scaly tribes. But Aristotle observes,

555. Supini colles : sloping hils. that infectious diseases never reach to, or

556. Jamque dat: and now she (Tisi invade, fishes.

phone) deals destruction by herds, &c. Natantûm: a pres. part. of the verb nato, 557. Dilapsa: wasted, or consumed. taken as a suh, of fishes.

559. Nec quisquam: nor could any one 543. Insolitæ; unusual-contrary to their cleanse it with water, or purify it by firecustom.

conquer, or overcume the infection by fire. 550. Chiron. He was the son of Saturn Viscera : the flush in general; all that is and Prillyra. It is said he taught Æscu. under the skin. łapius in physic, Hercules in astronomy, and

560. Undis: in the sense of aqua. Achilles in music.

562. Putres telas : the putrid, or infectious Melampus : the son of Amythaon and Do. cloth--the cloth made of the filthy and corripe. They were both famous physicians: rupted wool. here used for the masters of medicine in Telas: the web, put by synec. for the whole generol.

cloth.

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