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206. Nlis domitis jugo: Crescere jam domitis sinito: namque ante domandum

Ingentes tollent animos; prensique negabunt
Verbera lenta pati, et duris parere lupatis.

Sed non ulla magìs vires industria firmat,
Quàm Venerem et cæci stimulos avertere amoris ; 210
Sive boum, sive est cui gratior usus equorum.
Atque ideò tauros procul atque in sola relegant
Pascua, post montem oppositum, et trans flumina lata :
Aut intus clausos satura ad præsepia servant.

215 Carpit enim vires paulatim, uritque videndo hondenman

Fæmina : nec nemorum patitur meminisse, nec herbæ 217. Illa quidem facit Dulcibus illa quidem illecebris, et sæpe superbos hoc dulcibus illecebris, et Cornibus inter se subigit decernere amantes. sæpe subigit

Pascitur in magnâ sylvâ formosa juvenca:
Illi alternantes multâ vi prælia miscent

220 Vulneribus, crebris: lavit ater corpora sanguis, 222. Obnixos adversa- Versaque in obnixos urgentur cornua vasto rios

Cum gemitu: reboant sylvæque et magnus Olympus. 224. Nec est mos duos Nec mos bellantes unà stabulare: sed alter bellantes Victus abit, longèque ignotis exulat oris;

225 226. Plagas factas cor- Multa gemens ignominiam, plagasque superbi nibus superbi victoris, Victoris, tum quos amisit inultus amores : tum eos amores, quos

Et stabula aspectans regnis excessit avitis.
229. Et inter dura Ergò omni curâ vires exercet, et inter
saxa jacet
Dura jacet pernox instrato saxa cubili;

230
Frondibus hirsutis et carice pastus acutâ :
Et tentat sese, atque irasci in cornua discit,
Arboris obnixus trunco: ventosque lacessit
Ictibus, et sparsâ ad pugnam proludit arena.
Pòst, ubi collectum robur, viresque refectæ, 235
Signa movet, præcepsque oblitum fertur in hostem ·

1

NOTES.

206. Namque. The poet advises the casional groans of each, produced by the farmer not to pamper or fatten his horses repeated strokes given and received. before they are broken, and rendered tracta 224. Bellantes : a part. of the verb bello, ble. If he do, they will be mettlesome and used in the sense of adversarios. high minded, (tollunt ingentes animos,) they Stabulare: in the sense of habitare. will show a stout and surly temper, and 226. Multa: in the sense of multùm. when caught, will refuse to bear the limber 228. Avitis regnis: from his hereditary whip, and to obey the hard bits. Ante do- realms—from those fields in which he was mandum : before breaking. The gerund in born, and in which he bore rule. dum is of the nature of a substantive noun. Aspicens: in the sense of respiciens. Ruæus says, antequàm domentur.

230. Instrato cubili. Dr. Trapp, and Da209. Industria: in the sense of cura.

vidson understand this to be a naked or un

strowed bed. Ruæus takes instrato in the 211. Usus: in the sense of cultus.

sense of strato, strowed or made. The prep. 214. Satura: in the sense of plena.

in sometimes in composition adds to the sig216. Fæmina: the female-the heifer. nification of the primitive word; at other 220. Alternantes : in the sense of ricissim. times, changes it to an opposite sense.

222. Cornua versa in obnixos : and their Carice acutâ : sharp sedge. horns turned against the contending foes, 235. Refecte. This is the reading of are struck, &c.

Heyne, after Heinsius. But recepta is the Cum vasto gemitu. This seems not to re common reading. fer to the rage and violence of the antago 236. Movet signa: he moves his stand

so much as to the groans and bellow- ards. A metaphor taken from the movere conquered party; or to the oc

ment of an army.

Fluctus ut, in medio cæpit cùm albescere ponto,
Longiùs ex altoque sinum trahit: utque volutus
Ad terras, immanè sonat per saxa, nec ipso
Monte minor procumbit: at ima exæstuat unda 240
Vorticibus, nigramque altè subjectat arenam.

