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Amphion Dircæus in Actæo Aracyntho.
Nec sum adeò informis : nuper me in litore vidi, 25
Cùm placidum ventis staret mare : non ego Daphnim,

Judice te, metuam, si nunquam fallat imago.
O tantùm libeat mecuin tibi sordida rura,
Atque humiles habitare casas, et figere cervos,
Hedorumque gregem viridi compellere hibisco! 30
Mecum unà in sylvis imitabere Pana canendo.
Pan primus calamos cerâ conjungere plures
Instituit : Pan curat oves, oviumque magistros.
Nec te pæniteat calamo trivisse labellum.
Hæc eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas? 35
Est mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis
Fistula, Damætas dono mihi quam dedit olim :

38. Nunc ista fistula Et dixit moriens : Te nunc habet ista secundum

habet te secundum doDixit Damætas : invidit stultus Amyntas.

minum. Prætereà duo, nec tutâ mihi valle reperti,

40 40. Duo capreoli reCapreoli, sparsis etiam nunc pellibus albo,

perti mihi, nec tutâ valle, Bina die siccant ovis ubera : quos tibi servo.

siccant bina ubera ovis

in die, pellibus etiam Jampridem à me illos abducere Thestylis orat :

nunc sparsis albo. Et faciet : quoniam sordent tibi munera nostra. Huc ades, ô formose puer. Tibi lilia plenis






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in Beotia. But why it should be called Ac- terpretation is attended with difficulty. Dr. tæus, there is a difference of opinion. Ser- Trapp takes it for a large plant or little tree, vius thinks it is so called from a Greek word out of which wands were made. He obwhich signifies the shore. Probus derives it serves, Virgil no where mentions it as food froin Aclæon, who, hunting near this moun- for cattle... Compellere, &c. : to drive them tain, was torn in pieces by his dogs, for have with a green switch. ing discovered Diana bathing herself. Mr. 31. Pana. Pan, the god of shepherds and Davidson places the mountain in the con- hunters, is said to have been the son of Merfines of Attica and Beotia ; and thinks it is cury and the nymph Dryope. He was eduso called from Acta or Acte, the country cated in Arcadia ; and wrapped in the skin about Attica. Ruæus interprets Actæo by of a goat, he was carried up to heaven by maritimo.

Jupiter, where all the gods ridiculed his ap26. Daphnim. A beautiful shepherd. pearance. He chiefly resided in Arcadia. See in Ecl. 5. Placidum: in the sense of He is said to have invented the pipe with tranquillum.

seven reeds. He was worshipped in Arca27. Imago. His image reflected from the dia, and is said to have given out oracles on water. Nunquam: in the sense of non. mount Lycæus. His festivals, called by the

28. O tantùm libeat tibi : 0 that it would Greeks Lyce, were introduced into Italy by please you to inhabit with me, &c. These Evander, and established at Rome under . are sweet lines. Sordida rura. Most com- the name of Lupercalia, and celebrated the

mentators join tibi to sordida, disdained or 15th of February. He was the chief of the despised by thee. But there is no need of Satyrs. this refinement. Sordida is a very proper 34. Trivisse labellum: to have worn the epithet for cottages and country villages, lip. From the verb tero. which in general are indifferent in them- 36. Cicutis. Cicuta, an herb much like selves, and poorly furnished, when compar- the Hemlock. Hence used for any hollow ed with the splendor and luxury of cities. reed: hence also, by Meton. for a pipe. FisOr, we may suppose the poet to speak in the tula : a pipe connected together with seven character of a lover, who thinks nothing unequal reeds, &c. These were put togegood enough for the object of his affections. ther with wax, as mentioned 32 supra. Rus is opposed to urbs.

41. Duo Capreoli : two young goats. Ca30. Viridi hibisco. Ruæus takes these preoli : a diminitive noun, from capra or words to be in the dative case, and under- caper. These were undoubtedly wild kids, siands by them: to green or verdant pasture; taken from their dams, which he esteemed ad virentem hibiscum, says he: taking the very much; and not those lost by him, and hibiscum for a kind of plant. But this in- recovered again. Servius says: kids have


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ہ پریان و ہ ، مرا

Ecce ferunt Nymphæ calathis : tibi candida Naïs
Pallentes violas et summa papavera carpens,
Narcissum et florem jungit benè olentis anethi :
Tum casiâ, atque aliis intexens suavibus herbis,
Mollia luteolâ pingit vaccinia calthâ.

