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440

442. Dant alios fetus: aliæ dant pinos, lignum utile navigiis, aliæ dant

cedrosque cupressosque, 445

lignum utile domibus :

447. Myrtus est bona validis hastilibus,

449. Necnon leves 450

Ipsæ Caucaseo steriles in vertice sylvæ,
Quas animosi Euri assiduè franguntque feruntque,
Dant alios aliæ fætus; dant utile lignum
Navigiis pinos, domibus cedrosque cupressosque.
Ilinc radios trivere rotis, hinc tympana plaustris
Agricolæ, et pandas ratibus posuere carinas.
Viminibus salices fæcundæ, frondibus ulmi ;
At myrtus validis hastilibus, et bona bello
Cornus; Ityræos taxi torquentur in arcus.
Nec tiliä leves, aut torno rasile buxum,
Non formam accipiunt, ferroque cavantur acuto.
Necnon et torrentem undam levis innatat alnus
Missa Pado; necnon et apes examina condunt
Corticibusque cavis, vitiosæque ilicis alveo.
Quid memorandum æquè Baccheïa dona tulerunt ?
Bacchus et ad culpam causas dedit : ille furentes
Centauros leto domuit, Rhætumque, Pholumque,
Et magno Hylæum Lapithis cratere minantem.

O fortunatos nimiùm, sua si bona nôrint,
Agricolas! quibus ipsa, procul discordibus armis,
Fundit humo facilem victum justissima tellus.
Si non ingentem foribus domus alta superbis
Manè salutantûm totis vomit ædibus undam;
Nec varios inhiant pulchrâ testudine postes,
Illusasque auro vestes, Ephyreïaque æra ;
Alba neque Assyrio fucatur lana veneno,
Nec casiã liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi:

454. Quid Baccheia 455 dona tulerunt æquè me

morandum :

460

461. Si apud illos alta domus cum superbis foribus non vomit ingentem undam hominum sa

lutantûm manè è totis 465 ædibus; nec illi in hiant

NOTES.

sea.

440. Caucaseo: an adj. from Caucasus, a 459. Discordibus armis : not wars, for that mountain, or rather range of mountains, would not be strictly true. They rage in extending from the Euxine to the Caspian the country, as well as city ; but rather

factions, quarrels, and evil commotions, 444. Tympana: the naves or felloes of the which are more frequent in cities and popuwheel, in which the (radii) spokes are fast- lous towns, than in the country. ened. Some take the tympanum to be a 460. Facilem : easy procured. Justissisolid wheel, or one without spokes. Trivêre: ma: the earth may be considered most just, in the sense of fecerunt, vel tornaverunt. because it returns what is committed to it,

447. Bello : for war-the implements or with a liberal reward. Fundit: in the sense weapons of war. Ad alia arma, says Ruæus. of producit.

448. Ityræos: an adj. from Ityræi, a peo 461. Si non, &c. It was a custom among ple of Parthia, according to Servius; but the Romans, for clients and dependants to others say of Syria, famous shooting the come early in the morning to salate their bow. Cornus: the corneil-tree, or wild cher- patrons. Undam : in the sense of multiry-tree. Taxi : the yew-trees. Buxum: the tudinem. box-tree, or box-wood. Pierius found, in 463. Varios : in the sense of variatos. some ancient manuscripts, curvantur for tor 464. Illusus auro: embroidered with gold. quentur. Ruæus says, flectuntur.