Omne adeò genus in terris hominumque ferarumque,
Et genus æquoreum, pecudes, pictæque volucres,
In furias ignemque ruunt: amor omnibus idem.
Tempore non alio catulorum oblita leæna

245
Sævior erravit campis : nec funera vulgò
Tam multa informes ursi stragemque dedêre
Per sylvas: tum sævus aper, tum pessima tigris :
Heu! malè tum Libyæ solis erratur in agris.
Nonne vides, ut tota tremor pertentet equorum 250
Corpora, si tantùm notas odor attulit auras !
Ac neque eos jam fræna virûm, neque verbera sæva,
Non scopuli, rupesque cavæ, atque objecta retardant
Flumina, correptos undâ torquentia montes.
Ipse ruit, dentesque Sabellicus exacuit sus,

255
Et pede prosubigit terram, fricat arbore costas,
Atque hinc atque illinc humeros ad vulnera durat.
Quid juvenis, magnum cui versat in ossibus ignem 258. Quid juvenis fa-
Durus amor? nempe abruptis turbata procellis

cit, cui durus
Nocte natat cæcâ serus freta : quem super ingens 260
Porta tonat cæli, et scopulis illisa reclamant
Æquora : nec miseri possunt revocare parentes,
Nec moritura super crudeli funere virgo.

NOTES.

238. Trahit sinum: and draws a billowy 251. Odor attulit notas auras. This is, by train, far from the deep.

Commutatio, for, aura attulit notum odorem. Utque. Davidson reads atque, and thinks Equæ vel fæminæ is understood. it to be the correct reading, as being easier. 254. Aquâ: in the sense of aquarum. Some other copies have atque.

Objecta : Ruæus The whole of this description of the bat

says, interjecta. tle of the bulls, as well as what precedes it, boar rushes forth, &c. Sabellicus : an adj.

255. Sabellicus sus ipse: The Sabelline of the power of love, is among Virgil’s master-pieces, and is admired by all critics. from Sabelli, or Sabini, a people of Italy, Nor less admired is what follows. The va

whose country abounded in forests, and

haunts of wild beasts. riety of objects, the force of the illustrations, the.propriety of the arrangement, and

258. Quid juvenis. The poet here alludes the beauty and grandeur of the descriptions, to the story of Leander and Hero. are obvious to every reader.

Leander was an inhabitant of Abydus, on 241. Subjectat: in the sense of erigit.

the Asian shore of the Hellespont, and pas244. Ruunt in furias ignemque: rush into sionately in love with Hero, a beautiful a passion, and flame of this kind.

maid, and priestess of Venus, who resided Furia, the same as furor, denotes any in

at Sestus, on the European shore, and opordinate passion or affection of the mind, posite to Abydus. He used to swim the such as love, anger, &c. from the verb furo. strait to visit his fair mistress. On a certain Ignem is much more expressive than amo

occasion, passing over in a storm, he was Besides the simple idea of love, it drowned. His dead body was driven to the implies the consuming and destructive ef- European shore, and espied by Hero; who, fects of that passion upon the subjects of it. in a transport of passion, threw herself upon 248. Pessimu: most fell—or savage.

the corpse of her lover, and perished also. 249. Libyæ. Libya, a part of Africa, taken 259. Abruptis : violent-sudden. for the whole of it, by synec. This is men

261. Reclamant : in the sense of resonant. tioned, because it abounded in the most 263. Nec virgo moritura. This alludes to savage beasts. Malè erratur: it is dangere the case of Hero, above mentioned. Super : ous to wander.

in, or by.

rem.

Quid Lynces Bacchi varie, et genus acre luporum, 265. Quid cervi faci- Atque canum ? quid, quæ imbelles dant prælia cervi ? unt, et quæ prælia illi Scilicet ante omnes furor est insignis equarum : 266 imbclles dant?