Ipse ego cana legam tenerâ lanugine mala,
Castaneasque nuces, mea quas Amaryllis amabat.
Addam cerea pruna : et honos erit huic quoque pomo :

VOS, ô lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte : 55. Quoniam vos po- Sic positæ quoniam suaves miscetis odores.

55 site sic miscetis

Rusticus es, Corydon ; nec munera curat Alexis : 58. Quid ego volui

Nec si muneribus certes, concedat Iolas. mihi misero? Perditus immisi austrum floribus, Eheu, quid volui misero mihi ? Aloribus Austrum

Perditus, et liquidis immisi fontibus apros.

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at first white spots, which afterwards change, he killed himself. His blood was changed and lose their beauty. If it be so, this into a flower, which bears his name. circumstance will explain the words, sparsis 47. Summa papavera carpens : gatheretiam nunc pellibus albo : which also denotes ing the heads of poppies. Papaver and that they were young.

Anethus were two beautiful youths ; who, 46. Ecce ferunt : behold the nymphs bring according to Servius, were changed, the for you lilies in full baskets, &c. “The fole former into the flower, which wc call the lowing lines are extremely beautiful. Mr. Poppy; the latter into the herb, which we Warton observes, they contain the sweetest

call anise or dill. Benè olentis : sweetgarland ever offered by a lover. The agi

smelling. tation and doubts of a lover's mind are 50. Pingit mollia, &c. She adorns or sets finely set forth : nec munera curat Alexis, off the soft hyacinths with saffron-colored &c. At length he seems to come to himself, marygold. Vaccinium, here is plainly the and to reflect upon the state of his affairs: Hyacinthus of Theocritus, whom Virgil here vitis semiputata est, &c. Nymphæ. They copies; so say Turnebus, Salmasius, and

Ruæus. were a kind of female Divinities supposed to exist for a very great length of time; but

51. Mala. Malum signifies several kinds not to be altogether immortal. They were

of fruit, such as apples, peaches, quinces, divided into two general classes—Nymphs

The last is here meant, as appears of the land, and Nymphs of the water.

from the cana tenera lanugine : white with Each of these classes was divided into seve

soft down, or fur. Mr. Dryden renders ral others. The former into Dryades-Ha- mala, pea hes. madryadesOreades-Napão-Limoniades,

53. Cerea: of waxen-color. &c. The latter into Oceanides-Nereïdes

54. Myrte. The Romans used crowns or Naïades or NaidesPotamidesLimniades, garlands of laurel in their most splendid &c. All of which are of Greek derivation. triumphs: and those of myrtle, in the ovatio. The nymphs were further distinguished lesser triumph, or triumph of less honor and

which was on horseback, and considered the by an epithet taken from the place of their dignity than that in which the conqueror residence. Thus the Nymphs of Sicily are rode in a chariot. The myrtle tree was called Sicelides—those of Corycus, Coryci- sacred to Venus, and the laurel to Apollo. ades or Corycides, &c.

Proxima : next in honor to the laurel. Echo is said to have been formerly a 56. Rusticus : in the sense of stultus. nymph; but falling in love with a beautiful 57. Iolas. The owner or master of Alexis. youth called Narcissus, who refused her ad- 58. Eheu, quid volui, &c. Lit. what have dresses, at which she was so much grieved I done to myself, a miserable man? Alas ! that she pined away, till every part of her ruined, I have let in the south winds, &c. was consumed but her voice, that continued These expressions are proverbial, and apto haunt the woods and fountains, which plicable to those who wish for things that she once frequented. Narcissus, stopping to prove ruinous to them. Dr. Trapp explains repose himself by the side of a fountain, the passage thus: By my folly in indulging where he chanced to see his image reflected this extravagant passion, I have ruined my in the water, became enamoured with it: peace and quiet, and permitted my affairs to taking it for a nymph, he endeavored to go to decay, which were before well managed, approach it; but all his attempts being un- flourishing, and prosperous. Volui. Ruæus

r, he was so much disappointed that interprets it by feci.

Quem fugis, ah, demens! habitârunt dî quoque sylvas,
Dardaniusque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces, , 61
Ipsa colat : nobis placeant ante omnia sylvæ.
Torva læna lupum sequitur : lupus ipse capellam :
Florentem cytisum scquitur lasciva capella : clover
Te Corydon, ô Alexi : trahit súa quemque voluptas. 65
Aspice, aratra jugo referunt suspensa juvenci,

Et sol crescentes decedens duplicat umbras. - gorgemeinde
Me tamen urit amor: quis enim modus adsit amori?
Ah, Corydon, Corydon, quæ te dementia cepit !

grigenter for snad Semiputata tibi frondosâ vitis in ulmo est.