Ephyreža: an adj. from Ephyra, the origi451. Alnus : the alder-tree, of which nal name of Corinth. Ruæus says, Coboats were at first made. They were dug rinthia. out of the solid wood. Pado: the Po, the 465. Assyrio veneno: with the Syrian, or largest river in Italy, put for any

river. purple color. The invention of the pur453. Alveo : cavity.

ple, and the method of dying that color, 454. Memorandum: in the sense of dig are attributed to the Syrians, or Phæninum laude, or simply, laudandum.

cians. Phænicia was a part of that region 456. Centauros-Lapıthis. These were of Asia, called Syria ; sometimes Assyria, people of Thessaly, the former inhabiting Cælosyria, and Leucosyria. Syria and Asmount Pelion, the latter mount Pindus. syria were frequently confounded. The poet here mentions the principal or 466. Casiâ: the bark of a tree, or shrub, chief of the Centaurs only.

in India, used as a spice-bastard cinna

470

475

467. At apud illos se- At secura quies, et nescia fallere vita, cura quies

Dives opum variarum ; at latis otia fundis,
Speluncæ, vivique lacus ; at frigida Tempe,

Mugitusque boum, mollesque sub arbore somni 471. Illic sunt saltus Non absunt. Illic saltus, ac lustra ferarum,

Et patiens operum parvoque assueta juventus,
Sacra Deûm, santique patres. Extrema per illos
Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit.

Me verò primùm dulces ante omnia Musæ, 476. Perculsus ingenti Quarum sacra fero, ingenti perculsus amore,

Accipiant; cælique vias et sidera monstrent,
Defectus Solis varios, Lunæque labores :
Unde tremor terris : quâ vi maria alta tumescant
Objicibus ruptis, rursusque in seipsa residant :
Quid tantùm Oceano properent se tingere Soles
Hyberni : vel quæ tardis mora noctibus obstet.
Sin, has ne possim naturæ accedere partes,
Frigidus obstiterit circùm præcordia sanguis ;
Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes,

amore earum

480

485

NOTES.

mon.

moon.

What may

The ancients used at to flavor their It rises with the mountain torrent. It oil. Liquidi: in the sense of puri.

rushes against the opposing mounds. Here 467. Vila nescia fellere : a life knowing it is stopped in its course for a time; but not to deceive-a life of substantial happi- gathering strength from its accumulated ness, in opposition to that of cities and waters, it bursts the barriers, sweeping every courts, which is showy, false, and deceit- thing in its course. Vis : here, not simply ful.

violence or force, but the moving or eff468. Latis : some copies have lætis. cient cause of the rising of the waters. The Heyne takes it in the sense of apertis vel true cause of the ebbing and flowing of patentibus.

the tide was not known, till the immortal 469. Tempe: neu. plu. A most pleasant Sir Isaac Newton placed it beyond doubt. vale in Thessaly, surrounded by the moun He demonstrated it to be the attraction of tains Ossa, Pelion, and Olympus. The river the heavenly bodies, particularly of the Peneus flows through it. The poet here means any pleasant vale, putting the species 481. Quid tantùm, &c. The poet here for the genus. Vivi lacus: in the sense of speaks of winter and summer. perennis aqua. Frigida Tempe, for umbroso be the reason, why the winter days are so valles.

quick in ending; and what delay may put 474. Justitia : the goddess Astræa. See off, or retard the approach of the summer Ecl. iv. 6.

nights. What may be the reason that the 475. Verò primùm ante : but, in the first days in summer are so long. Tingere: in place, above all things, may the swect the sense of occidere. muses accept of me, whose sacred ensigns, 484. Sin frigidus sanguis : but if cold &c. Though the poet praises the country blood around my heart should hinder, that I life so much, he prefers the charms of poe- could not, &c. ** Secundum Physicos, qui ditry, and the noble entertainments of science, cunt stullos homines esse frigidioris sanguiparticularly philosophy and astronomy. The nis, prudentes calidi. Unde et senes, in quimuses presided not only over poetry, but bus jam friget ; et pueri, in quibus necdum also over the sciences and liberal arts. The calet, minus sapiunt ; says Servius. Prepoets called themselves the priests of the cordia: properly a membrane surrounding

Hence the propriety of quarum the heart, and separating it from the lungs. sacra fero.

It is taken often for the heart itself, as in the 477. Vias et sidera cæli : in the sense of present instance. cursus siderum in coelo.