Et mentem Venus ipsa dedit, quo tempore Glauci
Potnjades malis membra absumpsere quadrigæ.
Illas ducit amor trans Gargara, transque sonantem
Ascanium: superant montes, et flumina tranant : 270
Continuòque avidis ubi subdita flamma medullis,
Vere magis (quia vere calor redit ossibus) illæ
Ore omnes versæ in Zephyrum, stant rupibus altis,
Exceptantque leves auras: et sæpe sine ullis
Conjugiis, vento gravidæ, mirabile dictu!

275 Saxa per et scopulos et depressas convalles 277. Non ad tuos or- Diffugiunt: non, Eure, tuos, neque Solis, ad ortus, tus, O Eure ; neque ad In Boream, Caurumque, aut inde nigerrimus Auster oriils Solis ; neque in Bo

Nascitur, et pluvio contristat frigore cælum. 279 ream, Caurumque, aut ad eam partem, unde

Hinc demum, Hippomanes, vero quod nomine dicunt
Pastores, lentum distillat ab inguine virus :

Hippomanes, quod sæpe malæ legere novercæ, 283. Miscuerunt her- Miscueruntque herbas, et non innoxia verba. bas cum eo

Sed fugit intereà, fugit irreparabile tempus, 285. Dum nos capti

285 Singula dum capti circumvectamur amore. amore describendi 286. Hoc est satis Hoc satìs armentis: superat pars altera curæ,

Lanigeros agitare greges, hirtasque capellas.
Hìc labor : hinc laudem fortes sperate coloni.
Nec sum animi dubius, verbis ea vincere magnum

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NOTES.

264. Lynces. The Lynx is an animal, nor to the north, nor to the part whence the some say, of the species of the wolf and black south wind arises. And he gives, as deer; others say, only spotted like a deer, his reason: Quòd maxima pars scriptorum or panther, very quick sighted, and swift of videtur tribuerehanc vim (impregnandi equas) foot. The Lynces, as well as tigers, were uni Zephyro. Heyne understands it in the bound to the car of Bacchus. Hence Lyn- first sense: sed in Boream, &c. ces Bucchi.

Dant: in the sense of ge 278. Caurum: the north-west wind. runt.

279. Contristat: blackens. Ruæus takes 267. Mentem: disposition-passion. In- pluvio frigore in the sense of pluvia tempesdolen, says Heyne,

tate. So does Heyne. Frigus, it is plain, is 268. Potniades: an adj. from Potnia, a not here to be taken in its usual sense. For town in Beotia, the native place of Glau- the south wind is not cold; on the contrary, cus: who, it is said, withheld the horse from it is hot, and generally brings with it heavy his mares; which so enraged them, that, by rains. It seems here to be used in the way of revenge, at the instigation of Venus, sense of nimbus; a cloud impregnated with they tore him in pieces.

vapor and rain. Potniades quadriga. The Potnian mares. 280. Hippomanes. The Hippomanes was See Geor. i. 437.

of two kinds. The one a tough clammy 269. Gargara : neu. plu. a part of mount substance, lentum virus, which fell from the Ida, in Troas: here put for any mountain. mare, when she wanted the horse. This is Ascanium. Ascanius, a river in Bithynia, the kind here meant. The other was a in Asia: here put for any river.

bunch, said to be on the forehead of the 275. Gravidū vento. This account of the newly foaled colt. See Ex..v.516. mares becoming pregnant by the wind, is wholly fabulous ; although mentioned by

Hinc demum: from hence at length. Salinus, Columella, and Varro, as Ruæus After the conception, above mentioned, at observes.

length, lentum virus distillat. Heyne reads:

Hic demum. 277. Non Eure, &c. Some understand the passage thus: not to thy rising, O east,

283. Non innoxia: in the sense of malenor the rising of the sun; but to the north, fica, says Ruæus. &c. Ruæus, thus: they fled not to the east, 287. Agitare: to treat of fleecy flocks.