70 Quin tu aliquid saltem potìus, quorum indiget usus,

71. Quin potius tu Viminibus mollique paras detexere junco?

paras detexere saltem

aliquid eorum, quorum Invenies alium, si te hic fastidit

, Alexim.

usus indiget viminibus.

sol urit

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60. Demens: O foolish boy, whom do you 66. Referunt. After the labor of the flee? Demens, compounded of de and day, they drew home the plough inverted,

so that the share would glide easily over the 61. Paris. See nom. prop. under Paris. ground, and hang, as it were, lightly upon Dardanius, an adj. of Dardanus, one of the the yoke. founders of Troy. Pallas, the same as Mi- 71. Quin tu, &c. Why do you not rather See Geor. I. 18.

prepare to make (weave) at least some of 62. Colat : in the sense of incolat. those things which need requires, of osiers

65. Sua voluptas trahit quemque : his own and pliant rushes ? The verb indigeo gopleasure draws cvery one

every one is verns the genitive. Usus : need, or necesdrawn by his own pleasure.



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What is the subject of this pastoral?

Who is represented under the character of Corydon?

Who under that of Alexis?
Where is the scene laid ?

Who was Amphion? What is said of him?

Who was Pan? What is said of him?

What were his festivals called by the Greeks? What by the Romans?

By whom were they introduced into Italy

When were they celebrated?

Who were the Nymphs? Into how many classes may they be divided ?

Was each of these classes subdivided into other classes ?

Can you mention some of those subdivisions?

Who was Echo said to have been?

From what language are the dames of the Nymphs derived ?



THE subject of this pastoral is a trial of skill in music between the shepherds Menalcas and Damætas; who after rallying each other a while, resolve to try a song in the presence of their neighbor Palemon, whom they constitute judge of their performances. Having heard each of them attentively, he declared he was unable to decide so weighty a controversy; but pronounced each one to be deserving of the pledge. This beautiful pastoral is in imitation of the fifth and eighth of the Idylls of Theocritus. It is conjectured that under the character of Damætas, we are to understand Virgil; and under that of Menalcas, some rival poet at Rome.

1. Cujum pecus est istud? an est pecus Melibai? non: verùm est pecus Egonis.


MEN. DIC mihi, Damata, cujum pecus? an Melibœi?
DA. Non, verùm Egonis: nuper mihi tradidit Egon.
ME. Infelix, ò, semper, oves, pecus! ipse Neæram
Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi præferat illa, veretur,
Hic alienus oves custos bis mulget in horâ :
Et succus pecori, et lac subducitur agnis.

DA. Parciùs ista viris tamen objicienda memento
8. Novimus et qui Novimus et qui te, transversà tuentibus hircis,
corruperint te et in quo Et quo, sed faciles Nymphæ risêre, sacello.
sacello, hircis tuentibus
transversà, sed

ME. Tum, credo, cùm me arbustum vidêre Myconis, 10

10. Tum, credo, illa Atque malâ vites incidere falce novellas. riserunt, cum vidêre me incidere arbustum

DA. Aut hic ad veteres fagos, cùm Daphnidis arcum
Fregisti et calamos: quæ tu, perverse Menalca,
Et cùm vidisti puero donata, dolebas;
Et, si non aliquà nocuisses, mortuus esses.



16. Audent facere talia.

ME. Quid domini facient, audent cùm talia fures?


1. Cujum: an adj. agreeing with pecus: in the sense of cujus.

2. Egon. The name of a shepherd, the rival of Menalcas in the love of Neæra. It is derived from a Greek word signifying a goat.

3. O oves, infelix pecus. The sheep are called unhappy, because their master Ægon, while in love with Neæra, had given up all care of them; and because they had fallen into the hands of a hireling, who treated them so inhumanly.

5. Alienus. An alien, or hireling shepherd-custos.

6. Succus: may mean the same with lac mentioned just after. By milking the dams, the natural food (lac) of the young would be taken from theni, and they suffered to starve. Or succus may mean nourishment in general. It being taken away or diminished to the dams, the milk would be di

minished or taken away proportionably from their young. This was a heavy charge brought against Damætas. He highly resented it.