485. Rigui : in the sense of fluentes. The 479. Unde tremor terris : whence earth- meaning of the poet appears to be : that if quakes-arise : by what power the deep seas he had not capacity for the higher subjects swell. Objicibus ruptis : its barriers being of philosophy and astronomy, he would rebroken down. The poet is speaking of the tire into the country, and there pass his time, ebbing and flowing of the tide. He hath unheeded and unknown, amidst rural dee in his view the swelling of a mighty stream. lights.

muses.

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Flumina amem sylvasque inglorius. O ubi campi,

486. O si essem, ubi Sperchiusque, et virginibus bacchata Lacænis

sunt campi, fluriusque Taygeta! ô qui me gelidis in vallibus Hæmi

Sperchius, et Taygeta.

487. O sit aliquis, qui Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbrâ !

sistat me Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,

490

490. Ille est felix, qui Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum

potuit
Subjecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari!
Fortunatus et ille, Deos qui novit agrestes,
Panaque, Sylvanumque senem, Nymphasque sorores !
Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum

495
Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres ;
Aut conjurato descendens Dacus ab Istro :
Non res Romanæ, perituraque regna : neque ille,
Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti.
Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura

500
Sponte tulere suâ, carpsit; nec ferrea jura,
Insanumque forum, aut populi tabularia vidit.

Sollicitant alii remis freta cæca, ruuntque In ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum.

NOTES.

486. O, ubiO qui, &c. These, as Mr. 497. Dacus. The Dacii were a people inDavidson justly observes, are not questions, habiting the north of the Danube, or Ister, as Ruæus and Dr. Trapp both take them; very troublesome to the Romans. Istro but exclamations, which in all languages conjurato: the conspiring, or leagued Danare usually elliptical. Campi: Tempe, those ube. The name of the river put for the pleasant fields of Thessaly are undoubtedly people living near it, by meton. The Danintended. Sperchius : a river of Thessaly, ube is one of the largest rivers in Europe. rising at the foot of mount Pindus, and falls It rises in Germany, and taking an easterly into the Sinus Maliacus.

course, it falls into the Euxine sea by six 488. Taygeta: neu. pleu. a mountain of mouths, at a distance of about 1600 miles Laconia, famous for hunting, and the cele- from its source. bration of the orgies of Bacchus: hence, 498. Res Romanæ : the Roman republic. Viginibus bacchata Lacanis; frequented by It is opposed to regna peritura. The forthe Laconian or Spartan virgins. Hæmi.

mer they vainly imagined would always enSee Geor. i. 49.

dure; while kingdoms would fall, and their 492. Acherontis : Acheron, a fabulous river of hell. It seems here to be put for understood.

names be forgotten. Flexerunt illum, is death. In that sense the epithet avari is very proper. Strepitum, &c. will then mean

499. Doluit miserans, &c. The poet could the noise or tumultuous drcad generally oc

not mean that his countryman possessed a casioned through the fear of death. Or, it ble to the wants, and deaf to the calls of the

stoical apathy, which rendered him insensimay mean, the noise, tumult, and bustle of the infernal regions generally. In this last poor; but that in the country, there were case, Acheronlis will mean hell, or the infer

not those objects of poverty and wretchednal regions, by synec.

ness to excite his grief and compassion; or 494. Pana. See Ecl. ii. 31. Nymphas so

at least, few of them in coinparison to the

nuinber in cities. Totes. See Ecl. ii. 46. Sylvanum. See Ecl. stance, we see a high commendation of a

In this very circumX. 24. 495. Non fasces populi : not the honors.

country life. of the people, nor the purple Sc. The Ro 501. Ferrea jura : the same as duras leman magistrates were chosen by the

peo

ges. ple, in the Comilia. The fasces, properly,

502. Insanum : noisy-tumultuous, or, was a bundle of birchen rods. The dicta perhaps, litigious. Tabularia. The tabulator had 24 of these rods—the consuls 12— rium was a place at Rome, in which the the provincial prætors 6—the city prætors public records were kept, and the accounts 2; which were carried before them ny per of the public money received, and paid out. sons, who were called lictors. Fasces is It answers to our treasury office. Cæca: in frequently put for the power and authority the sense of ignola. of the magistrate, by meton. Flexit: in 504. Penetrant, &c. Insinuant se prino the sense of movet.