295 est nobis

Quàm sit, et angustis hunc addere rebus honorem.
Scd me Parnassi deserta per ardua dulcis

291 Raptat amor: juvat ire jugis, quà nulla priorum

292. Quà nulla orbita Castaliam molli divertitur orbita clivo.

priorum poëlurum Nunc, veneranda Pales, magno nunc ore sonandum. 294. Nunc sonandum

Incipiens, stabulis edico in mollibus herbam Carpere oves, dum mox frondosa reducitur æstas : Et multâ duram stipulâ filicumque maniplis Sternere subter humum, glacies ne frigida lædat

298. Subter ipsis oviMolle pecus, scabiemque ferat, turpesque podagras.

bus Pòst, hinc digressus, jubeo frondentia capris 300 300. Jubeo agricolam Arbuta sufficere, et fluvios præbere recentes ;

sufficere Et stabula à ventis hyberno opponere Soli Ad inedium conversa diem: cùm frigidus olim

305. Hæ Jam cadit, extremoque irrorat Aquarius anno.

sunt nobis non leviore Hæ quoque non curâ nobis leviore tuendæ,

305

curâ quàm oves

306. Milesia vellera Nec minor usus erit : quamvis Milesia magno

incocta quoad Tyrios ruVellera mutentur, Tyrios incocta rubores.

bores mutentur magno Densior hinc soboles, hinc largi copia lactis.

pretio. Quàm inagis exhausto spumaverit ubere mulctra ;

310. Tantò magis læta

flumina lactis Læta magis pressis manabunt fumina mammis. 310

312. Intereà pastores Nec minùs intereà barbas incanaque menta

tondent barbas, incanaCinyphii tondent hirci, setasque comantes,

que

capro tuendæ

NOTES.

290. Quàm magnum: how great, or diffi 300. Frondentia arbuta: in the sense of cult.

frondes arbuti. According to Heyne, vincere ea verbis, may 301. Fluvios : in the sense of aquam. mean, to reduce, or bring those things into Sufficere: in the sense of dare. poetic numbers: Exprimere hæc commodè 304. Cum frigidus Aquarius: when cold poëtica oratione, says he. Ruæus says, su- Aquarius at length sets, and sheds his dew perare ista argumenta sermonis dignitate.

in the end of the year. Angustis: in the sense of parvis vel hu Aquarius is a sign of the Ecliptic, into milibus.

which the sun enters about the 22d of Ja291. Parnassi. Parnassus was a moun nuary. Also the same as Ganymedes, the tain in Phocis, at the foot of which was the son of Tros, king of Troy, whom Jupiter, fountain Castalia, sacred to the muses. See in the form of an eagle, carried up to heaEcl. vi. 29.

ven, and made his cup-bearer. Hence he is 292. Quà nulla orbita priorum. This is usually represented with a pitcher pouring a most happy circumlocution, to denote a out water. The poet here seems to consider subject entirely now, and which had never the year as beginning with the month of been treated of by any one before him. March, or Aries.

294. Magno orc: in a high and lofty 306. Milesia : Milnsian wool. Milesia strain, in order to add dignity to the sub an adj. from Milesus, a city in the confines ject; which, in iinportance, was inferior to of lonia and Caria, famous for its wool. what he had just before been treating of. 308. Hinc densior: from hence (from the Pales: see note 1, supra.

goats) is a more numerous breed than from 297. Maniplis filicum: with bundles of the sheep-from them too a greater quanthe fern.

tity of milk. 299. Ferat scabien : should bring on the This is not, properly speaking. by any figure

Copia largi lactis : for larga copia lactis. scab, and foul gout.

of speech, but by what is commonly called The podagra was a disease of the feet, as its name implies.

poetica licentia.