8. Transversà: crosswise-asquint. An adv. from the adj. of the neu. plu. in imitation of the Greeks.

9. Sacello: any place consecrated to the worship of God-a cave or grotto; as in the present case.

10. Arbustum: properly, a place planted with trees for vines to grow up by. By meton. the trees themselves. See Ecl. I. 40. Novellas: new, or young.

13. Qua tu, &c. Which (bow and arrows) when you saw given to the boy, you both grieved, and would have died, if you had not, in some way, injured him.

16. Fures: slaves. They were sometimes so called, because notorious for stealing.

Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessime, caprum
Excipere insidiis, multùm latrante lycisca ?
Et cùm clamarem ; “ Quò nunc se proripit ille ?
Tityre, coge pecus :” tu post carecta latebas. 20

Da. An mihi cantando victus non redderet ille,
Quem mea carminibus meruisset fistula, caprum ?
Si nescis, meus ille caper fuit ; et mihi Damon
Ipse fatebatur, sed reddere posse negabat.

Me. Cantando tu illum ? aut unquam tibi fistula cerâ 25 25. Tu vicisti illum Juncta fuit ? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas

cantando? Stridenti miserum stipulâ disperdere carmen?

Da. Vis ergò inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim
Experiamur ? ego hanc vitulam (ne fortè recuses,
Bis venit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fætus) 30
Depono : tu dic, mecum quo pignore certes.

ME. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum;
Est mihi namque domi pater, est injusta noverca :
Bisque die numerant ambo pecus ; alter et hædos.
Verùm, id quod multò tute ipse fatebere majus, 35 35. Verum, quoniam
Insanire libet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam

libet tibi insanire, ponam

id quod tute ipse fateFagina, cælatum divini opus Alcimedontis :

bere esse multò majus Lenta quibus torno facili superaddita vitis

pignus, nempe, duo fagiDiffusos hederâ vestit pallente corymbos.

na pocula, cælatum opus In medio duo signa, Conon : et quis fuit alter, 40



18. Lycisca. A mongrel dog-an animal 38. Lenta vitis quibus ; around which a half dog and half wolf.

limber vine, superadded by the easy carving in20. Posl carecta : behind the sedges. See strument, covers over (mantles) the diffused Ecl. 1. 68.

(loosely hanging) clusters with pale ivy.21. .An non victus cantando : vanquished These lines are somewhat intricate, and in singing, should he not return to me the goat have divided the opinions of commentators. which, &c.

Ruæus takes quibus in the abl. and inter26. Triviis. Trivium, a place in which prets facili torno by ope facilis torni. Dr. three ways met. So Bivium and Quadrivium, Trapp and some others take facili torno in places in which two and four ways met. the dat. and understand by it the wood after Disperdere miserum carmen : to murder a it is smoothed and polished in the turner's sorry, or wretched tune, on a squeaking strau- lathe, by meton. Davidson, on the other pipe.

hand, takes quibus for the dat. and facili 30. Ubere : the udder. By meton. for the torno for the abl. but then he takes these last milk contained in it. Fætus : calves. for the ingenious carver, or easy skilful work

31. Quo pignore : with what pledge or bet. man, which he might do by meton. The Tell me what pledge you will put against sense I have given is the most natural and

easy The meaning of the poet is this : 34. Ambo numerant: they both count the That each of these bowls was engraved or flock twice in a day; and one counts the kids. carved with vine and ivy boughs, so curiously Pecus is properly a flock or herd of neat- interwoven, that the ivy-berries were shaded cattle, as here. Alter, properly is one of two or mantled with the limber or pliant vine. -unus, one of many.

40. Conon. The name of a famous ma36. Insanire : to be beside yourselfto play thematician and astronomer of Samos, a cothe fool; by contending with me, who am temporary and friend of Archimedes. Signa: so much more skilful than you. Pocula fa- figures. Et quis fuit alter? This is a very gina : beechen bowls made of the beech- pleasant turn. There is something agreeable wood.

in this picture of pastoral simplicity. He 37. Alcimedontis. The name of a very had mentioned the name of one, but had skilful and ingenious carver. Mr. Martin forgotten the name of the other. He turns thinks he was some intimate friend of Vir- to himself and asks: quis fuit alter? but gil, who wished to transmit his name to the name not recurring to him, he goes on posterity. History is silent respecting him. to describe him by his works : It was li

my heifer,

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