cipibus, ut intimi fiant, says Servius,

Hic petit excidiis urbem miserosque Penates, 505
Ut gemmâ bibat, et Sarrano indorniat ostro :
Condit opes alius, defossoque incubat auro?
Hic stupet attonitus rostris: hunc plausus hiantem

Per cuneos (geminatur enim) plebisque patrumque 510. Alii gaudent per- Corripuit; gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum, -510 fusi

Exilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant,
Atque alio patriam quærunt sub Sole jacentem.

Agricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro : 514. Hinc est labor Hinc anni labor : hinc patriam, parvosque nepotes anni: hinc agricola sus- Sustinet: hinc armenta boum, meritosque juvencos. 515 tinet 516. Nec requies est

Nec requies ; quin, aut pomis exuberet annus, anno; quin

Aut fætu pecorum, aut Cerealis mergite culmi:
Proventuque oneret sulcos, atque horrea vincat.
Venit hyems; teritur Sicyonia bacca trapetis ;
Glande sues læti redeunt: dant arbuta sylvæ : 520
Et varios ponit fætus autumnus ; et alte

Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis.
523. Dulces nati pen- Intereà dulces pendent circùin oscula nati:
dent circùm oscula pa- Casta pudicitiam servat domus : ubera vaccæ

Lactea demittunt: pinguesque in gramine læto 525
Inter se adversis luctantur cornibus hædi.

rentum :

NOTES.

505. Penates. These were the household geminatur per cuneos: for it is redoubled, gods; and were thought to preside over or repeated along the cunei. These were houses and domestic affairs. Their statues seats in the back part of the theatre, approor images were usually made of wax, ivory, priated to the common people, or plebeians. silver, or earth, and generally placed in the See 381. supra. Hunc: in the sense of alium. innermost part of the house : hence that Geminatur. Heyne reads Geminatus, agreeplace was called Penetrale : and they were ing with plausus; without a parenthesis. called sometimes, from that circumstance, 512. Sub alio sole : under another sunPenetrales. They were worshipped with in another clime. This is beautiful, and 'wine, incense, fruits, and sometimes with highly poetical. the sacrifice of a lamb. Penates, by meton. 516. Nec requies: there is no rest: but is used for one's country, habitation, house, the year abounds either, &c. This passage or dwelling: and sometimes for the family, is extremely beautiful and poetical. The or inhabitants, as in the present instance. poet represents the year as laboring without See Æn. ii. 717.

intermission, in bringing forth her produc506. Sarrano ostro : upon Tyrian purple. tions. Ruæus refers the whole of this fine Sarrano, an adj. from Sarra, the ancient passage to the husbandman: Nec cessat name of Tyre. Gemma: a cup made, or agricola donec annus abundet, &c. says he. set with gems.

But he gives no reason for his taking quin 508. Rostris. The Rostrum was the place in the sense of donec. of common pleas, at Rome, so called, as 517. Mergite Cerealis culmi: with bunLivy informs us, from this circumstance: dles or sheayes of grain. The Antiates, a maritime people of Latium, 519. Sicyonia: an adj. from Sicyon, a city being overcome by the Romans; to perpetu- of Achaia, not far from the isthmus of Coate the inemory of the victory, they placed rinth, abounding in olive trees. Bacca : the beaks of their ships (rostra) around the the olive. suggestum, or place of pleading, by way of 520. Arbuta : properly the fruit of the ornament. Hic stupet : this one stands arbute tree. Here, perhaps, taken for wild amazed, being astonished at the courts of fruit in general. Læti : in the sense of sajustice. Plausus patrumque plebisque, &c. turati. It appears that the orders of patricians and 521. Ponit fætus: in the sense of dat, vel plebeians expressed their approbation by reddit fructus. turns. If we suppose the patricians, who 524. Casta domus : the virtuous family occupied the Orchestra, or the part of the preserves, &c. By being trained to industry theatre near the stage, to be the first; this and goođ order, they are not in danger of will give a reason for the words, enim losing their virtue, or character.