309. Ubere exhausto: their udders being Columella mentions two diseases, that drained. affect the feet of sheep. One, when there is Quàm magis: in the sense of quantò a galling, and filth in the parting of the magis., hoof. the other, when there is a tubercle, 312. Cinyphii: an adj. from Cinyps, a or swelling, in the same place, with a hair river of Africa, near the Garamantes, where in the middle, and a worm under it. the goat was the most shaggy.

cuntur

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Usum in castrorum et miseris velamina nautis. 314. Verò capre pas. Pascuntur verò sylvas, et summa Lycæi,

Horrentesque rubos, et amantes ardua dumos. 315

Atque ipsæ memores redeunt in tecta, suosque 317. Ducuntque suos Ducunt, et gravido superant vix ubere limen. fælus secum

Ergò omni studio glaciem ventosque nivales,
Quò minùs est illis curæ mortalis egestas,
Avertes : victumque feres et virgea lætus

320
Pabula :

: nec totâ claudes fenilia bruma.
322. Cùm læta æstas At verò, Zephyris cùm læta vocantibus æstas,
instat, Zephyris vocan- In saltus utrumque gregem atque in pascua mittes :
tibus, mittes utrumque Luciferi primo cum sidere, frigida rura
gregem ovium et capra- Carpamus: dum manè novum, dum gramina canent,

Et ros in tenerâ pecori gralissimus herbâ est. 326
Inde, ubi quarta sitim cæli collegerit hora,
Et cantu querulæ rumpent arbusta cicadæ ;
Ad puteos, aut alta greges ad stagna jubeto
Currentem ilignis potare canalibus undam :

330
Æstibus at mediis umbrosam exquirere vallem,

Sicubi magna Jovis antiquo robore quercus 333. Sicubi nemus ni- Ingentes tendat ramos ; aut sicubi nigrum grum crebris ilicibus ac- Ilicibus crebris sacrâ nemus accubet umbrâ. cubet

335 335. Tum jube pasto

Tum tenues dare rursus aquas, et pascere rursus res dare illis tenues Solis ad occasum: cùm frigidus aëra Vesper

Temperat, et saltus reficit jam roscida Luna,
Litoraque halcyonen resonant et acanthida dumi.

rum

NOTES.

per sylvas, &c.

314. Sylvas: in the sense of arbores, vel equator, but on every other day in the year,

it would vary from it. Summa: in the sense of cacumina.

The Jews, and some other nations, began Lycæi: Lycæus was a mountain in Ar- their day at the rising of the sun. They cadia, sacred to Pan.

divided the time of his being above the ho315. Ardua: high grounds. Loca is un rizon into 12 equal parts, and the time of derstood.

his being below it into 12 other equal parts, 316. Suos: their young-the kids. making 24 portions of each diurnal revolu

320. Virgea pabula: osier food-tender tion. But this would make the hours of twigs, or browse.

very different lengths in the different parts 324. Cum primo, &c. The meaning is, of the year. Some nations, on the other when the planet Venus first rises, going be- hand, began the day at the setting of the fore the sun, for then it is called Lucifer, sun, and divided it in the same manner. the farmer should drive his flocks to pas- Modern nations generally begin the day at ture; and early in the morning, when the midnight. The nautical day begins at noon, grass is moist and tender, let them feed. or when the sun is upon the meridian. Sidere : in the sense of ortu.

328. Rumpent: weary, or rend the groves. Carpamus frigida rura. Servius inter Cantu: in the sense of stridore. prets these words thus: Cogamus capras car 330. Ilignis canalibus: in oaken troughs pere frigida rura: hoc est, educamus greges Nignis: an adj. from slex: the holm-oak. ad carpenda, &c.

331. Æstibus: in the sense of die. 327. Cæli. Davidson connects coli with 334. Accubet sacrâ umbrâ: hangs down, sitim. Ruæus and some others take it in or bends, with its sacred boughs. Umbrı. the sense of dies, and connect it with quarta in the sense of ramis, by meton. Ruæus hora. Either preserves the sense and spirit says: Explicat sacram umbram.

338. Litora resonant : the shores resound He begins the day at the rising of the the king-fisher, and the bushes, the gold sun, otherwise by the fourth hour, the sun finch-with the music of the king-fisher, could not have caused thirst to man or beast. and that of the goldfinch. This would correspond with our ten o'clock, Acanthida: a Greek acc. of Acanthus. on those days when the sun is upon the See Geor. i. 399.

of the poet.

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