Ipse dies agitat festos: fususque per herbam,
Ignis ubi in medio, et socii cratera coronant,

528. Ubi est ignis Te libans, Lenæe, vocat: pecorisque magistris Velocis jaculi certamina ponit in ulmo,

530 Corporaque agresti nudat prædura palæstrâ.

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini,
Hanc Remus et frater: sic fortis Etruria crevit,

533. Remus et frator Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma,

ejus Romulus coluerunt

hanc: Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces.

535

535. Unaque circumAntè etiam sceptrum Dictæi regis, et antè

dedit septem
Impia quàm cæsis gens est epulata juvencis;
Aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat.
Necdum etiant audierant inflari classica, necdum

539. Necdum etiam Impositos duris crepitare incudibus enses.

540 homines Sed nos immensum spatiis confecimus æquor,

542. Tempus est solEt jam tempus equûm fumantia solvere colla.

vere à jugo

NOTES. 527. Agitat: in the sense of celebrat. Fu Dicte, a place in the island of Crete, where sus : in the sense of stratus.

it is said, he was nourished and brought up 528. Coronant: they fill up to the brim. by the Corybantes or Curetes. 531. Palvstra. this may mean either the

Before the reign of Jove, and before the exercise itself, or the place of exercise. impious race of men fed upon bullocks 532. Sabini. An ancient people of Italy, slain, golden Saturn led this life upon

the whose young women were seized by the Ro- earth. This is a beautiful allusion to the mans, at certain shows or exhibitions, to golden age. See Ecl. iv. 6. Agebat : in the which they had been invited. Upon this, sense of ducebat. the Sabines made war upon them to avenge

537. Gens: in the sense of genus homithe atrocious deed. A treaty of amity, however, was concluded between the two

num, says Heyne.

541. Sed nos. parties; and in the event they became one

This is an allegory taken people. Coluere: they religiously observed, from the chariot race. By confecimus æquor or practised.

immensum spatiis, the poet may mean that 533. Etruria : the same as Tuscia, Tus- he had run over a plain not measured by cany, a country in Italy, separated from stages; or one which did not lie within the Latiun by the Tyber.

limits or bounds of his proposed race or 534. Scilicet et, &c. What is here said of course. In this sense, divested of the Rome was literally true in the time of Vir- figure, it will be : I have now finished my gil. It was then in all its glory, and was digression into the praises of a country life, truly the wonder of the world : Řerum: res it is time to lay aside my pen. Ruæus inhath a variety of significations. Here it terprets spatiis by longitudine, and underevidently means the world, or the whole stands by æquor immensum spatiis, a plain earth.

immeasurable in length. 535. Una circumdedit. The walls of Rome Each course of chariots in the race was embraced seven hills, when that city was in called spatium. This was repeated seven the height of its glory. Their names were: times. Hence spatia, the plural, came to Palatinus, Cælius, Capitolinus, Aventinus, signify the race ground. Cum septimo spatio Esquilinus, Quirinalis, and Viminalis. palmc appropinquant.

536. Antè sceptrum : before the reign of The starting place was called carcer, and the Doctean king. Jupiter is so called from the turning place meta.

QUESTIONS. What is the subject of this book ?

How many kinds of soil does he make? What does the poet do the first place? Where does the Ganges rise ? How inany methods does he mention for

What is its length? the propagation of trees?

What is it considered to be, by the inhabi. What is the difference between grafting tants upon its banks? and inoculation ?

Where does it empty?" For what is the propago or layer the best? What did the ancients call the bay ?

After the several kinds of trees, and the What city now stands near the mouth of methods of producing them, what does the this river? poet consider in the next place?

Of what country was Hemus a river?

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